|Zastava automobili AD|
Застава аутомобили АД
|Key people||Miljko Erić, Zoran Radojević|
Zastava automobili AD is a Serbian industrial conglomerate based in the city of Kragujevac, 86 miles (138 km) southeast of Belgrade. Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country Kragujevac ( Serbian Cyrillic: Крагујевац) is a city in Serbia, the largest city of the Šumadija Belgrade (Београд Beograd is the Capital and largest city of Serbia. It is most known for its Fiat-based automobiles, which began assembling in 1955 for Eastern European markets. Fiat SpA (an Acronym for Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino (Italian Automobile Factory of Turin) is an Italian automobile manufacturer Year 1955 ( MCMLV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar) Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. The firm also manufactures military and sporting small arms, most of them based on Russian or German design, under the name Zastava Arms. Zastava Arms (Застава оружје Zastava oružje from Kragujevac Serbia is a subsidiary of Zastava, and is the sole producer of civilian
The company is best known for its locally built versions of the Fiat 128. The Fiat 128 was a Small family car manufactured by the Italian manufacturer Fiat from 1969 to 1985
During the 1970s and '80s, Zastava sold its compact cars in North and South America and Western Europe under the "Yugo" brand. This article is about the Decade 1970-1979 For the Year 1970 see 1970. The 1980s was the decade spanning from January 1 1980 to December 31 1989. South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' The Zastava Koral (known outside the former Yugoslavia simply as the Yugo and within it as Jugo) is a subcompact vehicle built by Zastava corporation Its final model, the Yugo Sana, was styled by Italian designer Giorgetto Giugiaro and launched in 1990, but its career was cut short by the Yugoslav wars, and Yugo had disappeared from most Western markets by 1993. The Zastava Florida, also known as Yugo Sana, Yugo Miami or Yugo Florida, is a Small family car produced by the Serbian automaker Giorgetto Giugiaro (born August 7, 1938) is an Italian Automobile designer He was born in Garessio, Province of Cuneo The Yugoslav Wars were a series of violent conflicts in the territory of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY that took place between 1991 and Year 1993 ( MCMXCIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar) In 1999, the factory came under NATO bombing during the Kosovo War missions. Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) The North Atlantic Treaty The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts in Kosovo: 1996–1999
Like the Eastern bloc manufacturer AutoVAZ, maker of the Lada, the post-communist era has been difficult for the company, and following its withdrawal from Western markets, has developed few new models such as Yugo Florida and continues to manufacture the Fiat 128 based range of cars for the various Balkan states. During the Cold War, the term Communist Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) was used to refer to the Soviet Union and countries it either controlled or that were AvtoVAZ ( (АвтоВАЗ is a Russian Automobile manufacturer, also known as VAZ, Volzhsky Lada is the Trademark of AvtoVAZ, a Russian car manufacturer in Togliatti, ( Samara Oblast or province
In September 2005, the company signed a new agreement with Fiat - under the name Zastava 10 the factory will produce a version of the 2003 Fiat Punto for the Balkans. Fiat SpA (an Acronym for Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino (Italian Automobile Factory of Turin) is an Italian automobile manufacturer Zastava 10 is a car produced in Kragujevac, Serbia. It is based on the Italian Fiat Punto Mark 2b The Fiat Punto is a supermini produced by the Italian manufacturer Fiat, since 1993 It is scheduled to make up to 16,000 cars yearly. In October 2005, Zastava concluded an agreement with the US weapons manufacturer Remington Arms to offer its sporting arms in North America. Remington Arms is a major American manufacturer of Rifles Shotguns other Firearms, Revolvers and Ammunition.
In December 2007 Serbia announced that Zastava would go on sale in April 2008. 
The ancestor of the factory was a cannon-casting plant, founded in 1853. The Zastava 750 ( Застава 750) was a car made by the Yugoslavian car maker Zavod Crvena Zastava.
The automaking branch of Zastava began as a Kragujevac-based gun factory named the Vojno-Tehnicki Zavod (Army Technical Institute). Kragujevac ( Serbian Cyrillic: Крагујевац) is a city in Serbia, the largest city of the Šumadija Its first vehicles were Ford trucks, assembled exclusively for the Yugoslavian Army in the late 1930s. Ford Motor Company is an American Multinational corporation and the world's fourth largest automaker based on Worldwide vehicle sales, following A small number of vehicles was made through 1941.
After World War II, the factory was renamed Zavodi Crvena Zastava ("Red Flag Plant"). In a referendum held on August 26th, 1953, 96% of the employees of then-Zavodi Crvena Zastava voiced their desire to produce automobiles. That year, 162 Jeep Willys would leave Kragujevac lines.
