Zionism is an international political movement that originally supported the reestablishment of a homeland for the Jewish People in Palestine (Hebrew: Eretz Yisra'el, “the Land of Israel”), and continues primarily as support for the modern state of Israel. Zionism|Timeline of Zionism|World Zionist Organization Although the Zionist movement was created by Theodor Herzl in 1897 the history of Zionism can be seen as beginning Timeline of Jewish history This is a partial timeline of Zionism in the modern era since the end of the 18th century The World Zionist Organization ( Hebrew: ההסתדרות הציונית העולמית or WZO, was founded as the Zionist Organization ( Hebrew Jewish political movements refer to the organized efforts of Jews to build their own political parties or otherwise represent their interest in politics outside of The terms " Jewish state " and " homeland of the Jewish people " are used to describe the State of Israel and refer to its status as a Nation-state Palestine is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. For other uses see Israel (disambiguation The Land of Israel ( Hebrew: אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל Eretz Yisrael) is A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. 
Although its origins are earlier, the movement was formally established by the Austro-Hungarian journalist Theodor Herzl in the late 19th century. Theodor Herzl (בנימין זאב הרצל ( Binyamin Ze'ev Herzl) (May 2 1860&ndashJuly 3 1904 was an Austrian Jewish journalist who founded modern The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar The movement was eventually successful in establishing Israel in 1948, as the world's first and only modern Jewish State. The terms " Jewish state " and " homeland of the Jewish people " are used to describe the State of Israel and refer to its status as a Nation-state Described as a "diaspora nationalism," its proponents regard it as a national liberation movement whose aim is the self-determination of the Jewish people. The term Diaspora (in Greek, διασπορά &ndash " a scattering or sowing of seeds " refers any population sharing common ethnic The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation Wars of national liberation are conflicts fought by indigenous military groups against an imperial power in the name of Self-determination, thus attempting Self-determination is defined as free choice of one’s own acts without external compulsion and especially as the freedom of the people of a given Territory to determine their 
While Zionism is based in part upon religious tradition linking the Jewish people to the Land of Israel, where the concept of Jewish nationhood is thought to have first evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and the late Second Temple era (i. Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut For other uses see Israel (disambiguation The Land of Israel ( Hebrew: אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל Eretz Yisrael) is A nation is a Human Cultural and Social Community. In as much as most members never meet each other yet feel a common bond it may be considered The Second Temple (בית המקדש romanized 'Beit HaMikdash' meaning 'Holy House' was the reconstructed Temple in Jerusalem which stood between 516 BCE and 70 CE e. up to 70 CE), the modern movement was mainly secular, beginning largely as a response by European Jewry to antisemitism across Europe. Secularism is generally the assertion that governmental practices or institutions should exist separately from Religion or religious beliefs Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim ( Hebrew: אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים, ˌaʃkəˈnazim sing Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism; also rarely known as judeophobia) is the Prejudice against or hostility  It constituted a branch of the broader phenomenon of modern nationalism.  At first one of several Jewish political movements offering alternative responses to the position of Jews in Europe, Zionism gradually gained more support, and after the Holocaust became the dominant Jewish political movement. Jewish political movements refer to the organized efforts of Jews to build their own political parties or otherwise represent their interest in politics outside of The Holocaust (from the Greek el ''ὁλόκαυστον'' (el-Latn holókauston holos, "completely" and kaustos, "burnt" also known as
The word "Zionism" itself is derived from the word Zion (Hebrew: ציון, Tzi-yon). Zion ( Hebrew: צִיּוֹן ( Persian: صهیون tziyyon; Tiberian vocalization: tsiyyôn; transliterated Zion This name originally referred to Mount Zion, a moutain near Jerusalem, and to the Fortress of Zion on it. Mount Zion (הר צִיּוֹן Har Tzion) is a hill just outside the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem. Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the Later, under King David, the term "Zion" became a synecdoche referring to the entire city of Jerusalem and the Land of Israel. David, Arabic: داوود or داود dawud, "beloved" was the second king of the united Kingdom of Israel according to the Hebrew Bible Synecdoche is taken from Greek sinekdohi (συνεκδοχή meaning "simultaneous understanding" (si-nek-duh-kee (pronounced /sɪˈnɛkdoˌki/ Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the For other uses see Israel (disambiguation The Land of Israel ( Hebrew: אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל Eretz Yisrael) is In many Biblical verses, the Israelites were called the people, sons or daughters of Zion. See also History of ancient Israel and Judah According to the Bible, the Israelites were the dominant group living in the Land of Israel.
