|Yellowstone National Park|
|IUCN Category II (National Park)|
|Location||Park and Teton counties in Wyoming, Park and Gallatin counties in Montana and Fremont County in Idaho, USA|
|Nearest city||West Yellowstone, Montana Gardiner, Montana and Jackson, Wyoming|
|Area||2,219,789 acres (898,317 ha)|
|Established||March 1, 1872|
|Visitors||2,870,295 (in 2006)|
|Governing body||National Park Service|
Yellowstone National Park, set aside as a national park on March 1, 1872, is located mostly in the U.S. state of Wyoming, though it also extends into Montana and Idaho. A national park is a reserve of land usually declared and owned by a national Government, protected from most Human development and pollution Park County is a County located in the US state of Wyoming. The population was 25786 at the 2000 census. Teton County is a County located in the US state of Wyoming. As of 2000 the population is 18251 The State of Wyoming ( is a sparsely populated state in the western region of the United States. Park County is a County located in the US state of Montana. As of 2000, the population is 15694 Gallatin County is a County located in the US state of Montana. Montana ( is a state in the Western United States. One-third of the state in the western part contains numerous mountain ranges (approximately 77 named of the northern Fremont County is a County located in the US state of Idaho. The county was established in 1893 The State of Idaho ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States of America. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the West Yellowstone is a town in Gallatin County, Montana, adjacent to Yellowstone National Park. Gardiner is a Census-designated place (CDP in Park County, Montana, United States. Jackson is a Town located in the Jackson Hole Valley of Teton County, Wyoming, United States. Events 86 BC - Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army enters in Athens, removing the Tyrant Year 1872 ( MDCCCLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year The National Park Service ( NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex This is a list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in North America, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex A national park is a reserve of land usually declared and owned by a national Government, protected from most Human development and pollution Events 86 BC - Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army enters in Athens, removing the Tyrant Year 1872 ( MDCCCLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government The State of Wyoming ( is a sparsely populated state in the western region of the United States. Montana ( is a state in the Western United States. One-third of the state in the western part contains numerous mountain ranges (approximately 77 named of the northern The State of Idaho ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States of America. The park was the first of its kind, and is known for its wildlife and geothermal features, especially Old Faithful Geyser, one of the most popular areas in the park. Wildlife includes all non-domesticated plants animals and other organisms The geothermal areas of Yellowstone include several Geyser basins in Yellowstone National Park as well as other geothermal features such as Hot It has many types of ecosystems, but the Boreal forest is dominant.
Aboriginal Americans have lived in the Yellowstone region for at least 11,000 years. Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States The region was bypassed during the Lewis and Clark Expedition in the early 1800s. Aside from visits by mountain men during the early to mid-1800s, organized exploration did not begin until the late 1860s. The Mountain Men is also the name of a 1980 movie starring Charlton Heston. The U.S. Army was commissioned to oversee the park just after its establishment. The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities. In 1917, administration of the park was transferred to the National Park Service, which had been created the previous year. The National Park Service ( NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation Hundreds of structures have been built and are protected for their architectural and historical significance, and researchers have examined more than 1,000 archaeological sites.
Yellowstone National Park spans an area of 3,472 square miles (8,987 km²), comprising lakes, canyons, rivers and mountain ranges. A mountain range is a chain of Mountains bordered by highlands or separated from other mountains by passes or valleys  Yellowstone Lake is one of the largest high-altitude lakes in North America and is centered over the Yellowstone Caldera, the largest supervolcano on the continent. Yellowstone Lake is the largest body of water in Yellowstone National Park, The lake is 7732 feet (2376 m above sea level and covers 136 square miles (352 km² The Yellowstone Caldera is the volcanic Caldera in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. A supervolcano or super volcanic eruption is a Volcanic eruption which is Orders of magnitude greater than any volcano in historic times (generally accepted to be The caldera is considered an active volcano; it has erupted with tremendous force several times in the last two million years. Half of the world's geothermal features are in Yellowstone, fueled by this ongoing volcanism.  Lava flows and rocks from volcanic eruptions cover most of the land area of Yellowstone. Lava is molten rock expelled by a Volcano during an eruption When first expelled from a volcanic vent it is a Liquid at Temperatures The park is the centerpiece of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, the largest remaining, nearly-intact ecosystem in the Earth's northern temperate zone. Greater Yellowstone is the last remaining large nearly intact Ecosystem in the northern Temperate zone of the Earth and is partly located in Yellowstone 
Hundreds of species of mammals, birds, fish and reptiles have been documented, including several that are either endangered or threatened. An endangered species is a population of an organism which is at risk of becoming Extinct because it is either few in numbers or threatened by changing environmental or predation Threatened species are any species (including Animals Plants fungi, etc  The vast forests and grasslands also include unique species of plants. Grizzlies, wolves, and free-ranging herds of bison and elk live in the park. The Grizzly Bear (Ursus arctos horribilis, also known as the Silvertip Bear, is a Subspecies of Brown bear (Ursus arctos that lives The grey wolf or gray wolf ( Canis lupus) also known as the timber wolf or simply wolf, is a Mammal of the order Carnivora The American bison ( Bison bison) is a Bovine Mammal, also commonly known as the American buffalo. The elk, or wapiti ( Cervus canadensis) is one of the largest Species of Deer in the world and one of the largest Mammals in Forest fires occur in the park each year; in the large forest fires of 1988, nearly one third of the park burned. A wildfire, also known as a wildland fire, forest fire, brush fire, vegetation fire, grass fire, Peat fire, The Yellowstone fires of 1988 together formed the largest Wildfire in the recorded history of the U Yellowstone has numerous recreational opportunities, including hiking, camping, boating, fishing and sightseeing. The word 'hiking' is understood in all English-speaking countries but there are differences in usage Definition Camping describes a range of activities Survivalist campers set off with little more than their boots whereas Recreational vehicle travelers arrive equipped Boating, the leisurely activity of traveling by Boat typically refers to the Recreational use of boats whether Power boats sail boats, or For the computer security term see Phishing. Fishing is the activity of catching Fish. Paved roads provide close access to the major geothermal areas as well as some of the lakes and waterfalls. During the winter, visitors often access the park by way of guided tours that use either snow coaches or snowmobile. A snow coach is a specialized passenger transport vehicle designed to operate over snow or ice similar to alarge multi-passenger Snowcat that is equipped with bus style A snowmobile (known locally as snowmachine, snowsled or by the Brandname Ski-Doo) is a land vehicle that is commonly propelled by
The park is located at the headwaters of the Yellowstone River, from which it takes its historical name. The Yellowstone River is a Tributary of the Missouri River, approximately 671 miles (1080 km long in the western United States. In the eighteenth century, French Trappers named the river "Roche Jaune," which is probably a translation of the Minnetaree name "Mi tsi a-da-zi" (Rock Yellow River). A coureur des bois (runner of the woods was an individual who engaged in the Fur trade without permission from the French authorities The Mandan are a Native American tribe that historically lived along the banks of the Missouri River and two of its tributaries—the Heart and Later, American trappers rendered the French name in English as "Yellow Stone. " Although it is commonly believed that the river was named for the yellow rocks seen in the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone, the Native American name source is not clear. The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone is a large Canyon of the Yellowstone River that is located in Yellowstone National Park in the United States  The human history of the park begins at least 11,000 years ago when aboriginal Americans first began to hunt and fish in the region. During the construction of the post office in Gardiner, Montana, in the 1950s, an obsidian projectile point of Clovis origin was found that dated from approximately 11,000 years ago. Gardiner is a Census-designated place (CDP in Park County, Montana, United States. The Clovis culture (sometimes referred to as the Llano culture) is a Prehistoric Paleoindian culture that first appears in the archaeological  These Paleo-indians, of the Clovis culture, used the significant amounts of obsidian found in the park to make such cutting tools and weapons. Paleo-Indians or Paleo-Americans were the ancient peoples of the Americas who were present at the end of the last Ice Age. Obsidian is a naturally occurring Glass formed as an extrusive Igneous rock. In the context of Metalworking, a cutting tool, is any tool that is used to remove metal from the workpiece by means of shear deformation A weapon is a Tool used either in Hunting, or attack or defence in Combat for the purpose of subduing enemy personnel or to destroy enemy weapons Arrowheads made of Yellowstone obsidian have been found as far away as the Mississippi Valley, indicating that a regular obsidian trade existed between local tribes and tribes farther east. An arrowhead is point of an Arrow, or a shape resembling such a point as Archaeological artifacts arrowheads are a subclass of Projectile points The Mississippi River is the second longest River in the United States, with a length of from its source in Lake Itasca in Minnesota to  By the time white explorers first entered the region during the Lewis and Clark Expedition in 1805, they encountered the Nez Perce, Crow and Shoshone tribes. White People is the second album by Handsome Boy Modeling School. The Nez Perce (ˌnɛzˈpɝs are a Tribe of Native Americans who live in the Pacific Northwest region ( Columbia River Plateau) of the United The Crow, also called the Absaroka or Apsáalooke, are a tribe of Native Americans who historically lived in the Yellowstone The Shoshone ( or) are a Native American tribe with three large divisions the Northern the Western and the Eastern While passing through present day Montana, the expedition members were informed of the Yellowstone region to the south, but they did not investigate it. 
