|Zora Neale Hurston|
|Born||January 15, 1891|
Notasulga, Alabama, United States
|Died||January 28, 1960 (aged 69)|
Fort Pierce, Florida, United States
|Occupation||Folklorist, anthropologist, novelist, short story writer|
|Notable work(s)||Their Eyes Were Watching God|
Zora Neale Hurston (January 15, 1891 – January 28, 1960) was an American folklorist and author during the time of the Harlem Renaissance, best known for the 1937 novel Their Eyes Were Watching God. Events 588 BC - Nebuchadrezzar II of Babylon lays siege to Jerusalem under Zedekiah 's reign Year 1891 ( MDCCCXCI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Notasulga is a town in Lee and Macon Counties in the US state of Alabama. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Events 1077 - Walk to Canossa: The Excommunication of Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor is lifted Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Fort Pierce is a city in St Lucie County, Florida, USA. It is also known as the Sunrise City sister to San Francisco California, the The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Employment is a Contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. See also the television film of the same name Their Eyes Were Watching God (2005 television. Alice Malsenior Walker (born February 9 1944 is an American Author, self-declared Feminist and Womanist - the latter a term she herself Toni Morrison (born Chloe Anthony Wofford on February 18 1931 is a Nobel Prize -winning American author editor and professor Maya Angelou (ˈmaɪə ˈændʒəloʊ (born Marguerite Ann Johnson on April 4, 1928) is an American Poet, Memoirist Zadie Smith (born 25 October 1975 is an English Novelist. To date she has written three novels Events 588 BC - Nebuchadrezzar II of Babylon lays siege to Jerusalem under Zedekiah 's reign Year 1891 ( MDCCCXCI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 1077 - Walk to Canossa: The Excommunication of Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor is lifted Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Folkloristics is the formal academic study of Folklore. What actually constitutes folklore is disputed even within the discipline but generally folklore focuses on the The Harlem Renaissance was named after the anthology The New Negro, edited by Alain Locke in 1925 Year 1937 ( MCMXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. See also the television film of the same name Their Eyes Were Watching God (2005 television.
Hurston was "purposefully inconsistent in the birth dates she dispensed during her lifetime, most of which were fictitious. " For a long time, scholars believed that she was born in Eatonville, Florida in 1901. Eatonville is a town in Orange County, Florida, six miles north of Orlando.
In 1993, filmmaker Kristy Andersen established that Hurston had been born in Notasulga, Alabama and moved to Eatonville at a young age, spending her childhood there. Notasulga is a town in Lee and Macon Counties in the US state of Alabama. It was Eatonville, the first all-Black town to be incorporated in the United States, that inspired her imagination. African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa
Zora was the fifth of eight children of John Hurston and Lucy Ann Hurston (née Potts). Her father was a Baptist preacher, tenant farmer, and carpenter, and her mother was a schoolteacher. Baptist is a term describing individuals belonging to a Baptist church or a Baptist denomination. Preacher is a term the for someone who preaches Sermons or gives homilies A tenant farmer is one who resides on and farms land owned by a Landlord. A carpenter (builder is a skilled craftsman who performs carpentry - a wide range of Woodworking that includes constructing buildings, In Education, a teacher is one who helps Students or pupils often in a School, as well as in a Family, religious or When she was three, Zora's family moved to Eatonville, an all-Black town with a population of 125. Her father later became mayor of the town, which Zora would glorify in her stories as a place black Americans could live as they desired, independent of white society. A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater" is a modern title used in many countries for the highest ranking officer in a municipal government Mrs. Hurston died in 1904 when Zora was 13.
