The English city of York has, since Roman times, been defended with walls of one form or another. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland York ( is an historic Walled city sited at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial To this day, substantial portions of the walls remain, and York has more miles of intact wall than any other city in England. They are known variously as the York walls, the Bar walls and the Roman walls.
In 71 AD, the Romans built a fort (castra) occupying about 50 acres or 21. Year 71 was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial The Latin word castra, with its singular castrum, was used by the ancient Romans to mean buildings or plots of land reserved to or constructed for use as a military 5 hectares on the banks of the River Ouse, and surrounded it with a rectangle of walls. The River Ouse (pronounced "ooze" is a river in North Yorkshire, England.
The foundations and the line of about half of these walls form part of the existing walls, as follows:
The line of the rest of the Roman wall went south-west from the east corner, crossing the via principalis of the fortress where King's Square is now located. The south corner was in what is now Feasegate, and from here the wall continued northwest to the west corner. The point where the wall crossed the via praetoria is marked by a plaque in St Helen's Square near the Mansion House. Mansion House in York, England is the home of the Lord Mayor of York, during their term in office
The Multangular Tower in the Museum Gardens is the most noticeable and intact structure remaining from the Roman walls. It was constructed as part of a series of eight similar defensive towers, built on the orders of the Emperor Septimius Severus, who lived in York from 209 to 211 AD. Lucius Septimius Severus (or rarely Severus I) ( April 11 145 - February 4 211) was a Roman general and Roman Emperor For the area code see Area code 209. Events By Place Roman Empire Publius Septimius Geta receives For the N11 code see 2-1-1. Events By Place Roman Empire Septimus Severus dies in Britain It has ten sides and is almost 30 feet tall. The lower courses are original Roman stonework, though the upper course with arrowslits is a later medieval addition.
The Danes occupied the city in 867. The term Dane may refer to People with a Danish ancestral or ethnic identity whether living in Denmark, emigrants or the descendants of emigrants Events By Place Byzantine Empire September — Basil I becomes sole ruler of the Byzantine Empire. By this time the Roman defences were in poor repair, and the Danes demolished all the towers save the Multangular Tower and restored the walls.
The majority of the remaining walls date from the 12th - 14th century, with some reconstruction carried out in the 19th century.
Today the walls are a scheduled ancient monument and a grade 1 listed building. In the United Kingdom, a Scheduled Monument is a 'nationally important' Archaeological site or historic building given protection against unauthorised change A listed building in the United Kingdom is a building or other structure officially designated as being of special architectural historical or cultural significance 
The walls are punctuated by four main gatehouses, or 'bars', Bootham Bar, Monk Bar, Walmgate Bar and Micklegate Bar. A gatehouse is a feature of European Castles Manor houses and Mansions Originally a gatehouse was a fortified structure built over the gateway These restricted traffic in medieval times, and were used to extract tolls, as well as being defensive positions in times of war.
Although much of Bootham Bar was built in the 14th and 19th centuries, it also has some of the oldest surviving stonework, dating to the 11th century. It stands almost on the site of porta principalis dextra, the North Western gate of Eboracum.
This four-story gatehouse is the tallest and most elaborate of the four, and was built in the early 14th century. It was intended as a self-contained fort, and each floor is capable of being defended separately. The current gatehouse was built to replace a 12th century gate known as Munecagate, which stood 100 yards north-west on the site of the Roman gate porta decumana. Its location is indicated by a slight dip in the rampart. Today, Monk Bar houses the Richard III Museum. The Richard III Museum is located in the tallest of the four gatehouses Monk Bar in the historical city walls of York, England.
Most of Walmgate Bar was built during the 14th century, although the inner gateway dates from the 12th century. A barbican (from medieval Latin barbecana, "outer fortification of a city or castle" a general Romanic word perhaps from Arabic or The Bar's most notable feature is its barbican, which is the only one surviving on a town gate in England. A barbican (from medieval Latin barbecana, "outer fortification of a city or castle" a general Romanic word perhaps from Arabic or It also retains its portcullis and 15th century oak doors. On the inner side, an Elizabethan house, supported by stone pillars, extends out over the gateway. Romance and reality The Victorian era and the early twentieth century idealised the Elizabethan era The Bar has been repaired and restored many times over the years, most notably in 1648, following the 1644 Siege of York when it was bombarded by cannon fire, and in 1840 after it had suffered years of neglect. The Siege of York in 1644 was a prolonged contest for York during the English Civil War, between the Scottish Covenanter Army and the Year 1840 ( MDCCCXL) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year It was also damaged in 1489 when, along with Fishergate Bar, it was burnt by rebels who were rioting over tax raises.
The name of this four-storey-high gatehouse is from the Old Norse 'mykla gata' or 'great street', and leads onto Micklegate ('gate' is Norwegian for 'street' remaining from Viking influence in York). Old Norse is the North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during the Viking Age Micklegate is a street in the City of York, England. The name means "Great Street" "Gate" being the Viking word for street Norwegian ( norsk) is a North Germanic Language spoken primarily in Norway, where it is an official language A street is a Public thoroughfare in the built environment It is a Public parcel of land adjoining Buildings in an urban context A Viking is one of the Norse ( Scandinavian Explorers Warriors Merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas It was the traditional ceremonial gate for monarchs entering the city, who, in a tradition dating to Richard II in 1389, touch the state sword when entering the gate. Richard II (6 January 1367 &ndash ca 14 February 1400 was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399
A 12th century gatehouse was replaced in the 14th century with a heavy portcullis and barbican. A portcullis is a latticed Grille or Gate made of wood metal or a combination of the two A barbican (from medieval Latin barbecana, "outer fortification of a city or castle" a general Romanic word perhaps from Arabic or The upper two floors contain living quarters, which today are a museum of the bar, and the city. Its symbolic value led to traitor's decapitated head being displayed on the defenses. Heads left there to rot included: Henry Percy (1403), Henry Scrope, 3rd Baron Scrope of Masham (1415), Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York (1461), and Thomas Percy, 7th Earl of Northumberland (1572). Henry Scrope 3rd Baron Scrope of Masham KG (c 1376 &ndash August 5, 1415) was a favourite of King Henry V of England. Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York ( 21 September 1411 &ndash 30 December 1460) was a member of the English royal family who served in senior Thomas Percy 7th Earl of Northumberland KG ( 1528 - 22 August 1572) led the Rising of the North and was executed for treason
Besides the four main bars, there are two smaller bars.
Bricked up following riots in 1489, Fishergate Bar was reopened in 1827 and today provides pedestrian access through the walls between Fishergate and George Street. Year 1827 ( MDCCCXXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common
As the name suggests, this bar is a 19th century addition to the walls. It was opened in 1838 to provide direct access between Nunnery Lane and Bishophill. Year 1838 ( MDCCCXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common