"Zionism" was coined as a term for Jewish nationalism by Austrian Jewish publisher Nathan Birnbaum, founder of the first nationalist Jewish students' movement Kadimah, in his journal Selbstemanzipation (Self Emancipation) in 1890. The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Nathan Birnbaum is also the birth name of comedian George Burns. (Birnbaum eventually turned against political Zionism and became the first secretary-general of the anti-Zionist Haredi movement Agudat Israel. Haredi or Chareidi Judaism is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. Agudat Israel (אגודת ישראל "Union Israel" also Agudat Yisrael, Agudath Israel, or Agudas Yisroel) began as the original )
Certain individuals and groups have used the term "Zionism" as a pejorative to justify attacks on Jews. According to historians Walter Laqueur, Howard Sachar and Jack Fischel among others, the label "Zionist" is in some cases also used as a euphemism for Jews in general by apologists for antisemitism. Walter Zeev Laqueur (born 26 May 1921) is an American historian and political commentator Howard Morley Sachar (born in 1928 is a historian and an author Jack R Fischel is professor emeritus of history at Millersville University of Pennsylvania. A euphemism is a substitution of an agreeable or less offensive expression in place of one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener or in the case of doublespeak Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism; also rarely known as judeophobia) is the Prejudice against or hostility 
Zionism can be distinguished from Territorialism, a Jewish nationalist movement calling for a Jewish homeland not necessarily in Palestine. Territorialism was a Jewish political movement calling for creation of a sufficiently large and compact Jewish territory (or territories not necessarily in the Land of Palestine is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. During the early history of Zionism, a number of proposals were made for settling Jews outside of Europe, but ultimately all of these were rejected or failed. The debate over these proposals helped to define the nature and focus of the Zionist movement.
Since the first century CE most Jews have lived in exile, although there has been a constant presence of Jews in the Land of Israel (Eretz Israel). Zionism|Timeline of Zionism|World Zionist Organization Although the Zionist movement was created by Theodor Herzl in 1897 the history of Zionism can be seen as beginning For other uses see Israel (disambiguation The Land of Israel ( Hebrew: אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל Eretz Yisrael) is According to Judaism, Eretz Israel, or Zion, is a land promised to the Jews by God according to the Bible. Zion ( Hebrew: צִיּוֹן ( Persian: صهیون tziyyon; Tiberian vocalization: tsiyyôn; transliterated Zion Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin Following the 2nd century Bar Kokhba revolt, Jews were expelled from Palestine to form the Jewish diaspora. Background After the failed Great Jewish Revolt in the year 70 the Roman authorities took measures to suppress the rebellious province Palestine is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. The Jewish diaspora ( Hebrew: Tefutzah, "scattered" or Galut גלות "exile" Yiddish: tfutses) the presence In the nineteenth century a current in Judaism supporting a return grew in popularity. Even before 1897, which is generally seen as the year in which practical Zionism started, Jews immigrated to Palestine, the pre-Zionist Aliyah. Aliyah ( refers to Jewish Immigration to the Land of Israel (and since its establishment in 1948 the State of Israel) 
Jewish immigration to Palestine started in earnest in 1882. The so-called First Aliyah saw the arrival of about 30,000 Jews over twenty years. The First Aliyah (also The Farmers' Aliyah) was the first modern widespread wave of Zionist Aliyah. Most immigrants came from Russia, where anti-semitism was rampant. In the course of history Jewish populations have been expelled or ostracised by various local authorities and have sought asylum from Antisemitism numerous times They founded a number of agricultural settlements with financial support from Jewish philanthropists in Western Europe. The Second Aliyah started in 1904. The Second Aliyah was arguably the most important and influential Aliyah. Further Aliyahs followed between the two World Wars, fueled in the 1930s by Nazi persecution. Aliyah ( refers to Jewish Immigration to the Land of Israel (and since its establishment in 1948 the State of Israel) Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German
In the 1890s Theodor Herzl infused Zionism with a new and practical urgency. Theodor Herzl (בנימין זאב הרצל ( Binyamin Ze'ev Herzl) (May 2 1860&ndashJuly 3 1904 was an Austrian Jewish journalist who founded modern He brought the World Zionist Organization into being and, together with Nathan Birnbaum, planned its First Congress at Basel in 1897. The World Zionist Organization ( Hebrew: ההסתדרות הציונית העולמית or WZO, was founded as the Zionist Organization ( Hebrew Nathan Birnbaum is also the birth name of comedian George Burns. "Basilia" redirects here For the Fly Genus, see Basilia (fly.  This current in Zionism is known as political Zionism because it aimed at reaching a political agreement with the Power ruling Palestine. Up to 1917 this was the Ottoman Empire, and then until 1948 it was Britain on behalf of the League of Nations. The WZO also supported small scale settlement in Palestine.
Lobbying by Chaim Weizmann (cultural Zionists) and others culminated in the Balfour Declaration of 1917 by the British government. Chaim Azriel Weizmann ( Hebrew: חיים עזריאל ויצמן – November 27, 1874 &ndash November 9, 1952) was a Zionist Balfour Declaration of 1917 (dated November 2 1917) was a Classified formal statement of Policy by the British government stating This declaration endorsed the creation of a Jewish Homeland in Palestine. In 1922, the League of nations endorsed the declaration in the Mandate it gave to Britain:
The Mandatory (…) will secure the establishment of the Jewish national home, as laid down in the preamble, and the development of self-governing institutions, and also for safeguarding the civil and religious rights of all the inhabitants of Palestine, irrespective of race and religion. The League of Nations was an International organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920 The Palestine Mandate, was a set of protocols or articles that formed a multilateral legal and administrative agreement 
Palestinian Arabs resisted Zionist migration. There were riots in 1920, 1921 and 1929, sometimes accompanied by massacres of Jews. Britain supported Jewish immigration in principle, but in reaction to Arab violence imposed restrictions on Jewish immigration.
In 1933 Hitler came to power in Germany and, in 1935, the Nuremburg Laws, made German Jews (and later Austrian and Czech Jews) stateless refugees. The Nuremberg Laws ( German: Nürnberger Gesetze) of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. The ( German: "link-up" also known as the, was the 1938 Annexation of Austria into Greater Germany by the Nazi Smilar rules were subsequently applied by Nazi allies in Europe. The Axis powers also known as the Axis alliance Axis nations Axis countries or sometimes just the Axis were those Countries The subsequent growth in Jewish migration led to the1936-1939 Arab revolt in Palestine which in turn led the British to establish the Peel Commission to investigate the situation. The 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine was an uprising during the British mandate by Arabs in Palestine which lasted from 1936 to 1939 The Peel Commission of 1936-1937 formally known as the Palestine Royal Commission, was a British Royal Commission of Inquiry set out to propose changes to the Mandate for The commission (which did not examine the situation of Jews in Europe) called for a two-state solution and compulsory transfer of populations. This solution was rejected by the British and instead the White Paper of 1939 proposed an end to Jewish immigration by 1944, with a further 75,000 to be admitted by then. The White Paper of 1939, also known as the MacDonald White Paper after Malcolm MacDonald, the British Colonial Secretary who presided over In principle, the British stuck to this policy until the end of the Mandate.
After WWII and the Holocaust, support for Zionism increased, especially among Jews. The Holocaust (from the Greek el ''ὁλόκαυστον'' (el-Latn holókauston holos, "completely" and kaustos, "burnt" also known as The British were attacked in Palestine by Zionist groups because of the restrictions on Jewish immigration, the best known attack being the 1946 King David Hotel bombing. The King David Hotel bombing was a deadly bomb strike by the Irgun, a Militant Zionist group on the headquarters of the British Mandatory Unable to resolve the conflict, the British referred the issue to the newly created United Nations. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security
In 1947, the UNSCOP recommended the partition of western Palestine into a Jewish state, an Arab state and a UN-controlled territory (Corpus separatum) around Jerusalem. The United Nations Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP was formed in the May 1947 in response to the British Governments announcement to terminate Mandate of Palestine. Corpus separatum is Latin for "separated body" The 1947 UN Partition Plan used this term to refer to a proposed internationally administered zone to include Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the  This partition plan was adopted on November 29th, 1947 with UN GA Resolution 181, 33 votes in favor, 13 against, and 10 abstentions. The United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine or United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181 was a plan approved by the General Assembly on November 29 The vote itself, which required a two-third majority, was a very dramatic affair and led to celebrations in the streets of Jewish cities. 
The Arab states rejected the UN decision, demanding a single state with an Arab majority. violence immediately exploded in Palestine between Jews and Arabs. The 1947-1948 Civil War in the Mandatory Palestine lasted from 30 November 1947 with the United Nations vote in favour of the termination of the British Mandate of Palestine On 14 May 1948, at the end of the British mandate, the Jewish Agency, led by Ben-Gurion declared the creation of the State of Israel and the same day, the armies of four Arab countries invaded Palestine. The Palestine Mandate, was a set of protocols or articles that formed a multilateral legal and administrative agreement
During the following eight months, Israel forces defended the Jewish partition and conquered portions of the Arab partition, enlarging its portion to 78 percent of mandatory Palestine. The Israel Defense Forces ( IDF) (צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, lit The conflict led to an exodus of about 711,000 Arab Palestinians , of whom about 46. 000 were internally displaced persons in Israel. Internally displaced Palestinians is a term used to refer to Palestinians and their descendants who as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli war became Internally The war ended with the 1949 Armistice Agreements, which included new cease-fire lines, the so-called Green line. The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan The term Green Line is used to refer to the 1949 Armistice lines established between Israel and its neighbours ( Egypt, Jordan,
After the war the Arabs continued to reject Israel's right to exist and demanded that it retreat to the 1947 partition lines. They sustained this demand until 1967 when the rest of western Palestine was conquered by Israel during the Six-Day War, after which Arab states demanded that Israel retreat to the 1949 green line, the only "borders" currently recognized by the international community. Background Suez Crisis aftermath The Suez Crisis of 1956 represented a military defeat but a political victory for Egypt These borders are commonly referred as the "pre-1967 borders". The border with Egypt was legalized in the 1979 Egyptian-Israeli Peace Treaty, and the border with Jordan in the 1994 Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace.