Hurston graduated from Morgan Academy, the high school division of Morgan College, in 1918. Morgan State University, formerly Centenary Biblical Institute (1867-1890 Morgan College (1890-1938 Morgan State College  Later that year, she began her undergraduate studies at Howard University. Howard University is a private, Coeducational Nonsectarian University located in Washington D While at Howard, Hurston became one of the earliest initiates of Zeta Phi Beta Sorority and co-founded The Hilltop, the University's student newspaper. Zeta Phi Beta ( ΖΦß) is an international historically black Greek-lettered sorority and a member of the National Pan-Hellenic Council. The Hilltop is the Student newspaper of Howard University, a historically Black college located in Washington D  Hurston left Howard in 1924, unable to support herself.
Hurston was offered a scholarship to Barnard College where she received her B.A. in anthropology in 1927. Barnard College is a women's liberal arts college founded in 1889 Anthropology (/ˌænθɹəˈpɒlədʒi/ from Greek grc ἄνθρωπος anthrōpos, "human" -λογία -logia) is the study of While she was at Barnard, she conducted ethnographic research under her advisor, the noted anthropologist Franz Boas of Columbia University. Ethnography ( Greek ethnos = people and graphein = writing is a genre of writing that uses Fieldwork to provide a descriptive Franz Boas ( July 9, 1858 &ndash December 21, 1942) was a German - American anthropologist and a pioneer of modern Columbia University is a private University in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. She also worked with Ruth Benedict as well as fellow anthropology student Margaret Mead. Ruth Benedict (born Ruth Fulton, June 5, 1887 – September 17, 1948) was an American Anthropologist. Margaret Mead ( December 16, 1901, Philadelphia &ndash November 15, 1978, New York City) was an American 
In 1925, shortly before entering Barnard, Hurston became one of the leaders of the literary renaissance happening in Harlem, producing the short-lived literary magazine Fire!! along with Langston Hughes and Wallace Thurman. Fire!! was an African American literary magazine published in 1926 during the Harlem Renaissance. Langston Hughes (February 1 1902 &ndash May 22 1967 was an American Poet, Novelist Playwright, Short story writer and Columnist Wallace Henry Thurman (1902&ndash1934 was an American Novelist during the Harlem Renaissance. This literary movement became the center of the Harlem Renaissance. The Harlem Renaissance was named after the anthology The New Negro, edited by Alain Locke in 1925 
Hurston applied her ethnographic training to document African American folklore in her critically acclaimed book Mules and Men (1935) along with fiction (Their Eyes Were Watching God) and dance, assembling a folk-based performance group that recreated her Southern tableau, with one performance on Broadway. History The concept of folklore developed as part of the 19th century ideology of Romantic nationalism, leading to the reshaping of oral traditions to serve modern ideological See also the television film of the same name Their Eyes Were Watching God (2005 television. Broadway theater, commonly called simply Broadway, refers to theatrical performances presented in one of the 39 large professional theaters with 500 seats or more located Hurston was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship to travel to Haiti and conduct research on conjure in 1937. Guggenheim Fellowships are American grants that have been awarded annually since 1925 by the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation to those "who Haiti ( English: ˈheɪ·tiː or haɪ·ˈjiː·tiː French Haïti a·i·ti Haitian Creole: Her work was significant because she was able to break into the secret societies and expose their use of drugs to create the Vodun trance, also a subject of study for fellow dancer/anthropologist Katherine Dunham who was then at the University of Chicago. Katherine Mary Dunham ( June 22, 1909 &ndash May 21, 2006) was an American Dancer, Choreographer, The University of Chicago is a Private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. 
