A youth subculture is a youth-based subculture with distinct styles, behaviours and interests. Youth is the period from infancy or childhood to maturity Usage Around the world the terms "youth" " Adolescent " "teenager" and For the term in biology see Subculture (biology. For the song by New Order see Sub-culture (song. According to subculture theorists such as Dick Hebdige, members of a subculture often signal their membership by making distinctive and symbolic tangible choices in, for example, clothing styles, hairstyles and footwear. Dick Hebdige (born 1951 is an expatriate British media theorist and Sociologist, most commonly associated with the study of Subcultures and its resistance Clothing (also called clothes, accoutrements, accouterments, or habiliments) protects the Human body from extreme Weather Haircut redirects here For the financial term see Haircut (finance. Footwear consists of Garments worn on the feet, for protection against the environment and Adornment. However, intangible elements, such as common interests, dialects and slang, music genres and gathering places can also be an important factor. A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος dialektos) is a variety of a Language that is characteristic of a particular group of Slang is the use of highly informal Words and expressions that are not considered standard in the speaker's Dialect or Language. A music genre is a categorical and typological construct that identifies musical sounds as belonging to a particular category and type of music that can be distinguished from other Youth subcultures offer participants an identity outside of that ascribed by social institutions such as family, work, home and school. Social organization or social institution, refers to a group of Social positions connected by Social relations performing a Social role. Family denotes a group of People affiliated by consanguinity affinity or co-residence Employment is a Contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. A home is a place of Residence or Refuge. It is usually a place where an individual or a family can rest in and be able to store Personal property. A school (from Greek σχολεῖον - scholeion) is an Institution designed to allow and encourage Students (or "pupils"
Social class, gender and ethnicity can be important in relation to youth subcultures. Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions (or stratification) between individuals or groups in Societies or Cultures. Gender comprises a range of differences between men and women extending from the biological to the social Youth subcultures can be defined as meaning systems, modes of expression or lifestyles developed by groups in subordinate structural positions in response to dominant systems — and which reflect their attempt to solve structural contradictions rising from the wider societal context. The term lifestyle was originally coined by Austrian psychologist Alfred Adler in 1929 @@@ main@@@ - title Hierarchy@@@ keywords structure; sociology; information@@@ review@@@ -  The study of subcultures often consists of the study of the symbolism attached to clothing, music, other visible affections by members of the subculture and also the ways in which these same symbols are interpreted by members of the dominant culture. "Symbolic" redirects here For other uses see Symbolism (disambiguation and Symbolic (disambiguation.
The term scene can refer to an exclusive subculture or faction. Scenes are distinguished from the broad culture through either fashion; identification with specific (sometimes obscure or experimental) musical genres or political perspectives; and a strong in-group or tribal mentality. Fashion refers to styles of dress (but can also include cuisine literature art architecture and general comportment that are popular in a culture at any given time A music genre is a categorical and typological construct that identifies musical sounds as belonging to a particular category and type of music that can be distinguished from other A tribe, viewed historically or developmentally consists of a Social group existing before the development of or outside of States Many anthropologists use  The term can also be used to depict specific subsets of a subculture, habitually geographical, such as the Detroit drum and bass scene or the London Goth scene. A quantity of scenes tend to be volatile, imprudent to trends and changes, with some participants acting elitist towards those considered to be less fashionable, or oppositional to the general culture although others do endow with mutual support in marginalized groups. Elitism is the belief or attitude that those individuals who are considered members of the Elite &mdash a select group of people with outstanding personal abilities intellect In-group behavior can sometimes elicit external opposition. Subcultures that show a systematic hostility to the dominant culture are sometimes described as countercultures. Counterculture (also " counter-culture " is a sociological term used to describe the values and norms of behavior of a Cultural group, or
