Zemstvo (Russian: Земство) was a form of local government instituted during the great liberal reforms performed in Imperial Russia by Alexander II of Russia. The Old Russian language adopted the Cyrillic alphabet, approximately during the tenth century and at about the same time as the introduction of Eastern Christianity Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a State. The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya Alexander (Aleksandr II Nikolaevich (Александр II Николаевич ( Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St The idea of zemstvo was elaborated by Nikolay Milyutin, and the first zemstvo laws were promulgated in 1864. Nikolay Alekseyevich Milyutin (1818—1872 was a Russian statesman remembered as the chief architect of the great liberal reforms undertaken during Alexander II 's Year 1864 ( MDCCCLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year After the October Revolution of 1917, the zemstvo system was shut down. The October Revolution (Октябрьская революция Oktyabrskaya revolyutsiya) also known as the Soviet Revolution
The system of local self-government the Russian Empire was presented at the lowest level by mir and volosts and was continued, so far as the 34 Guberniyas of old Russia are concerned, in the elective district and provincial assemblies (zemstvos). Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of Organization. The Russian word mir (мир besides its direct meanings of peace and world,had some other meanings related to social organization in Imperial Russia Volost or volost' was a traditional administrative subdivision in Eastern Europe. Guberniya (губе́рния) (also gubernia, guberniia, gubernya) was a major administrative subdivision of Imperial Russia, usually
These bodies, one for each district and another for each province or government, were created by Alexander II in 1864. They consisted of a representative council (zemskoye sobranye) and of an executive board (zemskaya uprava) nominated by the former. The board consists of five classes of members:
The nobles were given more weight in voting for a zemstvo, as evidenced by the fact that 74% of the zemstvo members were of nobles, even though nobles were 1. 3% of the population. Even so, the zemstvo did allow the greater population more say in the ways they wanted a small part of their lives to be run.
The rules governing elections to the zemstvos were taken as a model for the electoral law of 1906 and are sufficiently indicated by the account of this given below. Election law is a discipline falling at the juncture of Constitutional law and Political science. Year 1906 ( MCMVI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting The zemstvos were originally given large powers in relation to the incidence of taxation, and such questions as education, medical relief, public welfare, food supply, and road maintenance in their localities, but were met with hostility by radicals, such as the Socialist Revolutionary Party, the intelligentsia, and the nihilists who wanted more reform. "Social welfare" redirects here For other uses see Welfare A social welfare provision refers to any program which seeks to provide For opposition to all forms of government social hierarchy or authority see Anarchism. The Socialist-Revolutionary Party (the PSR the SRs, or Esers; Партия социалистов-революционеров (ПСР эсеры was a Russian For the coffee shop company often called Intelligentsia for short see Intelligentsia Coffee & Tea. Nihilism (from the Latin nihil, nothing is a philosophical position that argues that Existence is without objective meaning Purpose . These powers were, however, severely restricted by the emperor Alexander III (law of 12/25 June 1890), the zemstvos being absolutely subordinated to the governors, whose consent was necessary to the validity of all their decisions, and who received drastic powers of discipline over the members. Alexander III Alexandrovich ( 10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) (Александр III Александрович reigned as Emperor In spite of these restrictions and of an electoral system which tended to make these assemblies as strait-laced and reactionary as any government bureau, the zemstvos did good work, notably educational, in those provinces where the proprietors were inspired with a more liberal spirit. Many zemstvos also made extensive and valuable inquiries into the condition of agriculture, industry and the like. It was not till 1905 that the zemstvos regained, at least de facto, some of their independent initiative.
The term Zemstvo is also used in philately to refer to local-issue Russian postage stamps from this period. Philately is the study and collecting of revenue and postage stamps