In 1954 Hurston was unable to sell her fiction but was assigned by the Pittsburgh Courier to cover the small-town murder trial of Ruby McCollum, the prosperous black wife of the local bolita racketeer, who had killed a racist white doctor. The New Pittsburgh Courier is an American Newspaper for African-Americans based in Pittsburgh Pennsylvania. Ruby McCollum, an African American woman was the wife of Sam McCollum aka "Bolita Sam" the wealthy gambling kingpin of Bolita activities in North Central Florida Bolita ( Spanish for Little Ball) is a type of Lottery which was popular in the latter 19th and early 20th centuries in Cuba and among Florida Hurston also contributed to Woman in the Suwanee County Jail, a book by journalist and civil rights advocate William Bradford Huie. The American Civil Rights Movement (1955–1968 refers to the reform movements in the United States aimed at abolishing racial discrimination against African William Bradford "Bill" Huie ( November 13, 1910 &ndash November 20, 1986) was an American journalist editor publisher
Hurston spent her last decade as a freelance writer for magazines and newspapers. A freelancer, freelance worker, or freelance is a person who pursues a profession without a long-term commitment to any one employer She worked in a library in Cape Canaveral, Florida, and as a substitute teacher and maid in Fort Pierce. Cape Canaveral is a city in Brevard County, Florida, United States. Fort Pierce is a city in St Lucie County, Florida, USA. It is also known as the Sunrise City sister to San Francisco California, the During a period of financial and medical difficulties, Hurston was forced to enter St. Lucie County Welfare Home, where she suffered a stroke and died of hypertensive heart disease. She was buried in an unmarked grave in the Garden of Heavenly Rest cemetery in Fort Pierce. In 1973 African-American novelist Alice Walker and literary scholar Charlotte Hunt found an unmarked grave in the general area where Hurston had been buried and decided to mark it as hers. Alice Malsenior Walker (born February 9 1944 is an American Author, self-declared Feminist and Womanist - the latter a term she herself The publication of Walker's article "In Search of Zora Neale Hurston" in the March 1975 issue of Ms. Magazine revived interest in her work and helped spark a Hurston renaissance. Ms is an American feminist magazine co-founded by American feminist and activist Gloria Steinem and founding Hurston's house in Fort Pierce is a National Historic Landmark. The Zora Neale Hurston House was the home of author Zora Neale Hurston in Fort Pierce, Florida.
Fort Pierce celebrates Hurston annually through various events such as Hattitudes, birthday parties, and a several-day festival at the end of April, Zora Fest. Her life and legacy are also celebrated every year in Eatonville, the town that inspired her, at the Zora Neale Hurston Festival of the Arts and Humanities. Carl Van Vechten ( June 17, 1880 &ndash December 21, 1964) was an American Writer and Photographer who was a
Hurston was a Republican who was generally sympathetic to the Old Right and a fan of Booker T. Washington's self-help politics. In the United States, the Old Right, were a faction of American conservatives who both opposed New Deal domestic programs and were also non-interventionists Booker Taliaferro Washington (April 5 1856 &ndash November 14 1915 was an American educator orator author and leader of the African-American community She disagreed with the philosophies (including Communism and the New Deal) supported by many of her colleagues in the Harlem Renaissance, such as Langston Hughes, who wrote several poems in praise of the Soviet Union. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based The New Deal was the name that United States President Franklin D Langston Hughes (February 1 1902 &ndash May 22 1967 was an American Poet, Novelist Playwright, Short story writer and Columnist The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Despite much common ground with the Old Right in domestic and foreign policy, Hurston was not a social conservative. She was essentially a libertarian in philosophy. Her writings show skepticism toward traditional religion and affinity for feminist individualism. In this respect, her views were similar to two libertarian novelists who were her contemporaries, Rose Wilder Lane and Isabel Paterson. Rose Wilder Lane (b December 5 1886, De Smet, Dakota Territory – d Isabel Paterson (b January 22 1886, - d January 10, 1961) was a Canadian-American journalist author political philosopher and 
In 1952, Hurston supported the presidential campaign of Senator Robert A. Taft. Robert Alphonso Taft ( September 8, 1889 - July 31, 1953) of the Taft political family of Ohio, was a Republican Like Taft, Hurston was against the New Deal welfare state. She also shared his opposition to the Roosevelt/Truman interventionist foreign policy. In the original draft of her autobiography, Dust Tracks on a Road, Hurston compared the U. S. government to a “fence” in stolen goods and to a Mafia-like protection racket. Hurston thought it ironic that the same “people who claim that it is a noble thing to die for freedom and democracy . . . wax frothy if anyone points out the inconsistency of their morals. . . . We, too, consider machine gun bullets good laxatives for heathens who get constipated with toxic ideas about a country of their own. ” Roosevelt “can call names across an ocean” for his four freedoms, but he did not have “the courage to speak even softly at home. ” When Truman dropped the atomic bombs on Japan, she called him “the Butcher of Asia. ”
Hurston opposed the Supreme Court ruling in the Brown v. Board of Education case of 1954. The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. Brown v Board of Education of Topeka, 347 US 483 (1954 was a Landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court, which overturned earlier She felt that if separate schools were truly equal, and she believed that they were rapidly becoming so, educating black students in physical proximity to white students would not result in better education. In addition, she worried about the demise of black schools and black teachers as a way to pass on cultural tradition to future generations of African-Americans. She voiced this opposition in a letter, "Court Order Can't Make the Races Mix," that was published in the Orlando Sentinel in August 1955. The Orlando Sentinel is the primary Newspaper of the Orlando Florida region Hurston had not reversed her long-time opposition to segregation. Rather, she feared that the Court's ruling could become a precedent for an all-powerful federal government to undermine individual liberty on a broad range of issues in the future. 
