Kyivska (Kiev) street looking West toward St. Michael's Church. Photo early 1900s.
Map of Ukraine with Zhytomyr highlighted.
Location of Zhytomyr
|- Mayor||Vira Sheludchenko|
|- Total||65 km² (25. Wikipedia talkFeatured lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This list of countries, arranged alphabetically Ukraine is subdivided into 24 Oblasts (provinces, one Autonomous republic, and two " cities with special status' " For the manufactured regenerated fiber see Rayon A raion (or rayon) (райо́н ra'jon rayon раён რაიონი Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. Zhytomyr Oblast (Житомирська область translit The 8th century is the period from 701 to 800 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater" is a modern title used in many countries for the highest ranking officer in a municipal government Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of 1 sq mi)|
|Elevation||221 m (725 ft)|
|- Density||4,555/km² (11,797. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. The elevation of a Geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point often the mean sea level. The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 4/sq mi)|
|Postal code||10000 — 10036|
|Area code(s)||+380 412|
Zhytomyr (Ukrainian and Russian: Житомир, Polish: Żytomierz) is a historic city in the North of the western half of Ukraine. A postal code (known in various countries as a post code, postcode, or ZIP code) is a series of letters and/or digits appended to a A telephone numbering plan is a plan for allocating Telephone number ranges to countries regions areas and exchanges and to non-fixed telephone networks Ukrainian (in Ukrainian украї́нська мо́ва ukrayins'ka mova,) is a language of the East Slavic subgroup of the Slavic languages. Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages Polish ( język polski, polszczyzna) is the Official language of Poland. A city is an Urban area with a large Population and a particular Administrative, Legal, or Historical status Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. It is the administrative center of the Zhytomyr Oblast (province), as well as the administrative center of the surrounding Zhytomyr Rayon (district). Zhytomyr Oblast (Житомирська область translit Oblast (во́бласць oblast о́бласт oblast о́бласть област/ oblast; oblasť област о́бласть is a type of Administrative division For the manufactured regenerated fiber see Rayon A raion (or rayon) (райо́н ra'jon rayon раён რაიონი Note that the city of Zhytomyr is not a part of the Zhytomyr rayon: the city itself is designated as its own separate rayon within the oblast; moreover Zhytomyr consists of two so-called "rayons in a city": the Bohunsky rayon and the Korolyovsky rayon (named in honour of Sergey Korolyov). Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov (often Transliterated as Sergei Korolev) (Серге́й Па́влович Королёв Сергій Павлович Корольов Zhytomyr is located at around , occupying an area of 65 km² (25 sq mi).
The current estimated population is 277,900 (as of 2005). Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Zhytomyr is a major transportation hub. The city lies on a historic route linking the city of Kiev with the west through Brest. Kiev, also known as Kyiv ( Ukrainian:, Kyiv, ˈkɪjiw Russian:, Kiyev; see also Cities' alternative names) is the Today it links Warsaw with Kiev, Minsk with Izmail, and several major cities of Ukraine. Warsaw (Warszawa; also known by other names) is the Capital and Largest city of Poland. Minsk (Мінск mʲinsk Минск mʲinsk is the Capital and largest city in Belarus, situated on the Svislach and Niamiha rivers For the class of Russian warships see Izmail class battlecruiser. Zhytomyr was also the location of Ozerne, a key Cold War strategic aircraft base located 11 km (6. Ozerne (Озерне may refer to Ozerne (Zhytomyr Oblast, a town in Zhytomyr Oblast of Ukraine Ozerne (Odessa Oblast, a village in Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the 8 mi) southeast of the city.
Important economic activities of Zhytomyr include lumber milling, food processing, granite quarrying, metalworking, and the manufacture of musical instruments. 
Zhytomyr lies in a unique natural setting; all sides of the city are surrounded by ancient forests through which flow the Teteriv, Kamyanka, Yaroshenka and Putiatynka rivers. A forest is an area with a high density of Trees There are many definitions of a forest based on various criteria The Teteriv River (Тетерiв is a right tributary of the Dnieper River in Ukraine. "Riverine" redirects here For the use of that term in Maritime geography, see there The Teteriv river bounds Zhytomyr at the south (though, precisely speaking, there are also some small areas of Zhytomyr city territory at the southern bank of the river). South is one of Cardinal directions and is opposite to the North. The city is rich in parks and public squares. A park is a protected area of Land and Water, usually in its natural or semi-natural (landscaped state and set aside for some purpose often to do with human Public square and city square redirect here For Public Square Cleveland see Public Square and for City Square in Leeds see Leeds City Square.
Zhytomyr possesses mostly radial type of street net with the centre at the main public square of the city named Sobornyi Maidan (or Soborny Square, which means Cathedral Square). A street is a Public thoroughfare in the built environment It is a Public parcel of land adjoining Buildings in an urban context A building containing courts and some other institutions is located in the west of the square. A court is a forum used by a power base to adjudicate disputes and dispense civil, labour administrative and criminal Justice under its This article refers to the cardinal direction for other uses see West (disambiguation. Before 1991 this building contained Zhytomyr Oblast Committee of the Communist Party. Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. Just behind the building (that is to the west of Soborny Square) a small park is located, containing a monumental stone with inscription telling that this is a place where Zhytomyr was founded. This historical centre of Zhytomyr is located in the southern part of the city. South is one of Cardinal directions and is opposite to the North. The main streets connecting Soborny Maidan with outskirts of Zhytomyr are Kyivska Street or Kiev Street (going to northeast, to the train station and also to the main bus station of the city), Velyka Berdychivska Street (going to southeast), Czerniachowski Street (going to southwest, to beaches and a forest-type park near the river of Teteriv), and Peremohy Street (going to north). Kiev, also known as Kyiv ( Ukrainian:, Kyiv, ˈkɪjiw Russian:, Kiyev; see also Cities' alternative names) is the |}A train station, railway station, railroad station, or station yard is a facility at which Passengers may board and alight from Trains bus station is a structure where city or intercity Buses stop to pick up and drop off passengers This is about the direction for other uses see North (disambiguation.
The most known (but not long) street in the central part of Zhytomyr is Mykhaylivska one (named after St. Michael's Church located at the northern end of the street). Michael (מִיכָאֵל Micha'el or Mîkhā'ēl; Μιχαήλ Mikhaíl; Michael or Míchaël; ميخائيل Mikhā'īl) is an The street is located about 500 metres to the east of Soborny Maydan and goes approximately from north to south connecting some points at the above mentioned Kyivska Street and Velyka Berdychivska one. The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST internal designation HT-7U is an experimental Superconducting Tokamak Magnetic fusion energy Mykhailivska Street is pedestrian one: trafic is forbidden in it, with the exception of some slowly moving cars whose movement is necessary. A pedestrian is a person travelling on foot whether Walking or Running. The building of the Zhytomyr City Council is located at the southern end of Mykhailivska Street. If one crosses Velyka Berdychivska Street from the southern end of Mykhailivska Street, then one finds oneself at Korolyov Square containing the building of the Zhytomyr Oblast Council. Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov (often Transliterated as Sergei Korolev) (Серге́й Па́влович Королёв Сергій Павлович Корольов Crossing Kyivska Street from the nothern end of Mykhailivska Street, one can continue to go along Shchors Street being one else important large street of Zhytomyr (going to north).