In 1806, John Colter, a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, left to join a group of fur trappers. John Colter (c1774 – May 7, 1812 or November 22, 1813) was a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804−1806 After splitting up with the other trappers in 1807, Colter passed through a portion of what later became the park, during the winter of 1807–1808. He observed at least one geothermal area in the northeastern section of the park, near Tower Falls. In Geology, geothermal refers to heat sources within the planet Tower Fall is a Waterfall in the northeastern region of Yellowstone National Park, in the U  After surviving wounds he suffered in a battle with members of the Crow and Blackfoot tribes in 1809, he gave a description of a place of "fire and brimstone" that was dismissed by most people as delirium. The Blackfoot Confederacy or Niitsítapi (meaning "original people" c The supposedly imaginary place was nicknamed "Colter's Hell. Colter's Hell is a volcanic area at the Shoshone River near Cody in the US state of Wyoming. " Over the next forty years, numerous reports from mountain men and trappers told of boiling mud, steaming rivers and petrified trees, yet most of these reports were believed at the time to be myth. In Geology, petrifaction or petrification is the process by which Organic material is converted into stone or a similar substance without 
After an 1856 exploration, mountain man Jim Bridger reported observing boiling springs, spouting water, and a mountain of glass and yellow rock. James or Jim Bridger (March 1804 &ndash July 17 1881 was among the foremost mountain men, trappers scouts and guides who explored and trapped the Western These reports were largely ignored because Bridger was known for being a "spinner of yarns". His stories did arouse the interest of explorer and geologist Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden, who, in 1859, started a two-year survey of the upper Missouri River region. Dr Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden ( September 7, 1829 – December 22, 1887) was an American Geologist noted for his pioneering Bridger and United States Army surveyor W. F. Raynolds acted as guides. After exploring the Black Hills region in what is now the state of South Dakota, the party neared the Yellowstone River, but heavy snows forced them to turn back. The Black Hills ( Pahá Sápa in Lakota, Moˀȯhta-voˀhonáaeva in Cheyenne) are a small isolated Mountain range rising from the South Dakota ( is a state located in the Midwestern region of the United States of America. The American Civil War hampered further organized explorations until the late 1860s. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South 
The first detailed expedition to the Yellowstone area was the Folsom Expedition of 1869, which consisted of three privately funded explorers. The Folsom Expedition of 1869 was the first organized expedition to explore the region that became Yellowstone National Park. The Folsom party followed the Yellowstone River to Yellowstone Lake.  The members of the Folsom party kept a journal and based on the information it reported, a party of Montana residents organized the Washburn-Langford-Doane Expedition in 1870. The Washburn Expedition of 1870 explored the region of northwestern Wyoming that a couple years later became Yellowstone National Park. It was headed by the surveyor-general of Montana Henry Washburn, and included Nathaniel P. Langford (who later became known as "National Park" Langford) and a U. Henry Dana Washburn ( March 28, 1832 &ndash January 26, 1871) was a U Nathaniel P Langford (1832 - 1911 also known as "National Park" Langford, was the first superintendent of Yellowstone National Park and was a member of S. Army detachment commanded by Lt. Gustavus Doane. The expedition spent about a month exploring the region, collecting specimens, and naming sites of interest. A Montana writer and lawyer named Cornelius Hedges, who had been a member of the Washburn expedition, proposed that the region should be set aside and protected as a National Park; he wrote a number of detailed articles about his observations for the Helena Herald newspaper between 1870 and 1871. Hedges essentially restated comments made in October 1865 by acting Montana Territorial Governor Thomas Francis Meagher, who had previously commented that the region should be protected. Thomas Francis Meagher (ˈmɑrh ( August 3, 1823 July 1, 1867) was an Irish nationalist a Union Army general during the American  Others made similar suggestions. In an 1871 letter from Jay Cooke to Ferdinand Hayden, Cooke wrote that his friend, Senator William D. Kelley had also suggested "Congress pass a bill reserving the Great Geyser Basin as a public park forever". Jay Cooke ( August 10, 1821 - February 8, 1905) American financier was born at Sandusky Ohio, the son of Eleutheros William D Kelley ( April 12, 1814 - January 9, 1890) was a Republican member of the U The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses 
In 1871, eleven years after his failed first effort, F. See Honoré Jackson for the Canadian revolutionary William Henry Jackson ( April 4[[ 843]] - June 30[[ 942]] was an American Dr Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden ( September 7, 1829 – December 22, 1887) was an American Geologist noted for his pioneering V. Hayden was finally able to make another attempt to explore the region. With government sponsorship, Hayden returned to Yellowstone with a second, larger expedition. He compiled a comprehensive report on Yellowstone, which included large-format photographs by William Henry Jackson, as well as paintings by Thomas Moran. See Honoré Jackson for the Canadian revolutionary William Henry Jackson ( April 4[[ 843]] - June 30[[ 942]] was an American Thomas Moran ( February 12, 1837 - August 25, 1926) from Bolton, England was an artist of His report helped to convince the U. S. Congress to withdraw this region from public auction; on March 1, 1872, President Ulysses S. Grant signed a bill into law that created Yellowstone National Park. Events 86 BC - Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army enters in Athens, removing the Tyrant Year 1872 ( MDCCCLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Ulysses S Grant, born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27 1822 &ndash July 23 1885 was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States 
Nathaniel Langford was appointed as the park's first superintendent in 1872. He served for five years but was denied a salary, funding, and staff. Langford lacked the means to improve the land or properly protect the park, and without formal policy or regulations, he had few legal methods to enforce such protection. This left Yellowstone vulnerable to poachers, vandals, and others seeking to raid its resources. In 1875, Colonel William Ludlow, who had previously explored areas of Montana under the command of George Armstrong Custer, was assigned to organize and lead an expedition to Montana and the newly established Yellowstone Park. William Ludlow ( November 27, 1843 Islip, Suffolk County New York – August 30, 1901 Convent, Morris County Observations about the lawlessness and exploitation of park resources were included in Ludlow's Report of a Reconnaissance to the Yellowstone Nation Park. The report included letters and attachments by other expedition members, including naturalist and mineralogist George Bird Grinnell. George Bird Grinnell ( September 20, 1849 – April 11, 1938) was an American Anthropologist, Historian, Grinnell documented the poaching of buffalo, deer, elk and antelope for hides. "It is estimated that during the winter of 1874–1875, not less than 3,000 Buffalo and mule deer suffer even more severely than the elk, and the antelope nearly as much. "
As a result, Langford was forced to step down in 1877.  Having traveled through Yellowstone and witnessed land management problems first hand, Philetus Norris volunteered for the position following Langford's exit. Philetus W Norris (August 17 1821 - January 14 1885 was the second superintendent of Yellowstone National Park and was the first person to be paid for that position Congress finally saw fit to implement a salary for the position, as well as to provide a minimal funding to operate the park. Norris used these funds to expand access to the park, building numerous crude roads and facilities.  Norris hired Harry Yount to control poaching and vandalism in the park. Harry Yount (1837-1924 nicknamed "Rocky Mountain Harry", is considered to be Yellowstone National Park 's first ranger. Today, Harry Yount is considered the first national park ranger.  However, these measures still proved to be insufficient in protecting the park, as neither Norris, nor the three superintendents who followed, were given sufficient manpower or resources.