After the creation of the State of Israel the WZO continued to exist as an organisation dedicated to assisting and encouraging Jews to migrate to Israel, as well as providing political support for Israel.
Over the years a variety of schools of thought have evolved with different schools dominating at different times. In addition Zionists come from a wide variety of backgrounds and at times different national groups, such as Russian Jews, German, Polish, British or American Jews have exercised strong influence.
Around 1900 the chief rival to Zionism among young Jews in Eastern Europe was the socialist movement. Labor Zionism ( Labour Zionism, ציונות סוציאליסטית tsionut sotsialistit) can be described as the major stream of the Left wing of the The Kibbutz Movement (התנועה הקיבוצית HaTenoa'a HaKibbutzit) is the largest settlement movement for Kibbutzim in Israel. A kibbutz ( Hebrew: קיבוץ קִבּוּץ lit "gathering clustering" plural kibbutzim) is a collective community in Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Many Jews were abandoning Judaism in favour of Communism or supported the Bund, a Jewish socialist movement which called for Jewish autonomy in Eastern Europe and promoted Yiddish as the Jewish language. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Jewish Autonomism was a non- Zionist political movement that emerged in Eastern Europe in the late 19th and early 20th century Yiddish (yi [[wiktייִדיש ייִדיש]] yidish or yi [[wiktאידיש אידיש]] idish, literally "Jewish" is a nonterritorial High
Many socialist Zionists originated in Russia. They believed that centuries of being oppressed in anti-Semitic societies had reduced Jews to a meek, vulnerable, despairing existence which invited further anti-Semitism. They argued that Jews could escape their situation by becoming farmers, workers, and soldiers in a country of their own. Most socialist Zionists rejected religion as perpetuating a "Diaspora mentality" among the Jewish people and established rural communes in Israel called "Kibbutzim". The term Diaspora (in Greek, διασπορά &ndash " a scattering or sowing of seeds " refers any population sharing common ethnic A kibbutz ( Hebrew: קיבוץ קִבּוּץ lit "gathering clustering" plural kibbutzim) is a collective community in Major theoreticians of Socialist Zionism included Moses Hess, Nahum Syrkin, Ber Borochov and Aaron David Gordon, and leading figures in the movement included David Ben-Gurion and Berl Katznelson. Moses (Moshe Hess ( June 21, 1812 – April 6, 1875) was a secular Jewish philosopher and one of the founders of Socialism Nachman Syrkin or Nahman Syrkin (1868-1924 was a political theorist and founder of Labour Zionism. Dov Ber Borochov (1881-1917 was a Marxist Zionist and one of the founders of the Labor Zionist movement as well as a pioneer in the study of Yiddish Aaron David Gordon (אהרן דוד גורדון born 9 June 1856 in Troyanov, Russian Empire, died 22 February 1922 in Degania Alef, Mandate Berl Katznelson (ברל כצנלסון born 25 January 1887, died 12 August 1944) was one the intellectual founders of Labor Zionism Most Socialist Zionists rejected Yiddish as a language of exile, embracing Hebrew as the common Jewish tongue. Yiddish (yi [[wiktייִדיש ייִדיש]] yidish or yi [[wiktאידיש אידיש]] idish, literally "Jewish" is a nonterritorial High Socialist and Labor Zionism was ardently secularist with many Labor Zionists being committed atheists or opposed to religion. Consequently, the movement often had an antagonistic relationship with Orthodox Judaism. Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonized
Labor Zionism became the dominant force in the political and economic life of the Yishuv during the British Mandate of Palestine - partly as a consequence of its role in organizing Jewish economic life through the Histadrut - and was the dominant ideology of the political establishment in Israel until the 1977 election when the Labor Party was defeated. Yishuv (ישוב literally "settlement" or Ha-Yishuv (the Yishuv הישוב or the full term הישוב היהודי בארץ ישראל Hayishuv Hayehudi The Palestine Mandate, was a set of protocols or articles that formed a multilateral legal and administrative agreement Template talkInfobox Union for usage -->The Histadrut ("Federation" labour or HaHistadrut HaKlalit shel The Elections for the ninth Knesset were held on 17 May 1977.