The most known park of Zhytomyr is one named after Yuriy Gagarin. The park is located in the south of the city, at the left (northern) bank of the Teteriv river. It is a former property of baron de Chaudoir. Baron is a specific Title of nobility. The word baron comes from Old French baron, itself from Old High German and Latin (liber
Common kinds of public transport shuttling within Zhytomyr are trolleybuses, buses, and minibuses. "Microbus" redirects here For the Volkswagen Microbus see Volkswagen Type 2. There are also trams, but on one route only. A tram, tramcar, trolley, trolley car, or streetcar is a railborne vehicle, of lighter weight and construction than a Train Earlier there were several tram routes in Zhytomyr, but all excepting one were canceled during a period of domination of the opinion that a tram is a bad kind of transport. Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another
Trams began to shuttle in Zhytomyr in 1899. Year 1899 ( MDCCCXCIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Thus Zhytomyr became the 5th city with trams within the territory of present-day Ukraine. Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. Trolleybuses appear in Zhytomyr in 1962. Year 1962 ( MCMLXII) was a Common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Now trolleybus/tram fare in Zhytomyr is 75 kopiykas (0. A fare is the Fee paid by a traveler allowing him or her to make use of a Public transport system rail, Bus, taxi, etc The hryvnia, sometimes hryvnya or (incorrectly hryvna or hrivna (гривня ˈɦrɪu̯nʲɑ sign: ₴, code: 75 hryvnyas) for one passenger for any distance. The hryvnia, sometimes hryvnya or (incorrectly hryvna or hrivna (гривня ˈɦrɪu̯nʲɑ sign: ₴, code: This article is about passengers in commercial transportation for other uses see Passenger (disambiguation A passenger is a term broadly used Distance is a numerical description of how far apart objects are
Zhytomyr was allegedly established in the 8th century by Zhytomyr, prince of a Slavic tribe of Drevlians. The 8th century is the period from 701 to 800 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. The Drevlians ( Деревляни, Derevliany in Ukrainian; Древляне, Drevlyane in Russian) were a Tribe The exact date of first mentioning, 988, is cut in the large stone of the ice age times, standing on the hill where Zhytomyr was founded. Events By Place Africa Al-Azhar University is founded in Cairo, Egypt (the second oldest university in the world The first records of the town date from 1240 when it was sacked by the Mongol hordes of Batu Khan. Batu Khan (Бат Хаан Баты́й (c 1205–1255 was a Mongol ruler and the founder of the Blue Horde.
In 1320 Zhytomyr was captured by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and received Magdeburg rights in 1444. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė old literary Lithuanian Didi Kunigiste Letuvos, Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje Magdeburg Rights (Magdeburger Recht or Magdeburg Law were a set of German town laws regulating the degree of internal autonomy within cities and villages granted with After the Union of Lublin (1569) the city was incorporated into the Crown of the Polish Kingdom. The Union of Lublin (Liublino unija Belarusian: Лю́блінская ву́нія Polish: Unia In the Second Partition of Poland in 1793 it passed to imperial Russia and became the capital of the government of Volhynia. The Partitions of Poland or Partitions of the Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth took place in the second half of the 18th century and ended the existence of the Year 1793 ( MDCCXCIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya During a brief period of Ukrainian independence the city was for a few weeks in 1918 the national capital. Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common From 1920 the city was under Soviet rule. Year 1920 ( MCMXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920 of the Gregorian calendar A soviet (сове́т, "council" originally was a workers' local council in late Imperial Russia.
During World War II Zhytomyr and the surrounding territory came for several years under Nazi German occupation and was Heinrich Himmler's Ukrainian headquarters. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Heinrich Luitpold Himmler ( 7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945 was a Nazi German politician and head of the Schutzstaffel (SS. The Nazi regime in what they called the "Zhytomyr General District" became what Wendy Lower describes as "a laboratory for… Himmler's resettlement activists… the elimination of the Jews and German colonization of the East—transformed the landscape and devastated the population to an extent that was not experienced in other parts of Nazi-occupied Europe besides Poland. [While]… [u]ltimately, the exigencies of the war effort and mounting partisan warfare behind the lines prevented Nazi leaders from fully developing and realizing their colonial aims in Ukraine… In addition to the immediate destruction of all Jewish communities, Himmler insisted that the Ukrainian civilian population be brought to a 'minimum. '" 
From 1991, the city has been part of the independent republic of Ukraine. Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar.
The Jewish Encyclopedia (1901-1906) characterized it as "one of the oldest towns in European Russia," meaning the Imperial Russia of that time, and one of the "prominent towns" of Lithuania in the middle of the 15th century. Year 1901 ( MCMI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Year 1906 ( MCMVI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika is a Country in Eastern often referred to as Northern Europe or in the 
|1926||76 700 (of which 10 500 were Russians)|
|1941||40 100 (of which 2 500 were Russians and about 7 000 Poles)|
Zhytomyr apparently had few Jews at the time of the Khmelnytsky Uprising (1648), but by the time it became part of Russia in 1778, it had a large Jewish community, and was a center of the Hasidic movement. Year 1861 ( MDCCCLXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Year 1891 ( MDCCCXCI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Year 1926 ( MCMXXVI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ The term Khmelnytsky Uprising (also Khmel'nyts'kyi/Chmielnicki Uprising or Khmelnytsky / Chmielnicki Rebellion) refers to a Rebellion or Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Year 1778 ( MDCCLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or Hasidic Judaism (also Chasidic, etc from the Hebrew: he '''''חסידות''''', Chassidus, meaning "piety" from the Hebrew Jews formed nearly a third of the 1861 population (13,299 in 40,564); thirty years later they had somewhat outpaced the general growth of the city, with 24,062 Jews in a total population of 69,785. Year 1861 ( MDCCCLXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common By 1891 there were three large synagogues and 46 smaller batte ha-midrashot. Year 1891 ( MDCCCXCI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common A synagogue (from Greek: grc συναγωγή transliterated synagogē, "assembly" he בית כנסת beit knesset, "house of The proportion of Jews was much lower in the surrounding district of Zhytomyr outside the city; at the turn of the century (circa 1900) there were 22,636 Jews in a total population of 281,378. 
In Imperial Russia, Zhytomyr held the same status as the official Jewish center of southern part of the Pale of Settlement as Vilnius held in the north. The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya The Pale of Settlement (Черта́ осе́длости cherta osedlosti) was the term given to a region of Imperial Russia, along its western border in which The printing of Hebrew books was permitted only in these two cities during the monopoly of Hebrew printing from 1845 to 1862, and both of them were also chosen as the seats of the two rabbinical schools which were established by the government in 1848 in pursuance of its plans to force secular education on the Jews of Russia in accordance with the program of the Teutonized Russian Haskalah movement. Year 1845 ( MDCCCXLV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Year 1862 was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Monday Rabbi (pronunciation, although in English usually) in Judaism, means a religious ‘teacher’ or more literally ‘my great one’ when addressing any master Year 1848 ( MDCCCXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap Haskalah ( Hebrew: השכלה "enlightenment" "education" from sekhel " Intellect " "mind") the Jewish Enlightenment The rabbinical school of Zhytomyr was considered the more Jewish, or rather the less Russianized, of the two (Ha-Meliẓ, 1868, No. Ha-Meliẓ was the oldest Hebrew newspaper in Russia. It was founded by Alexander Zederbaum, in Odessa, in 1860 as a weekly and was transferred Year 1868 ( MDCCCLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap 40, cited in Jewish Encyclopedia). Its first head master was Jacob Eichenbaum, who was succeeded by Hayyim Selig Slonimski in 1862. Hayyim Selig Slonimski (Chaim Zelig Słonimski (1810&ndash1904 was a Hebrew publisher astronomer inventor and science author Year 1862 was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Monday The latter remained at the head of the school until it was closed (together with the one at Vilnius) in 1873 because of its failure to provide rabbis with a secular education who should be acceptable to the Jewish communities. Year 1873 ( MDCCCLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Suchastover, Gottlober, Lerner, and Zweifel were among the best-known teachers of the rabbinical school at Zhytomyr, while Abraham Goldfaden, Salomon Mandelkern, and Abraham Jacob Paperna were among the students who later became famous in the Jewish world. Avrom Ber Gotlober (January 14 1811 Starokonstantinov, Volhynia - April 12 1899 Białystok) was a Jewish writer poet playwright historian Lerner is a common German family name Its literal meaning can be either "student" or "scholar" Abraham Goldfaden (July 24 1840 &ndash January 9 1908 אברהם גאָלדפֿאַדען born Avrum Goldnfoden; first name alternately Abram, Avram Salomon Mandelkern (born in Mlynov, Volhynia, 1846 died in Vienna March 24[[ 902]] was a Ukrainian Jewish poet and author Abraham Jacob Paperna (אברהם יעקב פפרנה born at Kopyl, government of Minsk, now Капыль in Belarus, 1840 died 1919 was a Russian Jewish 
The teachers' institutes which were substituted for the rabbinical schools were, in the words of the Jewish Encyclopedia "scarcely more satisfactory" (The JE refers to the teachers' institute at Zhytomyr as "probably the worst-managed Jewish institution in Russia of which there is any record", citing Prelooker, Under the Czar and Queen Victoria, pp. 8-21, London, 1895). London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Year 1895 ( MDCCCXCV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year It was closed in 1885, succeeded by a Talmud Torah, a "government school" for boys, a girls' school, and several private schools for both sexes that the JE describes as "admirable", with comparable praise for other Jewish institutions of Zhytomyr circa 1900. Year 1885 ( MDCCCLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Talmud Torah schools were created in the Jewish world both Ashkenazic and Sephardic, as a form of public primary School for boys of modest backgrounds Year 1900 ( MCM) was an exceptional Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar 
While "never a center of rabbinical learning" (JE) Zhytomyr boasted a few rabbis of some note: Rabbi Wolf (died 1800), author of the Or ha-Meïr (Koretz, 1795), a pupil of Bär of Meseritz and one of the leaders of early Hasidism, and Abraham Bär Mavruch, rosh bet din or acting rabbi of Zhytomyr in the first half of the nineteenth century and author of the Bat 'Ayin (Zhytomyr, 1850). Year -of the Julian calendar. The Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar until Friday, but 12 days ahead since Saturday. Year 1795 ( MDCCXCV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a For the game see 1850 (board game. 1850 ( MDCCCL) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link 
The Jewish community of Zhytomyr suffered a pogrom May 7–8, 1905, with about 20 deaths in the city, and 10 more among a group of young Jews from nearby who were coming to assist the Jews of Zhytomyr; the section of the city known as "Podol" was devastated. A pogrom is a form of Riot directed against a particular group whether ethnic religious or other and characterized by destruction of their Homes Businesses Events 558 - In Constantinople, the dome of the Hagia Sophia collapses Year 1905 ( MCMV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Among the dead was Nicholas Blinov, a Christian student, who attempted to defend the Jews. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings 
The Jewish community of the region was largely destroyed in the Holocaust. The Holocaust (from the Greek el ''ὁλόκαυστον'' (el-Latn holókauston holos, "completely" and kaustos, "burnt" also known as In the four months beginning with Himmler's 25 July 1942 orders, "all of Ukraine's shtetls and ghettos lay in ruins; tens of thousands of Jewish men, women, and children were brutally murdered by stationary and mobile SS-police units and indigenous auxiliaries. Events 285 - Diocletian appoints Maximian as Caesar, co-ruler Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A shtetl (שטעטל diminutive form of Yiddish shtot שטאָט "town" pronounced very similarly to the South German diminutive "Städtle" "little A ghetto is described as a "portion of a city in which members of a minority group live especially because of social legal or economic pressure The ( German for "Protective Squadron" abbreviated SS - or ( Runic)- was a major Nazi organization under Adolf Hitler and the "