The Northern Pacific Railroad built a train station in Livingston, Montana, connecting to the northern entrance in the early 1880s, which helped to increase visitation from 300 in 1872 to 5,000 in 1883. The Northern Pacific Railway was a railway that operated in the north-central region of the United States. |}A train station, railway station, railroad station, or station yard is a facility at which Passengers may board and alight from Trains Livingston is a city in and the County seat of Park County, Montana, United States.  Visitors in these early years were faced with poor roads and limited services, and most access into the park was on horse or via stagecoach. For other meanings see Stagecoach (disambiguation. A stagecoach (also called diligence) is a type of four-wheeled enclosed By 1908 visitation increased enough to also attract a Union Pacific Railroad connection to West Yellowstone, though rail visitation fell off considerably by World War II and ceased around the 1960s. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
Ongoing poaching and destruction of natural resources continued unabated until the U. S. Army arrived at Mammoth Hot Springs in 1886 and built Camp Sheridan. The geothermal areas of Yellowstone include several Geyser basins in Yellowstone National Park as well as other geothermal features such as Hot Over the next 22 years the army constructed permanent structures, and Camp Sheridan was renamed Fort Yellowstone. Fort Yellowstone is a former United States Army base that currently serves as the administrative headquarters for the Yellowstone National Park.  With the funding and manpower necessary to keep a diligent watch, the army developed their own policies and regulations that permitted public access while protecting park wildlife and natural resources. When the National Park Service was created in 1916, many of the management principles developed by the army were adopted by the new agency.  The army turned control over to the National Park Service on October 31, 1918. Events 445 BC – Ezra reads the Book of the Law to the Israelites in Jerusalem (see Nehemiah 91 NLTse Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common 
By 1915, 1,000 automobiles per year were entering the park, resulting in conflicts with horses and horse driven transportation. In subsequent years horse travel on roads was eventually prohibited.  Between 1933 and 1941, the Civilian Conservation Corps built the majority of the early visitor centers, campgrounds and the current system of park roads. Civilian Conservation Corps ( CCC) was a Work relief program for young men from unemployed families established on March 21, 1933, by U During World War II, staffing and visitation both decreased, and many facilities fell into disrepair. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including  By the 1950s, visitation increased tremendously in Yellowstone and other national parks. To accommodate the increased visitation, park officials implemented Mission 66, an effort to modernize and expand park service facilities. Mission 66 was a US National Park Service ten-year program that was intended to dramatically expand NPS visitor services by 1966 in time for the 50th anniversary of the establishment Planned to be completed by 1966, in honor of the 50th anniversary of the founding of the National Park Service, Mission 66 construction diverged from the traditional log cabin style with design features of a modern style.  During the late 1980s, most construction styles in Yellowstone reverted back to the more traditional designs. After the enormous forest fires of 1988 damaged much of Grant Village, structures there were rebuilt in the traditional style. The visitor center at Canyon Village, which opened in 2006, incorporates a more traditional design as well. 
The 1959 Yellowstone earthquake just west of Yellowstone at Hebgen Lake damaged roads and some structures in the park. The 1959 Yellowstone earthquake also known as the Hebgen Lake earthquake in southwestern Montana. Hebgen Lake is a Lake located in Southwest Montana. It is well known for an earthquake which occurred nearby on August 17, 1959, forming In the northwest section of the park, new geysers were found, and many existing hot springs became turbid.  It was the most powerful earthquake to hit the region in recorded history.
The wildfires during the summer of 1988 were the largest in the history of the park. A wildfire, also known as a wildland fire, forest fire, brush fire, vegetation fire, grass fire, Peat fire, Approximately 793,880 acres (1,240 sq mi/321,272 ha) or 36% of the parkland was impacted by the fires, leading to a systematic reevaluation of fire management policies. The fire season of 1988 was considered normal until a combination of drought and heat by mid-July contributed to an extreme fire danger. On "Black Saturday," August 20, 1988, strong winds expanded the fires rapidly, and more than 150,000 acres (61,000 ha/230 sq mi) were consumed. Events 636 - Battle of Yarmouk: Arab forces led by Khalid ibn al-Walid take control of Syria and Palestine Year 1988 ( MCMLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar) 
The expansive cultural history of the park has been documented by the 1,000 archeological sites that have been discovered. Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek grc ἀρχαιολογία archaiologia – grc ἀρχαῖος archaīos The park has 1,106 historic structures and features, and of these Obsidian Cliff and five buildings have been designated National Historic Landmarks. Obsidian Cliff, also known as 48YE433, was an important source of Lithic materials for prehistoric peoples near Mammoth Wyoming. A National Historic Landmark (NHL is a Building, site, Structure, Object, or District, that is officially recognized by the  Yellowstone was designated an International Biosphere Reserve on October 26, 1976, and a United Nations World Heritage Site on September 8, 1978. A biosphere reserve is an international Conservation designation given by UNESCO under its Programme on Events 740 - An Earthquake strikes Constantinople, causing much damage and death Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex Events 70 - Roman forces under Titus sack Jerusalem. 1264 - The Statute of Kalisz Year 1978 ( MCMLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar)
Approximately 96% of the land area of Yellowstone National Park is located within the state of Wyoming. Another 3% is within Montana, with the remaining 1% in Idaho. The park is 63 miles (102 km) north to south, and 54 miles (87 km) west to east by air. At 2,219,789 acres (898,317 ha/3,468. 420 sq mi), Yellowstone is larger than the states of Rhode Island and Delaware combined. Rhode Island ( officially named the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, is a state in the New England region of the United States Delaware ( is a state located on the Atlantic Coast in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Rivers and lakes cover 5% of the land area, with the largest water body being Yellowstone Lake at 87,040 acres (35,220 ha/136. 00 sq mi). Yellowstone Lake is up to 400 feet (122 m) deep and has 110 miles (177 km) of shoreline. Sitting at an elevation of 7,733 feet (2,357 m) above sea level, Yellowstone Lake is the largest high altitude lake in North America. Forests comprise 80% of the land area of the park; most of the rest is grassland. Prairie, from the French prairie ("meadow" "grassland" "pasture" refers to an area of land of low topographic relief that historically 
The Continental Divide of North America runs diagonally through the southwestern part of the park. A continental divide is a line of elevated Terrain which forms a border between two watersheds such that Water falling on one side of the line eventually The divide is a topographic feature that separates Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean water drainages. Topography ( topo-, "place" and graphia, "writing" is the study of Earth 's Surface features or those of Planets The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth 's Oceanic divisions About one third of the park lies on the west side of the divide. The origins of the Yellowstone and Snake Rivers are near each other but on opposite sides of the divide. The Snake River is a major Tributary of the Columbia River in the U As a result, the waters of the Snake River flow to the Pacific Ocean, while those of the Yellowstone find their way to the Atlantic Ocean via the Gulf of Mexico. The Gulf of Mexico ( Spanish: Golfo de México) is the ninth largest Body of water in the world
The park sits on the Yellowstone Plateau, at an average altitude of 8,000 feet (2,400 m) above sea level. The Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic field is a Geological feature found in Wyoming. Mean sea level (MSL is the average (mean height of the Sea, with reference to a suitable reference surface The plateau is bounded on nearly all sides by mountain ranges of the Middle Rocky Mountains, which range from 9,000 to 11,000 feet (2,743 to 3,352 m) in elevation. A mountain range is a chain of Mountains bordered by highlands or separated from other mountains by passes or valleys Mountain peaks of the Rocky Mountains The Rocky Mountains, often called the Rockies, are a Mountain range in western North America. The highest point in the park is atop Eagle Peak (11,358 ft/3,462 m) and the lowest is along Reese Creek (5,282 ft/1,610 m). Eagle Peak (11358 ft / 3462 m is situated in the Absaroka Range in the U  Nearby mountain ranges include the Gallatin Range to the northwest, the Beartooth Mountains in the north, the Absaroka Range to the east, and the Teton Range and the Madison Range to the southwest and west. The Gallatin Range is located in the US states of Montana and Wyoming and includes more than 10 mountains over. The Absaroka Range is a Mountain range, which is a sub-range on the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains stretching for about 150 mi (240 km across the Montana The Teton Range is a Mountain range of the Rocky Mountains in North America. The most prominent summit on the Yellowstone Plateau is Mount Washburn at 10,243 feet (3,122 m). Mount Washburn is a Mountain in Yellowstone National Park, in the U
Yellowstone National Park has one of the world's largest petrified forests, trees which were long ago buried by ash and soil and transformed from wood to mineral materials. There are 290 waterfalls of at least 15 feet (4. A waterfall is usually a geological formation resulting from water often in the form of a Stream, flowing over an Erosion -resistant rock 5 m) in the park, the highest being the Lower Falls of the Yellowstone River at 308 feet (94 m). Yellowstone Falls consist of two major waterfalls on the Yellowstone River, within Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, United States. 
Two deep canyons are located in the park, cut through the volcanic tuff of the Yellowstone Plateau by rivers over the last 640,000 years. The Lewis River flows through Lewis Canyon in the south, and the Yellowstone River has carved the colorful Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone in its journey north. The Lewis River is a tributary of the Snake River. The entire course of the river is located within the boundaries of Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming The Yellowstone River is a Tributary of the Missouri River, approximately 671 miles (1080 km long in the western United States. The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone is a large Canyon of the Yellowstone River that is located in Yellowstone National Park in the United States
Yellowstone is at the northeastern end of the Snake River Plain, a great U-shaped arc through the mountains that extends from Boise, Idaho some 400 miles (640 km) to the west. The Snake River Plain is a geologic feature located primarily in the American state of Idaho. Boise (ˈbɔɪsi is the capital and most populous city of the U This feature traces the route of the North American Plate over the last 17 million years as it was transported by plate tectonics across a stationary mantle hotspot. The North American Plate is a Tectonic plate covering most of North America, Greenland and part of Siberia. Plate tectonics (from Greek τέκτων tektōn "builder" or "mason" describes the large scale motions of Earth 's Lithosphere The mantle is a part of an Astronomical object. The interior of the Earth, similar to the other Terrestrial planets, is Chemically divided In Geology, a hotspot is a location on the Earth's surface that has experienced active volcanism for a long period of time The landscape of present-day Yellowstone National Park is the most recent manifestation of this hotspot below the crust of the Earth. In Geology, a crust is the outermost solid shell of a planet or moon 
The Yellowstone Caldera is the largest volcanic system in North America. The Yellowstone Caldera is the volcanic Caldera in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. It has been termed a "supervolcano" because the caldera was formed by exceptionally large explosive eruptions. A supervolcano or super volcanic eruption is a Volcanic eruption which is Orders of magnitude greater than any volcano in historic times (generally accepted to be The current caldera was created by a cataclysmic eruption that occurred 640,000 years ago, which released 240 cubic miles (1,000 km³) of ash, rock and pyroclastic materials. Tephra is air-fall material produced by a volcanic eruption regardless of composition or fragment size This eruption was 1,000 times larger than the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. The 1980 eruption of Mount St Helens, a volcano located in Washington state in the United States was a major volcanic eruption.  It produced a crater nearly a two thirds of a mile (1 km) deep and 52 by 28 miles (85 by 45 km) in area and deposited the Lava Creek Tuff, a welded tuff geologic formation. A volcanic crater is a circular depression in the ground caused by volcanic activity Lava Creek Tuff is a Tuff formation created when the Yellowstone Caldera erupted about 640000 years ago Tuff (from the Italian "tufo" is a type of rock consisting of consolidated volcanic ash ejected from vents during a volcanic eruption The most violent known eruption, which occurred 2. 1 million years ago, ejected 588 cubic miles (2,450 km³) of volcanic material and created the rock formation known as the Huckleberry Ridge Tuff. The Huckleberry Ridge Tuff is a Tuff formation created by the Huckleberry Ridge eruption of a massive caldera encompassing what is now the Yellowstone Caldera.  A smaller eruption ejected 67 cubic miles (280 km³) of material 1. 2 million years ago, forming the Island Park Caldera and depositing the Mesa Falls Tuff. The Island Park Caldera is one of the world's largest Calderas at 18 miles (29 km long and 23 miles (37 km wide 
Each of the three climax eruptions released vast amounts of ash that blanketed much of central North America falling many hundreds of miles away. The Grand Prismatic Spring in Yellowstone National Park is the largest Hot spring in the United States, and the third largest in the world next to The amount of ash and gases released into the atmosphere probably caused significant impacts to world weather patterns and led to the extinction of many species, primarily in North America. In Biology and Ecology, extinction is the cessation of existence of a Species or group of taxa. 
A subsequent minor climax eruption occurred 160,000 years ago. It formed the relatively small caldera that contains the West Thumb of Yellowstone Lake. Later, two smaller eruptive cycles, the last one ending about 70,000 years ago, buried much of the caldera under thick lava flows. 
Each eruption is in fact a part of an eruptive cycle that climaxes with the collapse of the roof of a partially emptied magma chamber. A magma chamber is a large underground pool of molten rock lying under the surface of the earth's crust This creates a crater, called a caldera, and releases vast amounts of volcanic material, usually through fissures that ring the caldera. The time between the last three cataclysmic eruptions in the Yellowstone area has ranged from 600,000 to 900,000 years, but the small number of such climax eruptions cannot be used to make a prediction for future volcanic events. 
Between 630,000 and 700,000 years ago, Yellowstone Caldera was nearly filled in with periodic eruptions of rhyolitic lavas such as those that can be seen at Obsidian Cliffs and basaltic lavas which can be viewed at Sheepeaters Cliff. Morning Glory Pool is a Hot spring in the Upper Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park in the United States (Coords). This page is about a volcanic rock For the ghost town see Rhyolite Nevada, and for the satellite system see Rhyolite/Aquacade. Obsidian Cliff, also known as 48YE433, was an important source of Lithic materials for prehistoric peoples near Mammoth Wyoming. Basalt (bəˈsɔːlt ˈbeisɔːlt ˈbæsɔːlt is a common Extrusive Volcanic rock. Lava strata are most easily seen at the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone, where the Yellowstone River continues to carve into the ancient lava flows. The canyon is a classic V-shaped valley, indicative of river-type erosion rather than erosion caused by glaciation. In Geology, a valley (also called a vale, dale, glen or strath and near or in Appalachia, a draw) is "Glacial" and "Glaciation" redirect here For the geological periods see Glacial period.
The most famous geyser in the park, and perhaps the world, is Old Faithful Geyser, located in Upper Geyser Basin; the park also contains the largest active geyser in the world—Steamboat Geyser in the Norris Geyser Basin. The geothermal areas of Yellowstone include several Geyser basins in Yellowstone National Park as well as other geothermal features such as Hot Steamboat Geyser, in Yellowstone National Park 's Norris Geyser Basin, is the world's tallest currently-active Geyser. The geothermal areas of Yellowstone include several Geyser basins in Yellowstone National Park as well as other geothermal features such as Hot There are 300 geysers in Yellowstone and a total of at least 10,000 geothermal features altogether. Half the geothermal features and two-thirds of the world's geysers are concentrated in Yellowstone. 
In May 2001, the U. S. Geological Survey, Yellowstone National Park, and the University of Utah created the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO), a partnership for long-term monitoring of the geological processes of the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field, for disseminating information concerning the potential hazards of this geologically active region. The University of Utah (referred to locally as ' The U' or ' the U of U') is a publicly funded Research university in Salt Lake 
In 2003, changes at the Norris Geyser Basin resulted in the temporary closure of some trails in the basin. New fumaroles were observed, and several geysers showed enhanced activity and increasing water temperatures. Several geysers became so hot that they were transformed into purely steaming features; the water had become superheated and they could no longer erupt normally.  This coincided with the release of reports of a multiple year United States Geological Survey research project which mapped the bottom of Yellowstone Lake and identified a structural dome that had uplifted at some time in the past. Research indicated that these uplifts posed no immediate threat of a volcanic eruption, since they may have developed long ago, and there had been no temperature increase found near the uplifts.  On March 10, 2004, a biologist discovered 5 dead bison which apparently had inhaled toxic geothermal gases trapped in the Norris Geyser Basin by a seasonal atmospheric inversion. Events 241 BC - First Punic War: Battle of the Aegates Islands - The Romans sink the Carthaginian fleet bringing "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " This was closely followed by an upsurge of earthquake activity in April 2004.  In 2006, it was reported that the Mallard Lake Dome and the Sour Creek Dome— areas that have long been known to show significant changes in their ground movement— had risen at a rate of 1. 5 to 2. 4 inches (4 to 6 cm) per year from mid–2004 through 2006. As of late 2007, the uplift has continued at a reduced rate.  These events inspired a great deal of media attention and speculation about the geologic future of the region. Experts responded to the conjecture by informing the public that there was no increased risk of a volcanic eruption in the near future. 