Hurston's work slid into obscurity for decades, for a number of reasons, both cultural and political.
Many readers objected to the representation of African American dialect in Hurston's novels. African American Vernacular English ( AAVE) – also called African American English; less precisely Black English, Black Vernacular, Her stylistic choices in terms of dialogue were influenced by her academic experiences. Thinking like a folklorist, Hurston strove to represent speech patterns of the period which she documented through ethnographic research. Folkloristics is the formal academic study of Folklore. What actually constitutes folklore is disputed even within the discipline but generally folklore focuses on the For example (Amy from the opening of Jonah's Gourd Vine):
Some critics during her time felt that Hurston's decision to render language in this way caricatured African American culture. African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa In more recent times, however, critics have praised Hurston for her artful capture of the actual spoken idiom of the day.
In particular, a number of those that were associated with her in the growth and influence of the Harlem Renaissance were critical of her later writings, on the basis that they did not agree with or further the position of the overall movement. One particular criticism, much noted, came from Richard Wright in his review of Their Eyes Were Watching God. Richard Wright may refer to Richard Wright (musician (1943–2008 also known as Rick Wright founding member of Pink Floyd Richard B
The conservative, more accurately libertarian, politics of Hurston's work also hindered the public's reception of her books. Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined Libertarianism is a term used by a broad spectrum of political philosophies which prioritize individual Liberty and seek to minimize or even abolish the During the 1930s and 1940s when her work was published, the pre-eminent African American author was Richard Wright. African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa Unlike Hurston, Wright wrote in explicitly political terms, as someone who had become disenchanted with communism, using the struggle of African Americans for respect and economic advancement as both the setting and the motivation for his work. Other popular African American authors of the time, such as Ralph Ellison, were also aligned with Wright's vision of the struggle of African Americans. Ralph Waldo Ellison ( March 1, 1914 &ndash April 16, 1994) was a Scholar and Writer. Hurston's work, which did not engage these political issues, did not fit in with this struggle.
With the publication of the ambitious novel Seraph on the Suwanee in 1948, Hurston burst through the tight bounds of contemporary black writing in yet another seemingly apolitical way. This is a tale of poor whites struggling in rural Florida's citrus industry. Black characters recede to the background. Neither the black intelligentsia nor the white mainstream of the late 1940s could accept the notion of a black writer speaking through white characters. Panned across the board, Seraph ended up being Hurston's last major literary effort as she retreated to small-town Florida for the rest of her life. The text stands out, as she remarked herself, as a testimony to her own self-definition as a regional as much as a black writer.