General Zionism (or Liberal Zionism) was initially the dominant trend within the Zionist movement from the First Zionist Congress in 1897 until after the First World War. The General Zionists (ציונים כלליים Tzionim Klalim) were centrists within the Zionist movement and a political party in Israel First Zionist Congress ( Hebrew: הקונגרס הציוני הראשון is the name given to the Congress held in Basel (Basle, Switzerland Many of the General Zionists were German or Russian Liberals but following the Bolshevik and Nazi revolutions, Labour Zionists came to dominate the movement. General Zionists identified with the liberal European Jewish middle class (or bourgeois) from which many Zionist leaders such as Herzl and Chaim Weizmann came and believed that a Jewish state could be accomplished through lobbying the Great Powers of Europe and influential circles in European society. Chaim Azriel Weizmann ( Hebrew: חיים עזריאל ויצמן – November 27, 1874 &ndash November 9, 1952) was a Zionist General Zionism declined in the face of growing extremism and antisemitism in Central Europe, and because of the superiour ability of Labour Zionism to generate migration to Palestine.
The Revisionist Zionists were a group led by Jabotinsky who advocated pressing Britain to allow mass Jewish emigration and the formation of a Jewish Army in Palestine. Revisionist Zionism is a nationalist faction within the Zionist movement Ze'ev Jabotinsky MBE (זאב ז'בוטינסקי Зеэв Жаботинский born Vladimir Yevgenyevich Zhabotinsky on 18 October 1880 The army would force the Arab population to accept mass Jewish migration and promote British interests in the region.
Revisionist Zionism was detested by the Socialist Zionist movement which saw them as being influenced by Fascism and the movement caused a great deal of concern among Arab Palestinians. Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology After the 1929 Arab riots, the British banned Jabotinsky from entering Palestine. In the summer of 1929 a long-running dispute between Muslims and Jews over access to the Western Wall in Jerusalem escalated and erupted into a series of
Revisionism was popular in Poland but lacked large support in Palestine. In 1935 the Revisionists left the Zionist Organization and formed an alternative, the New Zionist Organization. The World Zionist Organization ( Hebrew: ההסתדרות הציונית העולמית or WZO, was founded as the Zionist Organization ( Hebrew The New Zionist Organization was an attempt by the Revisionist Zionist movement to establish a rival to the Zionist Organization. They rejoined the ZO in 1946.
In the 1920s and 1930s, a small but vocal group of religious Jews began to develop the concept of Religious Zionism under such leaders as Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook (the first Chief Rabbi of Palestine) and his son Rabbi Zevi Judah Kook. Religious Zionism, or the Religious Zionist Movement (a branch of which is also called Mizrachi) is an ideology that combines Zionism and religious Religious Zionism, or the Religious Zionist Movement (a branch of which is also called Mizrachi) is an ideology that combines Zionism and religious Abraham Isaac Kook (1865–1935 was the first Ashkenazi Chief rabbi of the British Mandate for Palestine, the founder of the Religious Zionist The Chief Rabbinate of Israel ( הרבנות הראשית לישראל) is the supreme Jewish religious governing body in the state of Israel. They saw great religious and traditional value in many of Zionism's ideals, while rejecting its anti-religious undertones. They were also motivated by a concern that growing secularization of Zionism and antagonism towards it from Orthodox Jews would lead to a schism in the Jewish people. As such, they sought to forge a branch of Orthodox Judaism which would properly embrace Zionism's positive ideals while also serving as a bridge between Orthodox and secular Jews. After the Six Day War the movement came to play a significant role in Israeli Political life. Background Suez Crisis aftermath The Suez Crisis of 1956 represented a military defeat but a political victory for Egypt
According to Eliezer Schweid the rejection of life in the Diaspora is a central assumption in all currents of Zionism. According to Eliezer Schweid, shlilat ha'galut, or the rejection of life in the Diaspora, is a central assumption in all currents of Zionism.  Underlying this attitude was the feeling that the Diaspora restricted the full growth of Jewish national life.
Zionists preferred to speak Hebrew, a semitic language that developed under conditions of freedom in ancient Judah, modernizing and adapting it for everyday use. The revival of the Hebrew language was a process that took place in Europe and Israel at the end of the 19th century and The Semitic languages are a Language family whose living representatives are spoken by more than 467 million people across much of the Middle East, Zionists sometimes refused to speak Yiddish, a language they considered affected by Christian persecution. Yiddish (yi [[wiktייִדיש ייִדיש]] yidish or yi [[wiktאידיש אידיש]] idish, literally "Jewish" is a nonterritorial High Although Christian antisemitism is considered to have started around the 12th century its roots are attributed by some scholars to anti-Jewish attitudes and polemic beginning Once they moved to Israel, many Zionists refused to speak their (diasporic) mother tongues and gave themselves new, Hebrew names.
In this matter Sternhell distinguishes two schools of thought in Zionism. One was the liberal or utilitarian school of Herzl and Nordau. Especially after the Dreyfus Affair they held that antisemitism would never disappear, and saw Zionism as a rational solution for Jewish individuals. The Dreyfus Affair a Political scandal which divided France from the 1890s to the early 1900s The other was the organic nationalist school. It was prevalent among the Zionists in Palestine, and saw Zionism as a project to rescue the Jewish nation and not as a project to rescue Jewish individuals. Zionism was a matter of the "Rebirth of the Nation". 
There have been a number of critics of Zionism, including Jewish anti-Zionists, pro-Palestinian activists, academics, and politicians. Anti-Zionism is opposition to Zionism, an international political movement and ideology that supports a Homeland for the Jewish People in the land known Non-Zionism is the political stance of Jews who "were are willing to help support depoliticized Jewish settlement in Palestine ( Post-Zionism refers to the opinions of some Israeli diaspora Jews and others particularly in academia that Zionism has fulfilled its ideological mission Neo-Zionism is a movement that appeared in Israel after the Six Days War and that evolved in parallel with Post-Zionism. The Arab League and Arab Higher Committee rejected the UN Partition Plan (United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181) approving the creation of a Jewish and Arab state in Palestine, and some of the most vocal critics of Zionism have been Arabs, many of whom view Israel as occupying Arab land. The Arab League ( الجامعة العربية) officially called the League of Arab States ( جامعة الدول العربية The Arab Higher Committee was the central political organ of the Arab community of Palestine, established in 1936 The United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine or United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181 was a plan approved by the General Assembly on November 29 Palestine is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding  Such critics generally opposed Israel's creation in 1948, and continue to criticize the Zionist movement which underlies it. These critics view the changes in demographic balance which accompanied the creation of Israel, including the displacement of some 700,000 Arab refugees, and the accompanying violence, as negative but inevitable consequences of Zionism and the concept of a Jewish State. The terms " Jewish state " and " homeland of the Jewish people " are used to describe the State of Israel and refer to its status as a Nation-state
While most Jewish groups are pro-Zionist, some haredi Jewish communities (most vocally the Satmar Hasidim and the small Neturei Karta group), oppose Zionism on religious grounds. Haredi or Chareidi Judaism is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. Satmar (or Satmar Hasidism or Satmarer Hasidism) (חסידות סאטמאר is a Hasidic movement of mostly Hungarian Grand Rebbe Yoel Teitelbaum Neturei Karta ( Aramaic The primary haredi anti-Zionist work is Vayoel Moshe by Satmar Rebbe Joel Teitelbaum. Haredim and Zionism Vayoel Moshe (ויואל משה was a Hebrew book written by Rabbi Joel Teitelbaum, leader of the Satmar Hasidic movement Rebbe (רבי (pronounced in English which means master teacher or mentor is a Yiddish word derived from the identical Hebrew word Rabbi Rabbi Joel (Yoel Teitelbaum, ( יואל טייטלבוים) (born 1887 died August 19, 1979) known as Reb Yoelish or the Satmar This lengthy dissertation asserts that Zionism is forbidden in Judaism, based on an aggadic passage in the Talmud, tractate Ketubot 111a. Aggadah ( Aramaic אגדה tales lore pl Aggadot or (Ashkenazi Aggados) refers to the homiletic and non-legalistic exegetical The Talmud ( Hebrew: he תַּלְמוּד is a record of Rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history Nashim ("Women" or "Wives" is the third order of the Mishnah (also of the Tosefta and Talmud) containing the laws related to women There are also individuals of Jewish origin, such as Noam Chomsky, who have taken strong public stands criticizing various aspects of Israeli policy, but who resist the claim that they oppose Zionism itself. Avram Noam Chomsky (noʊm ˈtʃɑmski born December 7 1928 is an American linguist, Philosopher, cognitive scientist, Political 
Other non-Zionist Israeli movements, such as the Canaanite movement led by poet Yonatan Ratosh in the 1930s and 1940s, have argued that "Israeli" should be a new pan-ethnic nationality. The Canaanites is a political and Aesthetic movement which reached its peak in the 1940s among the Jewish residents in Palestine and has significantly impacted Yonatan Ratosh (יונתן רטוש was the nom de plume of Israeli Poet Uriel Shelach ( 18 November 1908 – 25 March[[ Nationality is a relationship between a Person and their State of Origin, Culture, association Affiliation and/or Loyalty A related modern movement is known as post-Zionism, which asserts that Israel should abandon the concept of a "state of the Jewish people" and instead strive to be a state of all its citizens. Post-Zionism refers to the opinions of some Israeli diaspora Jews and others particularly in academia that Zionism has fulfilled its ideological mission  Another opinion favors a binational state in which Arabs and Jews live together while enjoying some type of autonomy. The one-state solution, also known as the binational solution, is a proposed resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
Some critics of Zionism have accused it of racism, an accusation endorsed by the 1975 United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379, which was revoked in 1991. United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379, adopted on November 10, 1975 by a vote of 72 to 35 (with 32 abstentions "determine that  Zionists reject the charges that Zionism is racist, insisting it is no different than any other national liberation movement of oppressed peoples, and argue that since criticism of both the state of Israel and Zionism is often disproportionate in degree and unique in kind, much of it can be attributed to antisemitism. Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism; also rarely known as judeophobia) is the Prejudice against or hostility 
During the last quarter of 20th century, the decline of classic nationalism in Israel lead to the rise of two antagonistic movement : neo-Zionism and post-Zionism. Neo-Zionism is a movement that appeared in Israel after the Six Days War and that evolved in parallel with Post-Zionism. Post-Zionism refers to the opinions of some Israeli diaspora Jews and others particularly in academia that Zionism has fulfilled its ideological mission Both mark the Israeli version of a worldwide phenomenon: the ascendancy of globalization and with it the emergence of a market society and liberal culture, on one hand, and a local backlash on the other.  The traits of both neo-Zionism and post-Zionism are not entirely foreign to "classical" Zionism but they differ by accentuing antagonist and diametrally opposed poles already present in Zionism. "Neo Zionism accentuates the messianic and particularistic dimensions of Zionist nationalism, while post-Zionism accentuates its normalising and universalistic dimensions". 
Zionist success in winning British support for formation of a Jewish National Home in Palestine helped inspire the African-American Nationalist Marcus Garvey to form a movement dedicated to returning Americans of African origin to Africa. Marcus Mosiah Garvey Jr, National Hero of Jamaica (17 August 1887 10 June 1940 was a Publisher, Journalist, Entrepreneur, Black nationalist During a speech in Harlem in 1920 Garvey stated that
other races were engaged in seeing their cause through—the Jews through their Zionist movement and the Irish through their Irish movement—and I decided that, cost what it might, I would make this a favorable time to see the Negro's interest through. Harlem is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan, long known as a major African American cultural and business center 
Garvey established a shipping company, the Black Star Line, to ship Black Americans to Africa, but for various reasons failed in his endeavour. The Black Star Line was a shipping line incorporated by Marcus Garvey, who organized the UNIA (United Negro Improvement Association His ideas helped inspire the Rastafarian movement in Jamaica, the Black Jews and The African Hebrew Israelites of Jerusalem who initially moved to Liberia before settling in Israel. The Rastafari movement (also known as Rastafari, Rastafarianism or simply Rasta) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic, New Testament The Jewish people have had a long history in Africa, dating to the Biblical era The African Hebrew Israelite Nation of Jerusalem (also known as The African Hebrew Israelites of Jerusalem or Black Hebrews) is a small spiritual group whose
W. E. B. Du Bois was an ardent supporter of Zionism, and the NAACP endorsed the creation of Israel in 1948. William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (duːˈbɔɪz ( February 23, 1868 August 27, 1963) was an American Civil rights activist The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, usually abbreviated as NAACP, is one of the oldest and most influential Civil rights organizations Paul Robeson, Bayard Rustin, and Martin Luther King, Jr. also supported zionism. Paul LeRoy Bustill Robeson ( April 9, 1898 &ndash January 23, 1976) was a multi-lingual American Actor, athlete Rustin redirects here for the unrelated film see Rustin (film Bayard Rustin ( March 17, 1912 – August 24 Martin Luther King Jr ( January 15, 1929 April 4, 1968) was an American clergyman, Activist and prominent leader 
In addition to Jewish Zionism, there was always a small number of Christian Zionists that existed from the early days of the Zionist movement. for Christians who belong to Zionist denominations in southern Africa see Zionist Churches Christian Zionism or Restorationism, is a belief for Christians who belong to Zionist denominations in southern Africa see Zionist Churches Christian Zionism or Restorationism, is a belief