Yellowstone experiences thousands of small earthquakes every year, virtually all of which are undetectable to people. There have been six earthquakes with at least magnitude 6 or greater in historical times, including a 7. TalkMoment magnitude scale#Real world examples please.--> The moment magnitude scale 5 magnitude quake that struck just outside the northwest boundary of the park in 1959. This quake triggered a huge landslide, which caused a partial dam collapse on Hebgen Lake; immediately downstream, the sediment from the landslide dammed the river and created a new lake, known as Earthquake Lake. A landslide is a geological phenomenon which includes a wide range of ground movement such as rock falls deep failure of slopes and shallow debris flows which can occur Hebgen Lake is a Lake located in Southwest Montana. It is well known for an earthquake which occurred nearby on August 17, 1959, forming Quake Lake (also known as Earthquake Lake) is a Lake in southwestern Montana, United States. Twenty-eight people were killed, and property damage was extensive in the immediate region. The earthquake caused some geysers in the northwestern section of the park to erupt, large cracks in the ground formed and emitted steam, and some hot springs' normally clear water turned muddy.  A 6. 1 magnitude earthquake struck inside the park on June 30, 1975, but damage was minimal. Events 350 - Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, is defeated and killed by troops of the Usurper Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. For three months in 1985, 3,000 minor earthquakes were detected in the northwestern section of the park, during what has been referred to as an earthquake swarm, and has been attributed to minor subsidence of the Yellowstone caldera.  Beginning on April 30, 2007, sixteen small earthquakes with magnitudes up to 2. Events 313 - Roman emperor Licinius unifies the entire Eastern Roman Empire under his rule Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. 7 occurred in the Yellowstone Caldera for several days. These swarms of earthquakes are common, and there have been 70 such swarms between 1983 and 2006.  Seismic activity continues as evidenced by the magnitude 4. 2 quake occurring on March 25, 2008. Events 1199 - Richard I is wounded by a crossbow bolt while fighting France which leads to his death on April 6. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common 
Yellowstone National Park is the centerpiece of the 20 million acre/31,250 square-mile (8,093,712 ha/80,937 km²) Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, a region that includes Grand Teton National Park, adjacent National Forests and expansive wilderness areas in those forests. Greater Yellowstone is the last remaining large nearly intact Ecosystem in the northern Temperate zone of the Earth and is partly located in Yellowstone The pronghorn ( Antilocapra americana) also pronghorn antelope or prong buck, is a species of Ungulate Mammal native to interior Grand Teton National Park is a United States National Park located in northwestern Wyoming, south of Yellowstone National Park. "National forest" redirects here for the National Forest in England see National Forest England; for those in Brazil see List of Brazilian National Forests Wilderness is generally defined as a Natural environment on Earth that has not been significantly modified by Human activity The ecosystem is the largest remaining continuous stretch of mostly undeveloped pristine land in the United States outside of Alaska and is considered to be the world's largest intact ecosystem in the northern temperate zone. Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent  With the successful wolf reintroduction program, which began in the 1990s, virtually all the original faunal species known to inhabit the region when white explorers first entered the area can still be found there.
1,700 species of trees, plants, lichens and other vascular plants are native to the park. Another 170 species are considered to be exotic species and are non-native. An introduced species (also known as naturalized species or exotic species) is an Organism that is not indigenous to a given location but Of the eight conifer tree species documented, Lodgepole pine forests cover 80% of the total forested areas. Lodgepole Pine ( Pinus contorta) is a common Tree in western North America.  Other conifers, such as the douglas fir and whitebark pine, are found in scattered groves throughout the park. Douglas-fir is the common name applied to coniferous Trees of the Genus Pseudotsuga in the family Pinaceae. The Whitebark Pine ( Pinus albicaulis; family Pinaceae) occurs in the mountains of the Western United States and Canada, specifically the As of 2007, the whitebark pine is threatened by a fungus known as white pine blister rust; however, this is mostly confined to forests well to the north and west. A fungus (ˈfʌŋgəs is a eukaryotic Organism that is a member of the kingdom Fungi (ˈfʌndʒaɪ Cronartium ribicola is a Species of rust fungi in the family Cronartiaceae that causes the disease white pine blister rust. In Yellowstone, about seven percent of the whitebark pine species have been impacted with the fungus, compared to nearly complete infestations in northwestern Montana.  Aspen and willow are the most common species of deciduous trees. Aspens are Trees of the willow family and comprise a section of the Poplar genus Populus sect Willows, sallows and osiers form the Genus Salix, around 400 species of Deciduous Trees and Shrubs found primarily Botany Autumn leaf color. See --> In Botany and Horticulture, deciduous Plants, including The aspen forests have declined significantly since the early 20th century, but scientists at Oregon State University attribute recent recovery of the aspen to the reintroduction of wolves which has changed the grazing habits of local elk. 
There are dozens of species of flowering plants that have been identified, most of which bloom between the months of May and September.  The Yellowstone Sand Verbena is a rare flowering plant found only in Yellowstone. It is closely related to species usually found in much warmer climates, making the sand verbena an enigma. The estimated 8,000 examples of this rare flowering plant all make their home in the sandy soils on the shores of Yellowstone Lake, well above the waterline. 
In Yellowstone's hot waters, bacteria form mats of bizarre shapes consisting of trillions of individuals. The Bacteria ( singular: bacterium) are a large group of unicellular Microorganisms Typically a few Micrometres in length bacteria have These bacteria are some of the most primitive lifeforms on earth. Flies and other arthropods live on the mats, even in the middle of the bitterly cold winters. Arthropods are Animals belonging to the Phylum Arthropoda (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, " Joint " Initially, scientists thought that microbes there gained sustenance only from sulfur. Sulfur or sulphur (ˈsʌlfɚ see spelling below) is the Chemical element that has the Atomic number 16 In 2005, researchers from the University of Colorado at Boulder discovered that the sustenance for at least some of the diverse hyperthermophilic species is molecular hydrogen. The University of Colorado at Boulder ( CU-Boulder, UCB officially Colorado and CU colloquially is the Flagship University A hyperthermophile is an organism that thrives in extremely hot environments— from 60 degrees Celsius (140 degrees Fahrenheit upwards Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 
Thermus aquaticus is a bacterium found in the Yellowstone hot springs produces an important enzyme that is easily replicated in the lab and is useful in replicating DNA as part of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process. Thermus aquaticus is a species of Bacterium that can tolerate high temperatures one of several thermophilic bacteria that belong to the Deinococcus-Thermus Enzymes are Biomolecules that catalyze ( ie increase the rates of Chemical reactions Almost all enzymes are Proteins The retrieval of these bacteria can be achieved with no impact to the ecosystem. Other bacteria in the Yellowstone hot springs may also prove useful to scientists who are searching for cures for various diseases. 
Non-native plants sometimes threaten native species by using up nutrient resources. Though exotic species are most commonly found in areas with the greatest human visitation, such as near roads and at major tourist areas, they have also spread into the backcountry. Generally, most exotic species are controlled by pulling the plants out of the soil or by spraying, both of which are time consuming and expensive. 