In academia, anthropologists often disdained Hurston's works as fiction, and thus unworthy of inclusion on anthropological reading lists. Feminist critics of academia have observed that a number of novels and non-fiction works of confessional literature written by women with anthropological training that draw upon their observations and experiences were sidelined in this fashion. Feminism is a discourse that involves various movements theories, and Philosophies which are concerned with the issue of Gender difference, advocate Hurston's work was, in this respect, treated in the same manner as some books by Elsie Clews Parsons, Ella Deloria, and Laura Bohannon, among others. Elsie Clews Parsons ( November 27, 1875 - December 19, 1941) was an American Anthropologist, Sociologist, Ella Cara Deloria ( January 30, 1888 &ndash February 12, 1971) also called Ąnpétu Wašté Wįn (Beautiful Day Woman was an Laura Bohannon (sometimes spelled Bohannen or Bohannan) also known as Elenore Smith Bowen is an American cultural Anthropologist best known At the same time, when well known male anthropologists began to experiment with literary form and style in ethnography, they were often hailed for their work. Many critics therefore perceive the lack of academic acclaim for Hurston's work to indicate a form of institutional sexism. Sexism is the belief or attitude that one Gender or Sex is inferior to or less valuable than the other and can also refer to a Hatred or distrust towards Hurston's books have since been discussed and celebrated not only as African American literature, but as feminist literature as well. African American literature is the body of Literature produced in the United States by writers of African descent
The article "In Search of Zora Neale Hurston" by Alice Walker was published in the March 1975 issue of Ms. Magazine. Ms is an American feminist magazine co-founded by American feminist and activist Gloria Steinem and founding This article revived interest in her work. The re-discovery of Hurston's work coincided with the popularity and critical acclaim of authors such as Toni Morrison, Maya Angelou, and Walker herself, whose works are centered on African American experiences which include, but do not necessarily focus upon, racial struggle. Toni Morrison (born Chloe Anthony Wofford on February 18 1931 is a Nobel Prize -winning American author editor and professor Maya Angelou (ˈmaɪə ˈændʒəloʊ (born Marguerite Ann Johnson on April 4, 1928) is an American Poet, Memoirist African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa
Biographies of Hurston include Zora Neale Hurston: A Literary Biography by Robert Hemenway, Wrapped in Rainbows by Valerie Boyd, and Speak So You Can Speak Again by Hurston's niece, Lucy Hurston. Robert Emery Hemenway is the 16th and current chancellor of the University of Kansas (KU Her hometown of Eatonville, Florida celebrates her life in an annual festival.
Their Eyes Were Watching God was adapted for a 2005 film of the same title by Oprah Winfrey's Harpo Productions, with a teleplay by Suzan-Lori Parks. Their Eyes Were Watching God is a 2005 Television movie based upon Zora Neale Hurston 's 1937 novel of the same name Oprah Gail Winfrey (born January 29 1954 often referred to simply as Oprah, is an American Harpo Productions is an incorporated US-based Multimedia production company founded by Media mogul Oprah Winfrey Suzan-Lori Parks (born 1964 is an award-winning American Playwright and Screenwriter. The film starred Halle Berry as Janie Starks. Halle Maria Berry (ˈhæli ˈbɛri born August 14 1966 is an Academy Award - Emmy Award - and Golden Globe -winning American actress former
In 2008, PBS produced "Zora's Roots," a documentary portraying Hurston's legacy as a writer, folklorist and anthropologist. The Public Broadcasting Service ( PBS) is a Non-profit Public broadcasting Television service with 354 member TV stations in the 
On April 9, 2008 PBS broadcast a 90 minute documentary Zora Neale Hurston: Jump at the Sun, as part of their American Masters series. Events 193 - Septimius Severus is proclaimed Roman Emperor by the army in Illyricum (in the Balkans) 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common American Masters is a PBS Television show which produces biographies on what it considers are the best Artists Actors and 
|NAME||Hurston, Zora Neale|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||American folklorist, novelist, short story writer|
|DATE OF BIRTH||January 7, 1891|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Notasulga, Alabama, United States|
|DATE OF DEATH||January 28, 1960|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Fort Pierce, Florida, United States|