Zastava signed a historic agreement with Fiat on August 12th, 1954. Fiat SpA (an Acronym for Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino (Italian Automobile Factory of Turin) is an Italian automobile manufacturer Three months later, Kragujevac began assembling the Fiat AP-55 (aka Kampagnola), the Fiat 1400 and the Fiat 1100 B. The Fiat 1400 is a model of car produced by Italian Automotive manufacturer Fiat between 1950 and 1958
The 1400 marked Zastava's first automobile, but not its most famous; that would be the legendary fića, as Zastava's version of the Fiat 600 was known across Yugoslavia. 923,487 were produced, with several different engines and in various equipment levels, from October 18th, 1955 through November 18th, 1985.
At 10am on October 15th, 2005, hundreds of fića owners gathered outside Zastava's offices in Kragujevac. They had come from across the former Yugoslavia to mark the 50th birthday of Zastava's most celebrated line: its smallest car ever, and the car which put Yugoslavia on wheels.
The fića was a small, frugal vehicle that could transport four; a successor to the prewar Fiat 500, or Topolino. In most variants barely capable of 60 mph, the robust little car was nevertheless perfect for commuting, and mobilized Yugoslavia as Austin's Mini had Britain, and Citroen's 2CV, France.
On April 4th, 2000, Novi Sad's Privatni Pregled newspaper elected the fića the ex-Yugoslavia's Car of the Millennium.
In 1955, Crvena Zastava made 1,044 vehicles; in 1958, 3,596. 1957 and 1958 are generally viewed as the years in which Zastava's supplier network was established. By this time, Zastava was turning out its own chassis and parts, while the Rakovica-based supplier 2. maj was producing engines.
Zastava's annual production climbed to 13,719 units in 1960. The company entered the new decade with a replacement for the 1400: Fiat's 1100, shown in Geneva as the successor to the 1100 B.
With the advent of the 1961 1300 and 1500 came Zastava's 1300/ 1500 series, produced as both sedans and wagons. This article is about the 1960s models - there were also entirely different Fiat 1500s manufactured from 1935 to 1949 With all-around disc brakes, rear-wheel-drive and up to 72 horsepower, the "tristać" was Yugoslavia's favorite upmarket car. Today, many across the former Yugoslavia recall the 1300 as Zastava's best automobile ever: the Jugoslovenski Mercedes, they call it. 201,160 copies of the 1300 and 1500 were produced from 1961 through December 20th, 1979.
The fića had started life as the 16kW 633cm3 Fiat 600, designed by legendary Fiat engineer Dante Giacosa. "600" can also refer to the later Fiat Seicento The Fiat 600 (or "Seicento" is a City car produced by the Italian Dante Giacosa ( January 3, 1905 - March 31, 1996) was an Italian car designer In 1962, Zastava began production of the Fiat 600D, badged Zastava 750, boasting an 18kW 767 cm3 engine capable of propelling the car to 110 km/h.
The floorpan of the 1300/ 1500 was used as the basis for the Polski-Fiat 125p, which was produced by Polish FSO from Zastava CKD kits. The 125p was created by mating the body of the Fiat 125 to the mechanicals (engines, gearbox, transmission and suspension) of the 1300 and 1500. On the Yugoslav market, the 125p was known as the Zastava 125PZ.
1965 marked the official beginning of Zastava exports, with 6,000 cars sent to Poland.
In 1967, Zastava produced about 52,000 trucks and passenger cars; in 1968, 53,000.
Zastava in this decade signed a new contract expanding production and technological cooperation with Fiat. A $10 million investment pushed annual capacity to 85,000, with plans in place to reach 130,000 units within a five-year period.
In 1969, the Zastava Kamioni (Zastava Trucks) division split from Zastava Automobili and began producing Italy's Om trucks, rated for between 2. 5 and 4 tons. Today, Zastava Kamioni continues to make trucks through a partnership with Iveco.