Yellowstone is widely considered to be the finest megafauna wildlife habitat in the lower 48 states. Yellowstone National Park in the northwest United States is the home of many different Animals that also migrate within the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem The American bison ( Bison bison) is a Bovine Mammal, also commonly known as the American buffalo. Megafauna are species of large Animals ( Greek μεγας large + modern Latin fauna animal The term continental United States refers to the 48 contiguous states located on the North American continent south of the border with Canada plus the District There are almost 60 species of mammals in the park, including the endangered gray wolf, the threatened lynx, and grizzly bears. Mammals ( class Mammalia) are a class of Vertebrate Animals characterized by the presence of Sweat glands, including sweat glands An endangered species is a population of an organism which is at risk of becoming Extinct because it is either few in numbers or threatened by changing environmental or predation The grey wolf or gray wolf ( Canis lupus) also known as the timber wolf or simply wolf, is a Mammal of the order Carnivora Threatened species are any species (including Animals Plants fungi, etc A lynx is any of four medium-sized wild cats. All are members of the Genus Lynx, but there is considerable confusion about the best way to classify The Grizzly Bear (Ursus arctos horribilis, also known as the Silvertip Bear, is a Subspecies of Brown bear (Ursus arctos that lives  Other large mammals include the bison (buffalo), black bear, elk, moose, mule deer, mountain goat, pronghorn, bighorn sheep and mountain lion. The American bison ( Bison bison) is a Bovine Mammal, also commonly known as the American buffalo. The American Black Bear ( Ursus americanus) is the most common Bear Species native to North America. The elk, or wapiti ( Cervus canadensis) is one of the largest Species of Deer in the world and one of the largest Mammals in The moose (North America or elk (Europe Alces alces, is the largest extant Species in the Deer family. The mule deer ( Odocoileus hemionus) is a Deer whose habitat is in the western half of North America. The Mountain Goat ( Oreamnos americanus) also known as the Rocky Mountain Goat, is a large-hoofed mammal found only in North America. The pronghorn ( Antilocapra americana) also pronghorn antelope or prong buck, is a species of Ungulate Mammal native to interior Bighorn Sheep ( Ovis canadensis) is a species of sheep in North America and Siberia with large horns which can weigh up to. The cougar ( Puma concolor) also puma, mountain lion, or panther, depending on region is a Mammal of the Felidae family
The relatively large bison populations are a concern for ranchers, who fear that the species can transmit bovine diseases to their domesticated cousins. The biological Subfamily bovines includes a diverse group of 10 species of medium to large sized Ungulates including domestic Cattle, Bison, Water In fact, about half of Yellowstone's bison have been exposed to brucellosis, a bacterial disease that came to North America with European cattle that may cause cattle to miscarry. Brucellosis, also called undulant fever, or Malta fever, is a highly contagious Zoonosis caused by ingestion of unsterilized Milk The Bacteria ( singular: bacterium) are a large group of unicellular Microorganisms Typically a few Micrometres in length bacteria have Cattle, colloquially referred to as cows, are domesticated Ungulates a member of the Subfamily Bovinae of the family Miscarriage or spontaneous abortion is the natural or spontaneous end of a Pregnancy at a stage where the embryo or fetus is incapable of surviving generally defined The disease has little effect on park bison, and no reported case of transmission from wild bison to domestic livestock has been filed. However, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has stated that Bison are the "likely source" of the spread of the disease in cattle in Wyoming and North Dakota. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS is an operating unit of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA North Dakota ( is a state located in the Midwestern and Western regions of the United States of America. Elk also carry the disease and are believed to have transmitted the infection to horses and cattle.  Bison once numbered between 30 and 60 million individuals throughout North America, and Yellowstone remains one of their last strongholds. Their populations had increased from less than 50 in the park in 1902 to 4,000 by 2003.  The Yellowstone herd is believed to be one of only four free roaming and genetically pure herds on public lands in North America. The other three herds are in the Henry Mountains of Utah, Wind Cave National Park in South Dakota and on Elk Island in Alberta, Canada. The Henry Mountains are located in the southeastern portion of the U The State of Utah (ˈjuːtɔː or) is a western state of the United States. Bison grazing at Wind Cavejpg|right|thumb|Bison grazing on prairie grasses]] Wind Cave National Park is a United States National park north of the town of Hot South Dakota ( is a state located in the Midwestern region of the United States of America. Alberta (ælˈbɝtə is one of Canada's prairie provinces. It became a province on September 1 1905 
To combat the perceived threat, national park personnel regularly harass bison herds back into the park when they venture outside of the area's borders. During the winter of 1996–97, the bison herd was so large that 1,079 bison that had exited the park were shot or sent to slaughter.  Animal rights activists argue that this is a cruel practice and that the possibility for disease transmission is not as great as some ranchers maintain. "Animal liberation" redirects here for other uses see Animal liberation (disambiguation. Ecologists point out that the bison are merely traveling to seasonal grazing areas that lie within the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem that have been converted to cattle grazing, some of which are within National Forests and are leased to private ranchers. APHIS has stated that with vaccinations and other means, brucellosis can be eliminated from the bison and elk herds throughout Yellowstone. 
After the wolves were extirpated from Yellowstone, the coyote then became the park's top canine predator. The coyote (kaɪˈoʊti ˈkaɪoʊt ( Canis latrans) also known as the prairie wolf, is a Mammal of the order Carnivora However, the coyote is not able to bring down large animals, and the result of this lack of a top predator on these populations was a marked increase in lame and sick megafauna. Starting in 1914, in an effort to protect elk populations, the U. S. Congress appropriated funds to be used for the purposes of "destroying wolves, prairie dogs, and other animals injurious to agriculture and animal husbandry" on public lands. Park Service hunters carried out these orders, and by 1926 they had killed 136 wolves, and wolves were virtually eliminated from Yellowstone.  Further exterminations continued until the National Park Service ended the practice in 1935. With the passing of the Endangered Species Act in 1973, the wolf was one of the first mammal species listed. The Endangered Species Act of 1973 ( et seq or ESA is the most wide-ranging of the dozens of United States environmental laws passed in the 1970s 
By the 1990s, the Federal government had reversed its views on wolves. In a controversial decision by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (which oversees threatened and endangered species), Mackenzie Valley wolves, imported from Canada, were reintroduced into the park. The Mackenzie Valley Wolf ( Canis lupus occidentalis) also known as the Rocky Mountain Wolf, Alaskan Timber Wolf or Canadian Timber Wolf is perhaps Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Reintroduction efforts have been successful with populations remaining relatively stable. A survey conducted in 2005 reported that there were 13 wolf packs, totaling 118 individuals in Yellowstone and 326 in the entire ecosystem. These park figures were lower than those reported in 2004 but may be attributable to wolf migration to other nearby areas as suggested by the substantial increase in the Montana population during that interval.  Almost all the wolves documented were descended from the 66 wolves reintroduced in 1995–96.  The recovery of populations throughout the states of Wyoming, Montana and Idaho has been so successful that on Feb 27, 2008 the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service removed the Northern Rocky Mountain wolf population from the endangered species list. 
An estimated 600 grizzly bears live in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, with more than half of the population living within Yellowstone. The grizzly is currently listed as a threatened species, however the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service has announced that they intend to take it off the endangered species list for the Yellowstone region but will likely keep it listed in areas where it has not yet recovered fully. Opponents of delisting the grizzly are concerned that states might once again allow hunting and that better conservation measures need to be implemented to ensure a sustainable population. 
Population figures for elk are in excess of 30,000—the largest population of any large mammal species in Yellowstone. The northern herd has decreased enormously since the mid-1990s, and this has been attributed to wolf predation and causal effects such as elk using more forested regions to evade predation, consequently making it harder for researchers to accurately count them.  The northern herd migrates west into southwestern Montana in the winter. The southern herd migrates southward, and the majority of these elk winter on the National Elk Refuge, immediately southeast of Grand Teton National Park. The National Elk Refuge is located in the US state of Wyoming and was created in 1912 to protect habitat and provide sanctuary for the largest Elk (also The southern herd migration is the largest mammalian migration remaining in the U. S. outside of Alaska.
In 2003, the tracks of one female lynx and her cub were spotted and followed for over 2 miles (3. 2 km). Fecal material and other evidence obtained were tested and confirmed to be those of a lynx. No visual confirmation was made, however. Lynx have not been seen in Yellowstone since 1998, though DNA taken from hair samples obtained in 2001 confirmed that lynx were at least transient to the park. Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA) is a Nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known  Other less commonly seen mammals include the mountain lion and wolverine. The mountain lion has an estimated population of only 25 individuals parkwide.  The wolverine is another rare park mammal, and accurate population figures for this species are not known.  These uncommon and rare mammals provide insight into the health of protected lands such as Yellowstone and help managers make determinations as to how best to preserve habitats.