Throughout the entire 19th century and early 20th century, the return of the Jews to the Holy Land was widely supported by such eminent figures as Queen Victoria, King Edward VII, John Adams, the second President of the United States, General Smuts of South Africa, President Masaryk of Czechoslovakia, Benedetto Croce, Italian philosopher and historian, Henry Dunant, founder of the Red Cross and author of the Geneva Conventions, Fridtjof Nansen, Norwegian scientist and humanitarian. Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901 was from 20 June 1837 the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland John Adams (October 30 1735 July 4 1826 was one of the most influential Founding Fathers of the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Field Marshal Jan Christiaan Smuts, OM, CH, PC, ED, KC, FRS (24 May 1870 &ndash 11 September 1950 was a prominent The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk (ˈtomaːʃ ˈɡarɪk ˈmasarɪk sometimes called Thomas Masaryk in English ( March 7, 1850 – September 14, Czechoslovakia may also refer to what is now the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Benedetto Croce ( February 25, 1866 – November 20, 1952) was an Italian critic idealist Philosopher, and Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Jean Henri Dunant ( May 8, 1828 &ndash October 30, 1910) aka Henry Dunant or Henri Dunant, was a Swiss The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an International humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million volunteers worldwide who stated The Geneva Conventions consist of four Treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland, that set the standards for International law for humanitarian Fridtjof Wedel-Jarlsberg Nansen (October 10 1861 – May 13 1930 was a Norwegian Explorer, Scientist and Diplomat. Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional
The French government through Minister M. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Cambon formally committed itself to “the renaissance of the Jewish nationality in that Land from which the people of Israel were exiled so many centuries ago".
In China, Wang, Minister of Foreign Affairs, declared that "the Nationalist government is in full sympathy with the Jewish people in their desire to establish a country for themselves. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National "
Evangelical Christians have a long history of supporting Zionism. Famous evangelical supporters of Israel include British Prime Ministers Lloyd George and Arthur Balfour, President Woodrow Wilson and Orde Wingate whose activities in support of Zionism, led the British Army to ban him from ever serving in Palestine. David Lloyd George 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor OM, PC (17 January 1863 &ndash 26 March 1945 was a British Statesman and the only Arthur James Balfour 1st Earl of Balfour, KG, OM, PC (25 July 1848 - 19 March 1930 was a British Conservative politician and Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28 1856—February 3 1924 was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. Major-General Orde Charles Wingate, DSO and two bars ( February 26, 1903 &ndash March 24, 1944) was a According to Charles Merkley of Carleton University, Christian Zionism strengthened significantly after the 1967 Six-Day War, and many dispensationalist Christians, especially in the United States, now strongly support Zionism. Background Suez Crisis aftermath The Suez Crisis of 1956 represented a military defeat but a political victory for Egypt Dispensationalism is a Christian theological view of history and Biblical interpretation that became popular during the 1800s and early 1900s and is
Sheikh Abdul Hadi Palazzi, the leader of Italian Muslim Assembly and a co-founder of the Islam-Israel Fellowship and Canadian Imam Khaleel Mohammed, find support for Zionism in the Qur'an. Sheikh Prof Abdul Hadi Palazzi (شيخ عبد الهادي بالاتسي legally named Massimo Palazzi, is the leader of Italian Muslim Assembly and Projects that work to foster peaceful and productive co-existence between Israelis and Arabs (including Palestinians fall into various categories An imam (إمام plural ائمة A'immah, امام is an Islamic leader often the leader of a Mosque and/or community Khaleel Mohammed is Associate professor of Religion at San Diego State University (SDSU, in San Diego California, and a core faculty member The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran  Other Muslims who have supported Zionism include Bengali journalist Salah Choudhury and Pakistani journalist Tashbih Sayyed. Salah Uddin Shoaib Choudhury is the editor of the Bangladeshi Tabloid The Weekly Blitz. Tashbih Sayyed (1941 - 2007 was a Pakistani scholar journalist and author and is the Editor in Chief of Our Times, Pakistan Today, and In Review 
Christian Arabs publicly supporting Israel include US author Nonie Darwish, creator of the Arabs for Israel web site, and former Muslim Magdi Allam, author of Viva Israele. Nonie Darwish (نوني درويش is an Egyptian born American writer and public speaker Magdi Allam, as a Catholic Magdi Cristiano Allam ( Arabic: مجدي علام Maǧdī ʿAllām born April 22, 1952) , both born in Egypt. Brigitte Gabriel, a Lebanese-born Christian US journalist and founder of the American Congress For Truth, urges Americans to fearlessly speak out in defense of America, Israel and Western civilization. Brigitte Gabriel (born 1965 is a Lebanese American journalist author and activist American Congress for Truth ( ACT) is a Non-profit organization that focuses on threats to the US Israel and the West from Islamic fundamentalism .