The Yupik languages are the several distinct languages of the several Yupik (Юпик) peoples of western and southcentral Alaska and northeastern Siberia. The Yupik or in the Central Alaskan Yup'ik language, Yup'ik, are a group of indigenous or aboriginal peoples of western southwestern and southcentral Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent Siberia (Сиби́рь Sibir) is the name given to the vast region constituting almost all of Northern Asia and for the most part currently serving The Yupik languages differ enough from one another that speakers of different ones cannot understand each other, although they may understand the general idea of a conversation of speakers of another of the languages.
The Yupik languages are in the family of Eskimo-Aleut languages. Eskimo-Aleut is a Language family native to Greenland, the Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and parts of Siberia. The Aleut and Eskimo languages diverged about 2000 B. Aleut ( Unangam Tunuu) is a language of the Eskimo-Aleut Language family. Eskimos or Esquimaux are Indigenous peoples who have traditionally inhabited the circumpolar region from eastern Siberia ( Russia) across C. , and the Yupik languages diverged from each other and from the Inuit language about 1000 A. The Inuit language is traditionally spoken across the North American Arctic and to some extent in the Subarctic in Labrador. D.
The Yupik languages are:
Central Yup’ik Consonants:
c (ts/ch), g (ɣ) (velar fricative), gg (x) (unvoiced velar fricative), k, l (ɮ) (alveolar lateral fricative), ll (ɬ) (unvoiced alveolar lateral fricative), m, ḿ (voiceless m), n (alveolar), ń (voiceless n), ng (ŋ), ńg (voiceless ŋ), p, q (uvular stop), r (ʁ) (uvular fricative), rr (χ) (voiceless uvular fricative), s (z), ss (s), t (alveolar), û (w), v (v/w), vv (f), w (χw), y, ’ (gemination of preceding consonant)
|Fricative||v [v, w] vv [f]||s [z] ss [s]||g [ɣ] gg [x]||r [ʀ] rr [χ]|
|Nasal||m||n ń [n̥]||ng [ŋ] ńg [ŋ̊]|
|Lateral||l [ɮ] ll [ɬ]|
|Semivowel||û [w]||y [j]|
Yupik languages have four vowels: 'a', 'i', 'u' and schwa. Phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the subfield of Phonetics. Fricatives are Consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior Alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets Laterals are "L"-like Consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both Uvulars are Consonants articulated with the back of the Tongue against or near the uvula, that is further back in the mouth than Velar consonants The voiceless uvular fricative is a type of Consonantal sound used in some spoken Languages The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet In Phonetics, gemination happens when a spoken Consonant is pronounced for an audibly longer period of time than a short Consonant. Labials are consonants articulated either with both lips ( bilabial articulation or with the lower lip and the upper teeth ( labiodental articulation In Phonetics, labiodentals are Consonants articulated with the lower Lip and the upper Teeth. Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior Alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets Uvulars are Consonants articulated with the back of the Tongue against or near the uvula, that is further back in the mouth than Velar consonants Affricate Consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or) but release as a fricative (such as or or occasionally into Fricatives are Consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together A nasal consonant (also called nasal stop or nasal continuant) is produced with a lowered velum in the mouth allowing air to escape freely through the Laterals are "L"-like Consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both Semivowels — also known as glides or non-syllabic vowels —are Vowels that form Diphthongs with full syllabic vowels In Phonetics, a vowel is a Sound in spoken Language, such as English ah! or oh!, pronounced with an open Vocal tract In Linguistics, specifically Phonetics and Phonology, schwa can mean the following An unstressed and toneless neutral They have from 13 to 27 consonants. In Articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a Speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the upper Vocal tract, the upper vocal
Central Yup’ik Vowels:
a, aa, e (ə) (schwa), i, ii, u, uu
(In proximity to the uvular consonants 'q', 'r' or 'rr', the vowel 'i' is pronounced as a closed /e/, and 'u' as a closed /o/. Uvulars are Consonants articulated with the back of the Tongue against or near the uvula, that is further back in the mouth than Velar consonants )
The Yupik languages, like other Eskimo-Aleut languages, represent a particular type of agglutinative language called a polysynthetic language: it "synthesizes" a root and various grammatical affixes to create long words with sentence-like meanings. An agglutinative language is a Language that uses Agglutination extensively most Words are formed by joining Morphemes together Polysynthetic languages are highly Synthetic languages ie languages in which words are composed of many Morphemes Definition The degree of The root is the primary lexical unit of a Word, which carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents An affix is a Morpheme that is attached to a stem to form a word
The Yupik languages were not written until the arrival of Europeans around the beginning of the 19th century. The earliest efforts at writing Yupik were those of missionaries who, with their Yupik-speaking assistants, translated the Bible and other religious texts into Yupik. Such efforts as those of Saint Innocent of Alaska, Reverend John Hinz (see John Henry Kilbuck) and Uyaquk had the limited goals of transmitting religious beliefs in written form. Saint Innocent of Alaska ( August 26, 1797 - March 31, 1879) also known as Saint Innocent of Moscow was a Russian Orthodox John Henry Kilbuck (sometimes spelled Killbuck) and his wife Edith (Romig Kilbuck, were Moravian missionaries in southwestern Alaska in the Uyaquk (sometimes spelled Uyakoq) was a Yupik Moravian missionary and linguistic Genius who went from being an illiterate adult
In addition to the Alaskan Inupiat, the Alaskan and Siberian Yupik adopted the writing system based on roman orthography that was originally developed by Moravian missionaries in Greenland beginning in the 1760s, which the missionaries later transported to Labrador. The Inupiat or Iñupiaq (from inuit- people - and piaq/t real i Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat meaning "Land of the Greenlanders" Grønland is a self-governing Danish Province located between the Modern Labrador Just like its island neighbour Newfoundland early settlement in Labrador was tied to the sea as demonstrated by the Montagnais, Innu and The Alaskans were the only Northern indigenous peoples to develop hieroglyphics. Hieroglyph ( Greek grc-Grek ἱερογλύφος " sacred carving " or hieroglyphics ( = grc-Grek τὰ ἱερογλυφικά 
After the United States purchased Alaska, Yupik children were taught to write English with Latin letters in the public schools. The Alaska Purchase (otherwise known as Seward's Folly or Seward's Icebox) by the United States from the Russian Empire occurred in 1867 at the behest Some were also taught the Yupik script developed by Rev. Hinz, which used Latin letters and which had become the most widespread method for writing Yupik. In Russia, most Yupik were taught to read and write only Russian, but a few scholars wrote Yupik using Cyrillic letters.
In the 1960s, the University of Alaska assembled a group of scholars and native Yupik speakers who developed a script to replace the Hinz writing system. The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969 The University of Alaska is a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant university founded in 1917 in Fairbanks, Alaska. One of the goals of this script was that it could be input from an English keyboard, without diacriticals or extra letters. Another requirement was that it accurately represent each phoneme in the language with a distinct letter. The phoneME project is Sun Microsystems reference implementation of Java virtual machine and associated libraries of Java ME with source licensed under the GNU A few features of the script are that it uses 'q' for the back version of 'k', 'r' for the Yupik sound that resembles the French 'r', and consonant + ’ for a geminated (lengthened) consonant. The rhythmic doubling of vowels (except schwa) in every second consecutive open syllable is not indicated in the orthography unless it comes at the end of a word.