Youth subcultures are often defined or distinguishable by elements such as fashion, beliefs, slang, dialects, behaviours or interests. Fashion refers to styles of dress (but can also include cuisine literature art architecture and general comportment that are popular in a culture at any given time Vehicles—such as cars, motorcycles, motor scooters, skateboards, surf boards—have played central roles in certain youth subcultures. Vehicles, derived from the Latin word vehiculum, are non-living Means of transport. Over the course of the 20th century the Automobile rapidly developed from an expensive toy for the rich into the De facto standard for passenger Transport MotorCycle is the title of a 1993 album by Rock band Daniel Amos, released on BAI Records. A scooter is a style of two-wheeled motor vehicle traditionally defined by characteristics such as a step-through frame wheels less than 16" in diameter and an engine located Skateboarding is the act of riding and performing tricks using a Skateboard. Surfing is a surface water sport in which the participant is carried along the face of a breaking wave, most commonly using a Surfboard, although wave-riders In the United Kingdom in the 1960s, mods were associated with scooters while rockers were associated with motorcycles. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Mod (originally modernist, sometimes capitalised is a Subculture that originated in London in the late 1950s and peaked in the early to mid 1960s Many youth subcultures are associated with specific music genres, and in some cases music has been the primary characteristic of the group, such as with punk rockers, ravers, moshers, hip hoppers, emo kids and indie. A music genre is a categorical and typological construct that identifies musical sounds as belonging to a particular category and type of music that can be distinguished from other The punk subculture is based around Punk rock. It emerged from the larger Rock music scene in the mid-to-late-1970s in the United Kingdom, the United Raver is a word that has been used since the 1960s to describe people who are enthusiastic attendees of parties Hip hop music, also referred to as rap music, is a Music genre typically consisting of a rhythmic vocal style called rap which is accompanied with Emo (ˈiːmoʊ is a genre of music that originated from Hardcore punk early on and adopted Pop-punk influences later on in the 2000s when
Early studies in youth culture were mainly produced by functionalist sociologists, and focus on youth as a single form of culture. In the Social sciences, specifically Sociology and Sociocultural anthropology, functionalism (also called functional analysis) is a Sociological In explaining the development of the culture, they utilized the concept of anomie. Anomie, in contemporary English language is a sociological term that signifies in individuals an erosion diminution or absence of personal norms standards or values Talcott Parsons argued that as we move from the family and corresponding values to another sphere with differing values, (e. Talcott Parsons ( December 13, 1902 - May 8, 1979) was an American sociologist, who served on the faculty of Harvard University g. the workplace) we would experience an "anomie situation. " The generalizations involved in this theory ignore the existence of subcultures. Marxist theories account for some diversity, because they focus on classes and class-fractions rather than youth as a whole. See also Marxian economics, Marxism Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory are terms which cover work in Philosophy Stuart Hall and Tony Jefferson (1993) describe youth subcultures as symbolic or ritualistic attempts to resist the power of bourgeois hegemony by consciously adopting behavior that appears threatening to the establishment.  Conversely, Marxists of the Frankfurt School of social studies argue that youth culture is inherently consumerist and integral to the divide-and-rule strategy of capitalism. The Frankfurt School is a school of neo-Marxist Critical theory, Social research, and Philosophy. They argue that it creates generation gaps and pits groups of youths against each other (e. g mods and rockers or skinheads vs. The Mods and Rockers were two conflicting British youth Subcultures of the early-mid 1960s punks or hippies) — especially as youth culture is the dominant culture in the west.
Interactionist theorist Stan Cohen argues youth subcultures are not coherent social groupings that arise spontaneously as a reaction to social forces, but that mass media labeling results in the creation of youth subcultures by imposing an ideological framework in which people can locate their behavior. Symbolic interactionism is a major sociological perspective that is influential in many areas of the discipline  Post-structuralist theories of subculture utilize many of the ideas from these other theories, including hegemony and the role of the media. Post-structuralism encompasses the intellectual developments of continental philosophers and critical theorists who wrote with tendencies of twentieth-century Dick Hebdige describes subcultures as a reaction of subordinated groups that challenge the hegemony of the dominant culture.  This theory accounts for factors such as gender, ethnicity and age. Youth can be seen as a subordinate group in relation to the dominant, adult society.
Steven Mintz argues that until about 1950, youth subculture as such did not exist. Children aspired to (or were pushed into) adulthood as fast as their physical development allowed.  Marcel Danesi arges that since then, the media, advertisers and others have made youth the dominant culture of Western societies, to the point that many people retain what many consider adolescent attitudes far into adulthood.