You (stressed IPA: /juː/; unstressed IPA: /jə/) is the second-person personal pronoun in Modern English. Grammatical person, in Linguistics, is deictic reference to a participant in an event such as the speaker the Addressee, or others Personal pronouns are Pronouns used as substitutes for proper or common Nouns. Modern English is the form of the English language spoken since the Great Vowel Shift, completed in roughly 1550 Ye was the original nominative form; the oblique/objective form is you (functioning originally as both accusative and dative), and the possessive is your or yours.
In standard English, you is both singular and plural; it always takes a verb form that originally marked the word as plural, such as you are. The personal pronouns of English can have various forms according to gender, number, person, and case. I (aɪ is the first-person, singular Personal pronoun ( subject case) in Modern English. We (wiː is the first-person, plural Personal pronoun ( subject case) in Modern English. He (hiː is a third-person, singular Personal pronoun ( subject case) in Modern English. They (ðeɪ is a third-person, Personal pronoun ( subject case) in Modern English. She (ʃiː is a third-person, singular Personal pronoun ( subject case) in Modern English. It (ɪt is a third-person, singular Neuter pronoun ( subject case) in Modern English. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States For English usage of verbs see the wiki article English verbs. This was not always so. Early Modern English distinguished between the plural you and the singular thou. The word thou ( in most dialects is a second person singular Pronoun in English. This distinction was lost in modern English due to the importation from France of a Romance linguistic feature which is commonly called the T-V distinction. The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages, or Neolatin languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family comprising all In Sociolinguistics, a T-V distinction describes the situation wherein a Language has second-person Pronouns that distinguish varying levels of This distinction made the plural forms more respectful and deferential; they were used to address strangers and social superiors. This distinction ultimately led to familiar thou becoming obsolete in standard English (and Dutch), although this did not happen in other languages such as French. Dutch ( is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people 22 million of which are from the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Ironically, because thou is now seen primarily in literary sources such as King James Bible (often directed to God, who is traditionally addressed in the familiar) or Shakespeare (often in dramatic dialogs, e. Irony is a literary or Rhetorical device, in which there is an incongruity or Discordance between what one says or does and what one means or Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity. William Shakespeare ( baptised Drama is the specific mode of Fiction represented in Performance. g. "Wherefore art thou Romeo?"), many modern anglophones erroneously perceive it as more formal, rather than familiar (case in point: in Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back, Darth Vader addresses the Emperor saying, "What is thy bidding, my master?"). Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy written early in the Star Wars Episode V The Empire Strikes Back is a 1980 Space opera Film directed by Irvin Kershner. Anakin Skywalker Darth Vader is a fictional character in George Lucas ' Science fiction saga Star Wars. Palpatine is a Fictional character in George Lucas 's Science fiction saga Star Wars.
Because you is both singular and plural, various English dialects have attempted to revive the distinction between a singular and plural you to avoid confusion between the two uses. A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος dialektos) is a variety of a Language that is characteristic of a particular group of This is typically done by adding a new plural form; examples of new plurals sometimes seen and heard are y'all/you-all (primarily in the southern United States and African American Vernacular English), you guys (in the U. Y'all, sometimes spelled as " Ya'll " " Yawl " or " Yaw " and archaically spelled " You-all " The United States of America —commonly referred to as the African American Vernacular English ( AAVE) – also called African American English; less precisely Black English, Black Vernacular, S. , particularly in Midwest, Northeast, and West Coast, and in Australia), you lot (in the UK), youse (Scotland, Northern England, Australia, New Zealand) youse guys (New York City region, Philadelphia, Michigan's Upper Peninsula; also spelt without the E), and you-uns/yinz (Western Pennsylvania, The Appalachians). Yinz is a second-person Plural pronoun used mainly in southwest Pennsylvania including Pittsburgh, but it is also found throughout the Appalachians English spoken in Ireland, known as Hiberno-English, sometimes uses the word ye as the plural form, or yous. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Hiberno-English also known as Anglo-Irish and Irish English is English as spoken in Ireland, partly the result of the interaction of the English Although these plurals are useful in daily speech, they are generally not found in Standard English. Standard English (often shortened to SE within linguistic circles is a term generally applied to a form of the English language that is thought to be normative Among them, you guys is considered most neutral in the U. S.  It is the most common plural form of you in the U. S. except in the dialects with y'all, and has been used even in the White House. See also Executive Office of the President of the United States The White House, formerly known as the Executive Mansion, is the Official residence 
You is also unusual in that, being both singular and plural, it has two reflexive forms, yourself and yourselves. However, in recent years singular themself is sometimes seen: see singular they. "Singular" they is a popular non-technical expression for uses of the Pronoun they (and its inflected forms when plurality is not
You is derived from Old English ge or ȝe (both pronounced roughly like Modern English yea), which was the old nominative case form of the pronoun, and eow, which was the old accusative case form of the pronoun. Modern English is the form of the English language spoken since the Great Vowel Shift, completed in roughly 1550 The accusative case ( abbreviated ACC) of a Noun is the Grammatical case used to mark the Direct object of a Transitive In Middle English the nominative case became ye, and the oblique case (formed by the merger of the accusative case and the former dative case) was you. Middle English is the name given by Historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of The dative case is a Grammatical case generally used to indicate the Noun to whom something is given In early Modern English either the nominative or the accusative forms have been generalized in most dialects. Modern English is the form of the English language spoken since the Great Vowel Shift, completed in roughly 1550 A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος dialektos) is a variety of a Language that is characteristic of a particular group of Most generalized you; some dialects in the north of England and Scotland generalized ye, or use ye as a clipped or clitic form of the pronoun. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. In Linguistics, a clitic is a grammatically independent and phonologically dependent Word.