Eighteen species of fish live in Yellowstone, including the core range of the Yellowstone cutthroat trout—a fish highly sought by anglers. See also Cutthroat Trout The Yellowstone cutthroat trout ( Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri)is a subspecies of the Cutthroat trout ( Oncorhynchus For the computer security term see Phishing. Fishing is the activity of catching Fish.  The Yellowstone cutthroat trout has faced several threats since the 1980s, including the suspected illegal introduction into Yellowstone Lake of lake trout, an invasive species which consume the smaller cutthroat trout. Lake trout ( Salvelinus namaycush) is a freshwater char living mainly in Lakes in northern North America. Introduced species|Weed Invasive species is a phrase with several definitions  Although lake trout were established in Shoshone and Lewis lakes in the Snake River drainage from U. S. Government stocking operations in 1890, it was never officially introduced into the Yellowstone River drainage.  The cutthroat trout has also faced an ongoing drought, as well as the accidental introduction of a parasite—whirling disease—which causes a terminal nervous system disease in younger fish. Myxobolus cerebralis is a Myxosporean Parasite of salmonids ( Salmon, Trout, and their allies that causes whirling disease Since 2001, all native sport fish species caught in Yellowstone waterways are subject to a catch and release law.  Yellowstone is also home to 6 species of reptiles, such as the painted turtle and western rattlesnake, and 4 species of amphibians, including the Boreal Chorus Frog. Reptiles, or members of the class Reptilia are air-breathing Cold-blooded Vertebrates that have skin covered in scales as opposed to hair or feathers "Painted Turtle" is also the name of an imprint of Wayne State University Press. Rattlesnakes are a group of venomous Snakes, genera Crotalus and Sistrurus. Prehistoric amphibian Amphibians (class Amphibia such as Frogs Toads Salamanders Newts Gymnophiona, Sirens and The Boreal Chorus Frog, ( Pseudacris maculata) is a species of chorus frog native to Canada from the west of Lake Superior to western Alberta 
311 species of birds have been reported, almost half of which nest in Yellowstone.  As of 1999, twenty-six pairs of nesting bald eagles have been documented. Extremely rare sightings of whooping cranes have been recorded, however only three examples of this species are known to live in the Rocky Mountains, out of 385 known worldwide. The Whooping Crane ( Grus americana) the tallest North American bird is an Endangered crane species named for its whooping sound and call  Other birds, considered to be species of special concern because of their rarity in Yellowstone, include the common loon, harlequin duck, osprey, peregrine falcon and the trumpeter swan. The Great Northern Diver, known in North America as the Common Loon ( Gavia immer) is a large member of the Loon, or diver Family The Harlequin Duck, Histrionicus histrionicus, is a small sea duck. The Osprey (Pandion haliaetus, also called Sea Hawk, is a diurnal, fish-eating Bird of prey. The Peregrine Falcon ( Falco peregrinus) also known simply as the Peregrine, and historically as the "Duck Hawk" in North America is a The Trumpeter Swan, Cygnus buccinator, is the largest native North American bird if measured in terms of weight and length and is (on average the largest waterfowl species 
Wildfire is a natural part of most ecosystems, and plants found in Yellowstone have adapted in a variety of ways. The Yellowstone fires of 1988 together formed the largest Wildfire in the recorded history of the U A wildfire, also known as a wildland fire, forest fire, brush fire, vegetation fire, grass fire, Peat fire, Douglas fir have a thick bark which protects the inner section of the tree from most fires. Douglas-fir is the common name applied to coniferous Trees of the Genus Pseudotsuga in the family Pinaceae. Lodgepole pines —the most common tree species in the park— generally have cones that are only opened by the heat of fire. Lodgepole Pine ( Pinus contorta) is a common Tree in western North America. Their seeds are held in place by a tough resin, and fire assists in melting the resin, allowing the seeds to disperse. Fire clears out dead and down wood, providing fewer obstacles for lodgepole pines to flourish. Whitebark pine and other species tend to grow in colder and moister areas, where fire is less likely to occur. The Whitebark Pine ( Pinus albicaulis; family Pinaceae) occurs in the mountains of the Western United States and Canada, specifically the Aspen trees sprout new growth from their roots, and even if a severe fire kills the tree above ground, the roots often survive unharmed because they are insulated from the heat by soil.  The National Park Service estimates that in natural conditions, grasslands in Yellowstone burned an average of every 20 to 25 years, while forests in the park would experience fire about every 300 years. 
About thirty-five natural forest fires are ignited each year by lightning, while another six to ten are started by people— in most cases by accident. Lightning is an atmospheric discharge of Electricity, which typically occurs during Thunderstorms and sometimes during volcanic eruptions or Yellowstone National Park has three fire towers, each staffed by trained fire fighters. A fire lookout is a person assigned the duty to look for fire from atop a building known as a Fire lookout tower. The easiest one to reach is atop Mount Washburn, though it is closed to the public. The park also monitors fire from the air and relies on visitor reports of smoke and or flames.  Fire towers are staffed almost continuously from late June to mid-September— the primary fire season. Fires burn with the greatest intensity in the late afternoon and evening. Few fires burn more than 100 acres (40 ha), and the vast majority of fires reach only a little over an acre (0. 5 ha) before they burn themselves out.  Fire management focuses on monitoring dead and down wood quantities, soil and tree moisture, and the weather, to determine those areas most vulnerable to fire should one ignite. Current policy is to suppress all human caused fires and to evaluate natural fires, examining the benefit or detriment they may pose on the ecosystem. If a fire is considered to be an immediate threat to people and structures, or will burn out of control, then fire suppression is performed. 
In an effort to minimize the chances of out of control fires and threats to people and structures, park employees do more than just monitor the potential for fire. Controlled burns are prescribed fires which are deliberately started to remove dead timber under conditions which allow fire fighters an opportunity to carefully control where and how much wood is consumed. Natural fires are sometimes considered prescribed fires if they are left to burn. In Yellowstone, unlike some other parks, there have been very few fires deliberately started by employees as prescribed burns. However, over the last 30 years, over 300 natural fires have been allowed to burn naturally. In addition, fire fighters remove dead and down wood and other hazards from areas where they will be a potential fire threat to lives and property, reducing the chances of fire danger in these areas.  Fire monitors also regulate fire through educational services to the public and have been known to temporarily ban campfires from campgrounds during periods of high fire danger. The common notion in early United States land management policies was that all forest fires were bad. Fire was seen as a purely destructive force and there was little understanding that it was an integral part of the ecosystem. Consequently, until the 1970s, when a better understanding of wildfire was developed, all fires were suppressed. This led to an increase in dead and dying forests, which would later provide the fuel load for fires that would be much harder, and in some cases, impossible to control. Fire Management Plans were implemented, detailing that natural fires should be allowed to burn if they posed no immediate threat to lives and property.
After a wet spring in 1988, by summer, drought began to set in throughout the northern Rockies, creating the driest year on record to that point. Grasses and plants which grew well in the early summer from the abundant spring moisture produced plenty of grass, which soon turned to dry tinder. The National Park Service began firefighting efforts to keep the fires under control, but the extreme drought made suppression difficult. Between July 15 and July 21, 1988, fires quickly spread from 8,500 acres (3,400 ha/13. Events 1099 - First Crusade: Christian soldiers take the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem after the final Events 356 BC - Herostratus sets fire to the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World Year 1988 ( MCMLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar) 3 sq mi) throughout the entire Yellowstone region, which included areas outside the park, to 99,000 acres (40,000 ha/155 sq mi) on the park land alone. By the end of the month, the fires were out of control. Large fires burned together, and on August 20, 1988, the single worst day of the fires, more than 150,000 acres (61,000 ha/230 sq mi) were consumed. Events 636 - Battle of Yarmouk: Arab forces led by Khalid ibn al-Walid take control of Syria and Palestine Year 1988 ( MCMLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar) Seven large fires were responsible for 95% of the 793,000 acres (321,000 ha/1,239 sq mi) that were burned over the next couple of months. A total of 25,000 firefighters and U. S. military forces participated in the suppression efforts, at a cost of 120 million dollars. By the time winter brought snow that helped extinguish the last flames, the fires had destroyed 67 structures and caused several million dollars in damage.  Though no civilian lives were lost, two personnel associated with the firefighting efforts were killed.
Contrary to media reports and speculation at the time, the fires killed very few park animals— surveys indicated that only about 345 elk (of an estimated 40,000–50,000), 36 deer, 12 moose, 6 black bears, and 9 bison had perished. Changes in fire management policies were implemented by land management agencies throughout the U. S. , based on knowledge gained from the 1988 fires and the evaluation of scientists and experts from various fields. By 1992, Yellowstone had adopted a new fire management plan which observed stricter guidelines for the management of natural fires. 
Yellowstone climate is greatly influenced by altitude, with lower elevations generally found to be warmer year round. The record high temperature was 98 °F (37 °C) in 1936, while the coldest temperature recorded is -66 °F (-54 °C) in 1933. Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736 a German Physicist who proposed it in 1724 The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale.  During the summer months of June through early September, daytime highs are normally in the 70 to 80 °F (20 to 25 °C) range, while nighttime lows can go to below freezing (0 °C)—especially at higher altitudes. Summer afternoons are frequently accompanied by thunderstorms. Spring and fall temperatures range between 30 and 60 °F (0 to 20 °C) with cold nights in the teens to single digits (-5 to -20 °C). Winter in Yellowstone is very cold with high temperatures usually between zero to 20 °F (-20 to -5C °C) and nighttime temperatures below zero °F (-20 °C) for most of the winter. 
Precipitation in Yellowstone is highly variable and ranges from 15 inches (380 mm) annually near Mammoth Hot Springs, to 80 inches (2,000 mm) in the southwestern sections of the park. The precipitation of Yellowstone is greatly influenced by the moisture channel formed by the Snake River Plain to the west that was, in turn, formed by Yellowstone itself. The Snake River Plain is a geologic feature located primarily in the American state of Idaho. Snow is possible in any month of the year, with averages of 150 inches (3,800 mm) annually around Yellowstone Lake, to twice that amount at higher elevations. 
Tornadoes in Yellowstone are rare; however, on July 21, 1987, the most powerful tornado recorded in Wyoming touched down in the Teton Wilderness of Bridger-Teton National Forest and hit Yellowstone National Park. A tornado is a violent rotating column of air which is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a Cumulonimbus cloud or in rare cases the base of a Cumulus Events 356 BC - Herostratus sets fire to the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World Year 1987 ( MCMLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar) Teton Wilderness is located in Wyoming, United States. Created in 1964 the Teton Wilderness is located within Bridger-Teton National Forest and consists Bridger-Teton National Forest is located in western Wyoming, United States. The tornado was classified as an F4, with wind speeds estimated at between 207 and 260 mph (333 to 418 km/h). The Fujita scale ( F-Scale) or Fujita-Pearson scale, is a scale for rating Tornado intensity based on the damage tornadoes inflict on human-built structures The tornado left a path of destruction 1 to 2 miles (1. 6 to 3. 2 km) wide, and 24 miles (38 km) long, and leveled 15,000 acres (6,100 ha/23 sq mi) of mature pine forest. 
Yellowstone is one of the most popular national parks in the United States. Since the mid-1960s, at least 2 million tourists have visited the park almost every year.  At peak summer levels, 3,700 employees work for Yellowstone National Park concessionaires. Concessionaires manage nine hotels and lodges, with a total of 2,238 hotel rooms and cabins available. They also oversee gas stations, stores and most of the campgrounds. Another 800 employees work either permanently or seasonally for the National Park Service. 
Park service roads lead to major features; however, road reconstruction has produced temporary road closures. Yellowstone is in the midst of a long term road reconstruction effort, which is hampered by a short repair season. In the winter, all roads aside from the one which enters from Gardiner, Montana, and extends to Cooke City, Montana, are closed to wheeled vehicles. Gardiner is a Census-designated place (CDP in Park County, Montana, United States.  Park roads are closed to wheeled vehicles from early November to mid April, but some park roads remain closed until mid-May.  The park has 310 miles (499 km) of paved roads which can be accessed from 5 different entrances.  There is no public transportation available inside the park, but several tour companies can be contacted for guided motorized transport. In the winter, concessionaires operate guided snowmobile and snow coach tours. A snowmobile (known locally as snowmachine, snowsled or by the Brandname Ski-Doo) is a land vehicle that is commonly propelled by A snow coach is a specialized passenger transport vehicle designed to operate over snow or ice similar to alarge multi-passenger Snowcat that is equipped with bus style  Facilities in the Old Faithful, Canyon and Mammoth Hot Springs areas of the park are very busy during the summer months. Traffic jams created by road construction or by people observing wildlife can result in long delays.
The National Park Service maintains 9 visitor centers and museums and is responsible for maintenance of historical structures and many of the other 2,000 buildings. These structures include National Historical Landmarks such as the Old Faithful Inn built in 1903–04 and the entire Fort Yellowstone - Mammoth Hot Springs Historic District. The Old Faithful Inn is a Hotel located in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, United States, with a clear view of the renowned Old Fort Yellowstone is a former United States Army base that currently serves as the administrative headquarters for the Yellowstone National Park. A historical tour is available at Fort Yellowstone which details the history of the National Park Service and the development of the park. Campfire programs, guided walks and other interpretive presentations are available at numerous locations in the summer, and on a limited basis during other seasons.
Camping is available at a dozen campgrounds with more than 2,000 campsites. Definition Camping describes a range of activities Survivalist campers set off with little more than their boots whereas Recreational vehicle travelers arrive equipped  Camping is also available in surrounding National Forests, as well as in Grand Teton National Park to the south. Backcountry campsites are accessible only by foot or by horseback and require a permit. A backcountry area in general terms is a geographical region that is isolated remote undeveloped difficult to access For the Roman class see Equestrian (Roman Equestrianism refers to the skill of riding or driving Horses This broad description There are 1,100 miles (1,770 km) of hiking trails available. The word 'hiking' is understood in all English-speaking countries but there are differences in usage  The park is not considered to be a good destination for mountaineering because of the instability of volcanic rock which predominates. “Alpinist” redirects here See also Alpinist (magazine Mountaineering is the Sport, Hobby or Profession of Visitors with pets are required to keep them on a leash at all times and are limited to areas near roadways and in "frontcountry" zones such as drive in campgrounds.  Around thermal features, wooden and paved trails have been constructed to ensure visitor safety, and most of these areas are handicapped accessible. The National Park Service maintains a year round clinic at Mammoth Hot Springs and provides emergency services throughout the year. 
Hunting is not permitted, though it is in the surrounding National Forests in season. Horace Marden Albright ( January 6, 1890 – March 28, 1987) was an American Conservationist. Hunting is the practice of pursuing Animals for Food, Recreation, or Trade. Fishing is a popular activity, and a Yellowstone Park fishing license is required to fish in park waters. For the computer security term see Phishing. Fishing is the activity of catching Fish.  Boating is prohibited on rivers and creeks except for a 5 mile (8 km) stretch of the Lewis River between Lewis and Shoshone Lakes, and it is open to non-motorized use only. Yellowstone Lake has a marina, and the lake is the most popular boating destination. 
Other protected lands in the region include Caribou-Targhee, Gallatin, Custer, Shoshone and Bridger-Teton National Forests. Caribou-Targhee National Forest is located in the states of Idaho and Wyoming, with a small section in Utah in the United States. Founded in 1899 Gallatin National Forest is located in south central Montana, United States. Custer National Forest is located primarily in the southern part of the U Shoshone National Forest () is the first federally protected National Forest in the United States and covers nearly 2 The National Park Service's John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway is to the south and leads to Grand Teton National Park. John D Rockefeller Jr Memorial Parkway is a scenic road that connects Grand Teton National Park and Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming, United The famed Beartooth Highway provides access from the northeast and has spectacular high altitude scenery. The Beartooth Highway is an All-American Road that has been called "the most beautiful drive in America" by late CBS correspondent Charles Kuralt Nearby communities include West Yellowstone, Montana; Cody, Wyoming; Red Lodge, Montana; Ashton, Idaho; and Gardiner, Montana. West Yellowstone is a town in Gallatin County, Montana, adjacent to Yellowstone National Park. Cody is a city in Park County, Wyoming, United States. It is named after William Frederick Cody primarily known as Buffalo Bill, from William Red Lodge is a city in and the County seat of Carbon County, Montana, United States. Ashton is a city in Fremont County, Idaho, United States. It is part of the Rexburg Idaho Micropolitan Statistical Area. Gardiner is a Census-designated place (CDP in Park County, Montana, United States. The closest air transport is available by way of Bozeman; Billings, Montana; Jackson; Cody, Wyoming or Idaho Falls, Idaho. Bozeman is a city in and the County seat of Gallatin County, Montana, United States, in the southwestern part of the state Billings is the largest city in the US state of Montana, located in the south-central portion of the state Jackson is a Town located in the Jackson Hole Valley of Teton County, Wyoming, United States. Cody is a city in Park County, Wyoming, United States. It is named after William Frederick Cody primarily known as Buffalo Bill, from William Idaho Falls is the County seat and largest city of Bonneville County, Idaho, United States.  Salt Lake City, 320 miles (515 km) to the south, is the closest large metropolitan area. Salt Lake City is the Capital and the most populous city of the U
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