In 1970, Zastava rolled out the 750M, fitted with a new 795cm3 engine boasting a thermostat-controlled closed cooling system. The Zastava Skala is a generic name for a family of cars built by Serbian manufacturer Zastava Automobili. Kragujevac ( Serbian Cyrillic: Крагујевац) is a city in Serbia, the largest city of the Šumadija Czechoslovakia may also refer to what is now the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
In the beginning of the seventies Zastava made another arrangement with Fiat. In 1971 Zastava introduced the Zastava 101 (4cyl, 1116 cm3 OHC, 55HP, front wheel drive), which is based on Fiat 128. The Zastava Skala is a generic name for a family of cars built by Serbian manufacturer Zastava Automobili. The Fiat 128 was a Small family car manufactured by the Italian manufacturer Fiat from 1969 to 1985 It had a restyled rear panel, and later became available as a hatchback, a style that had not ever been released in Italy. Hatchback is a term designating an Automobile design containing a passenger cabin with an integrated Cargo space accessed from behind the vehicle by a single
It was said that model 101 should be produced in Yugoslavia for both Yugoslav and Italian market, and vice versa, in the Italian market would have been sold under the marque Innocenti. Innocenti, an Italian machinery works was originally established by Ferdinando Innocenti in 1920 It was soon nicknamed Stojadin as a pun on sto jedan (101) (Stojadin is a male name, although folk etymology also associates it with sto jada, "a hundred woes", due to the poor performance of the first models). Folk etymology is a term used in two distinct ways A commonly held misunderstanding of the origin of a particular word a False etymology. In spite of this negative record, the car was a good seller in the domestic market. Yugoslavs used to buy it because of its moderate price, simple mechanics, cheap spare parts and low maintenance cost.
For 1979 came the 750S (Special), which offered Fiat 126-inspired fascia upgrades (including a tachometer), a new steering-wheel and a 22kW engine which raised the car's top speed to 120 km/h. The Fiat 126 was a City car introduced in 1972 as a replacement for the Fiat 500.
In 1980, the Zastava 850 was launched, with a 23. The Zastava Skala is a generic name for a family of cars built by Serbian manufacturer Zastava Automobili. 4kW 848cm3 engine propelling it to 125 km/h. A fully-synchronized transaxle and front disc brakes were introduced. Production of the 750 and 850 continued through 1985 in L, LE and SC versions until, finally, the design was sold to the Tofas factory in Turkey. Tofaş (pronounced "toe-fush" is a Turkish Automaker, based in Istanbul, Turkey and with a plant in Bursa. Tofas continued to produce these cars under Zastava license into the '90s.
In the mid-seventies, Zastava management decided to develop a new model, still based on the same Fiat engine. It was originally to be known as Zastava 102, but the name was dropped in 1981 and the car released as Yugo 45. The Zastava Koral (known outside the former Yugoslavia simply as the Yugo and within it as Jugo) is a subcompact vehicle built by Zastava corporation It was styled by Zastava with some help from Fiat engineers. Technically it was related to the Fiat 127 but keeping much of the Fiat 128 mechanics; externally it followed the style of the Autobianchi A112 but with a more square appearance. The Fiat 127 is a supermini produced by the Italian automaker Fiat between 1971 and 1983 The Autobianchi A112 is a supermini produced by the Italian Automaker Autobianchi. Several variants were made with 903cc, 1116cc, and 1301cc engines. The 1116cc and the 1301cc versions were sold in the USA as the Yugo GV, GVL, GVS, GVX, GV Plus, and the Cabrio, a convertible. A convertible is a type of automobile in which the vehicle's roof can retract and fold away converting it from an enclosed to an open-air vehicle
Later in the eighties, the Yugo 45 went through several modifications, most importantly the adoption of a 5-speed gearbox. The Zastava Koral (known outside the former Yugoslavia simply as the Yugo and within it as Jugo) is a subcompact vehicle built by Zastava corporation The marque used for passenger cars was changed from Zastava to Yugo. The Yugo 45 and its derivative models were later renamed Yugo Koral, the Zastava 101 range (based on the Fiat 128, available as sedan or hatchback) were also unified under a single model denomination, Zastava Skala. The Zastava Koral (known outside the former Yugoslavia simply as the Yugo and within it as Jugo) is a subcompact vehicle built by Zastava corporation The Zastava Skala is a generic name for a family of cars built by Serbian manufacturer Zastava Automobili. Nonetheless, the numerical classification would still stand for some export markets, as it was the case for the United Kingdom.
These were Zastava's best years in number of cars assembled, around 230,000 cars a year. Zastava cars were to be sold in 70 countries at the time, with 27,000 exported to Western markets. The factory also started to make trucks, under IVECO licence. This article is about the semi-truck For the North American use of the word see Pickup truck. Iveco is an Italian Truck, Bus, and Diesel engine Manufacturer, based in Turin, Italy.
In 1988 a new model was released called the Zastava Florida (known as Yugo Sana or Yugo Sana Miami, in some countries). The Zastava Florida, also known as Yugo Sana, Yugo Miami or Yugo Florida, is a Small family car produced by the Serbian automaker Its exterior was designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro, with a body shape similar to a Fiat Tipo or Citroën ZX. Giorgetto Giugiaro (born August 7, 1938) is an Italian Automobile designer He was born in Garessio, Province of Cuneo The Fiat Tipo is a Small family car designed by the IDEA design house and produced by the Italian manufacturer Fiat between 1988 and 1995 The Citroën ZX is a Small family car produced by the French manufacturer Citroën between 1991 and 1998
In the early 90's, Zastava was affected greatly by the Balkan Crisis. The factory production became unstable because of a problem with supplies. Exports were impossible during those years, because trade sanctions imposed on Yugoslavia. Between 1992 and 1995 it was under UN sanctions, and then between 1998 and 2000 it was under EU and US sanctions. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security As a result, many of Zastava subsidiaries abroad were forced to cease trading, as it was the case with Zastava (GB) Ltd, in the United Kingdom, and Yugo Cars, in the United States. A subsidiary, in business matters is an entity that is controlled by a bigger and more powerful entity The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
In 1999, during the Kosovo War, NATO aircraft deliberately bombed the Zastava conglomerate plant in Kragujevac, as it was considered a military target as Zastava Arms infrastructure was also located on site. The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts in Kosovo: 1996–1999 The North Atlantic Treaty Kragujevac ( Serbian Cyrillic: Крагујевац) is a city in Serbia, the largest city of the Šumadija Zastava Arms (Застава оружје Zastava oružje from Kragujevac Serbia is a subsidiary of Zastava, and is the sole producer of civilian Nevertheless, the bombing did not completely halt the production, as there were still three working shifts even during the height of NATO bombing (Zastava factory has operated continuously since it was built).  Some of the car manufacturing buildings were damaged and workers injured. 
After the war, there were trade talks to Hungarian firms, to assemble Yugos in Hungary, but this agreement haven't been concluded because of hesitating of the Yugoslavian partner. Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic (But Zastava Trucks are assembling in Hungary, near to Pécs, with IVECO engine. Zastava Trucks ( Zastava Kamioni in Serbian) is a Serbian )
Yugos were face-lifted and new versions are introduced in the Belgrade International Motor Show in 2002. See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. The new Yugo Koral IN had a 1,3l 80HP motor with BOSCH electronic injection, the transmission designed by Porsche, slightly new internal and external design, improved safety, and lots of extra details which were missing from former models. Robert Bosch GmbH is a German diversified technology-based corporation which was started in 1886 by Robert Bosch in Stuttgart Germany. Fuel injection is a system for mixing fuel with air in an Internal combustion engine. Porsche SE or Porsche ( German, ˈpɔɹʃə is a German manufacturer of automobiles which is majority-owned by the Porsche and Piëch
The new generation of Yugo was granted a FIA certificate, so it was in compliance with European standards.
In October 2000, Vojislav Koštunica (also a Yugo owner) became the new president of Yugoslavia, and soon after the sanctions against the country were lifted, so the export market was once again open. Dr Vojislav Koštunica ( Serbian Cyrillic: Војислав Коштуница) (ˈvɔjislaːv kɔˈʃtunitsa born March 24, 1944, Belgrade The production had fallen to a mere 9 percent of its pre-1990 230,000 vehicles annual capacity, with exports of around 4,000 vehicles. The new Yugoslav government a $50 million reorganization effort in cooperation with the World Bank, which resulted in mass layoffs, and its intention to privatize the company. The World Bank is an internationally supported Bank that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programs (e 
A new prototype for the Yugo Florida, know as Florida 2. 0 was made, equipped with the same engine of Fiat Bravo 2. The Fiat Bravo and Fiat Brava are Small family cars produced by the Italian automaker Fiat from 1995 to 2001 0.
It is based on the Italian Fiat Punto Mark 2b. It is currently Zastava's most modern car.
Optional features include dual front airbags and air conditioning as well as power windows. Although the Zastava 10 is Zastava's newest and best, it faces fierce competition against cars like the Volkswagen Polo. However, it has advantages over many of its rivals, including price, compact size, and sometimes, versatility. As of December 2007. prices of Zastava 10 start from 7. 550 Euro on the Serbian market.  In March of 2007 Zastava 10's share of Serbian car market was 11%.  Zastava has started exporting cars to former Yugoslav republics in the first half of 2007 and, a bit latter to Bulgaria and Albania as well.
BELGRADE, April 30 - Italy's Fiat is teaming up with Serbia to invest 700 million euros ($1. 09 billion) - BELGRADE, April 30 - Italy's Fiat is teaming up with Serbia to invest 700 million euros ($1. 09 billion) to produce two new car models in local carmaker Zastava's plant in the town of Kragujevac. Serbian officials said Fiat would own 70 percent of the joint venture.
"Fiat plans to start production of one new model by the end of next year, and of a second model by the end of 2010," Serbian Economy Minister Mladjan Dinkic said after the signing.
"Fiat will increase production to reach 300,000 cars a year by end-2010," he said, adding there was a possibility of the deal also including the manufacturing of car parts.
Zastava's annual production is now around 15,000 cars, well below its capacity of 60,000. The plant, home of the Yugo car, was hit by NATO air strikes on Serbian industrial sites in 1999, and reconstruction has been slow.
A Fiat spokesman told Reuters the two new models would be under the Fiat brand. Under a separate deal with Fiat, Zastava assembles Punto cars and sells them in Serbia and the Balkans under the Zastava 10 brand.
In 2002 the American entrepreneur Malcolm Bricklin, who had previously imported Yugo into the United States, signed a deal with Zastava to re-introduce the company's products back in America. Malcolm Bricklin born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is an automotive Entrepreneur. Bricklin's intention was to sell the cars for less than $10,000, under the brand name ZMW (as in Zastava Motor Works) which in the United States would, of course, be pronounced Zee-M-W. However, even though a website proclaiming the brands arrival was produced by Bricklin's company, by 2006 his intentions had switched to importing products from Chinese car marker Chery instead. Chery Automobile (English pronunciation) ( is an Automobile manufacturer in China.
Zastava currently sells Zastava Korals in Serbia, Montenegro, Croatia, the Republic of Macedonia, Greece, Lebanon, Libya, Syria, Tunisia, Poland, and Egypt (where Zastava cars are produced under the marque of the state owned Nasr car company). The Zastava Koral (known outside the former Yugoslavia simply as the Yugo and within it as Jugo) is a subcompact vehicle built by Zastava corporation Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country Montenegro ( British English) Montenegrin / Serbian: PLEASE DO NOT CHANGE THE LANGUAGES WITHOUT CONSENSUS ON THE TALK PAGE! Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between The Republic of Macedonia (Република Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية Libya ( ليبيا ar-Latn Lībiyā; Libyan vernacular: Lībya; Amazigh:) officially the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية Tunisia (تونس Tūnis officially the Tunisian Republic ( is a country located in North Africa. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Nasr, ( النصر, long form El Nasr Automotive Manufacturing Company) is Egypt 's state owned automobile company founded in 1960 in Helwan, As well as all the Koral versions available, other models include the Florida and Skala.
In October 2005, an agreement with Fiat was reached for production of the Fiat Punto by Zastava for Eastern European markets, which would be commercialed as the Zastava 10. The Fiat Punto is a supermini produced by the Italian manufacturer Fiat, since 1993 Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. Zastava 10 is a car produced in Kragujevac, Serbia. It is based on the Italian Fiat Punto Mark 2b The Koral IN L, with a fuel injected 1. 1 L Peugeot engine, met the European Union safety standards in a test supervised by the German Technischer Überwachungsverein (Technical Monitoring Association). For the article about the bicycle manufacturer see Cycles Peugeot. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in TÜV s (short for T echnischer Ü berwachungs- V erein, Technical Monitoring Association in English This may pave the way for export to E.U. countries. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in
In addition to the Zastava 10, Zastava is currently negotiating with Fiat for the production rights to another model not yet in production, a C-segment sedan, codenamed Project D200, to be manufactured for Fiat by Zastava and/or Tofaş of Turkey. Tofaş (pronounced "toe-fush" is a Turkish Automaker, based in Istanbul, Turkey and with a plant in Bursa. It will compete with the Dacia Logan. The Logan is a no-frills car produced jointly by the French manufacturer Renault and its subsidiary Dacia of Romania.
Fiat Group Automobiles (FGA) unit has signed a memorandum of understanding with the Serb ministry of economic and regional development for the acquisition of Zastava's Kragujevac plant. Fiat SpA (an Acronym for Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino (Italian Automobile Factory of Turin) is an Italian automobile manufacturer The memorandum of understanding foresees a new company being set up in which the Italian group would have a 70 percent stake and the Serb government 30 percent.
The new company would make a total investment in the region of 700 million euros, with the government contributing 200 million euros to this. The Zastava plant will produce two new Fiat models, rejecting recent reports the plant could produce the 500 compact city car.
Zastava, in addition to producing cars, is the sole producer of military firearms in Serbia. Zastava Arms (Застава оружје Zastava oružje from Kragujevac Serbia is a subsidiary of Zastava, and is the sole producer of civilian Most of its line of small arms is derived from the Soviet Kalashnikov design. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The AK-47 (contraction of Russian Автомат Калашникова образца 1947 года; Avtomat Kalashnikova obraztsa 1947 goda; "Kalashnikov's