Ye and you are cognate with Dutch jij and jou, German ihr, Gothic jus and Old Norse ér. Cognates in Linguistics are words that have a common origin They may occur within a language such as shirt and skirt as two English words descended from Dutch ( is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people 22 million of which are from the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. Old Norse is the North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during the Viking Age (Modern Icelandic þér is a variant form due to alteration of phrases like háfiþ ér (you have) into háfi þér etc. Icelandic ( is a North Germanic language, the language of Iceland. ) The specific form of this pronoun is unique to the Germanic languages, but the Germanic forms ultimately do relate to the general Indo-European forms represented by Latin vos. The Germanic languages are a group of related languages that constitute a branch of the Indo-European (IE Language family. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome.
Note that in the early days of the printing press, the letter y was used in place of the thorn (þ), so many modern instances of ye (such as in "Ye Olde Shoppe") are in fact examples of the and not of you. A printing press is a mechanical device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a medium (such as paper or cloth thereby transferring an image The letter Y is the twenty-fifth letter in the modern Latin alphabet. Thorn, or þorn (Þ þ is a letter in the Anglo-Saxon and Icelandic Alphabets It was also used in Medieval Scandinavia
Similar to English, u in Dutch is taken as a polite form for both plural and singular, while jij (singular) and jullie (plural) are considered informal. Dutch ( is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people 22 million of which are from the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname (Dutch lost its original thou form, du, just like English did; the forms U, jij, and jullie are more analogous to English you, ye, and y'all respectively). French has kept the system intact. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Vous is still used as formal and plural, while tu is used for informal singular. Russian uses this system also: vy (вы) is formal/plural and ty (ты) is informal singular. Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages In pɒrsi the same system is used: ʃomɒ is formal/plural and to is the informal singular. In modern Swedish though, the term ni (plural for you) is rarely used to address a single person, not even in formal circumstances. Swedish ( is a North Germanic language spoken by more than nine million people predominantly in Sweden and parts of Finland, especially along the The term used is du (you, singular).
While English, Dutch, French and Russian use or have used the plural forms as the polite forms, other European languages use forms deriving from the third person. Grammatical person, in Linguistics, is deictic reference to a participant in an event such as the speaker the Addressee, or others German, for example, uses the third person plural pronoun sie, capitalized Sie, as its formal pronoun (in other words, Sie is grammatically identical to They). The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Danish and Norwegian languages similarly have De; however, this usage is generally outdated and replaced with the familiar form. Danish ( d̥ænsɡ̊ is one of the North Germanic languages (also called Scandinavian languages a sub-group of the Germanic branch of the Norwegian ( norsk) is a North Germanic Language spoken primarily in Norway, where it is an official language  Italian has separate forms for singular (Lei) and plural (Loro), which are derived from the Italian words for she and they respectively; a partial similarity to the German system (especially since the German word for she is also sie, but conjugates differently from Sie). Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. However, sometimes the French system is also used in Italy, using the plural pronoun voi as singular.
Spanish and Portuguese use pronouns derived from third person phrases which originally meant your mercy, sir or madam, along with their plural forms. Portuguese ( or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain and northern Portugal. For Spanish, they are usted (pl. ustedes), and for Portuguese, você (pl. vocês), o senhor (pl. os senhores) and a senhora (pl. as senhoras). Você is often employed informally in Brazil, though the original singular pronoun tu is more commonly used in the South, the Northeast and some rural regions (this may be due to foreign influence in some locations), but o senhor, a senhora and their plurals are still used and always formal. In some Spanish speaking areas (especially in Latin America), the original second person singular pronoun tú has been dropped entirely, thus erasing the distinction between formal and informal address. In others, it was replaced with an old form of the second person plural pronoun, vos, now used as an informal counterpart to usted. See voseo. In Spanish, voseo is the use of the second person singular Pronoun vos instead of tú. Modified versions of vos, vosotros and vosotras, are still used in Spain as informal second person plural pronouns, while the singular is still tú, used informally. Portuguese has moved farther away from the original paradigm; the plural pronoun vós has disappeared in Brazil and is no longer used in ordinary speech in Portugal. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula.