|(Hou) Qin Wuzhaodi ((後)秦武昭帝)|
|Family name:||Yao (姚; yaó)|
|Given name:||Chang (萇, cháng)|
|Temple name:||Taizu (太祖, taì zǔ)|
|Posthumous name:||Wuzhao (武昭, wǔ zhāo),|
"martial and accomplished"
Yao Chang (姚萇) (331-394), courtesy name Jingmao (景茂), formally Emperor Wuzhao of (Later) Qin ((後)秦武昭帝), was the founding emperor of the Chinese/Qiang state Later Qin. Personal Names in Chinese culture follow a number of conventions different from those of personal names in Western cultures. Personal Names in Chinese culture follow a number of conventions different from those of personal names in Western cultures. Temple names are commonly used when naming most Chinese, Korean ( Goryeo and Joseon periods and Vietnamese (such dynasties as A posthumous name is an honorary name given to royalty nobles and sometimes others in some cultures after the person's death Events By Place Roman Empire Constantine I vigorously promotes Christianity, confiscating the property and valuables of a number Events By Place Roman Empire September 6 — Battle of the Frigidus: Emperor Theodosius I defeats and kills the usurper A Chinese style name, sometimes also known as a courtesy name ( zì) is a given name to be used later in life An emperor (from the Latin " Imperator " is a (male Monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an Empire or another type of Chinese civilization originated in various city-states along the Yellow River ( valley in the Neolithic era The Later Qin ( 384 - 417) was a State of Qiang ethnicity of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Jin Dynasty (265-420 His father Yao Yizhong (姚弋仲) had been a powerful general and Qiang chieftain under the Later Zhao emperor Shi Hu, but after Later Zhao's collapse after Shi Hu's horses death, Yao Chang's older brother Yao Xiang (姚襄) tried to start an independent state but was defeated and killed by Former Qin forces. The Later Zhao ( 319 - 351) was a State of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Jin Dynasty (265-420 in China. Early life Shi Hu's father was named Koumi (寇覓 and was a son of a cousin of Shi Le 's father Zhouhezhu (周曷朱 Yao Chang became a Former Qin general, but after an incident in 384 after the Former Qin emperor Fu Jiān's defeat at the Battle of Fei River, Yao Chang feared that Fu Jiān would kill him and therefore rebelled. Events By Place Roman Empire The Forum of Theodosius I is built in Constantinople. Early life Fú Jiān was born in 337 when the family name was still Pu (蒲 to Fu Xiong (苻雄 and his wife Lady Gou. The Battle of Fei River or “Feishui” ( was a battle in 383, where Fu Jiān (T He subsequently captured and killed Fu Jiān, who had saved his life when Yao Xiang was defeated, causing many historians to view him as a traitor and murderer.
Yao Chang was born in 331, while his father Yao Yizhong (姚弋仲), a major Qiang chief, was a general under the Later Zhao emperor Shi Le. Events By Place Roman Empire Constantine I vigorously promotes Christianity, confiscating the property and valuables of a number The Later Zhao ( 319 - 351) was a State of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Jin Dynasty (265-420 in China. Early life Shi Le was born in 274 -- but was not named Shi Le and certainly not with the family name Shi as it appeared that the Jie did not use family names at the time He was the 24th of Yao Yizhong's 42 sons. He was described as intelligent and deliberate, but uninterested in detail matters. After Later Zhao's collapse, Yao Yizhong submitted to Jin Dynasty (265-420) as a vassal, and, after he died in 351, his son Yao Xiang took over his troops and headed south to submit to Jin command. The Jìn Dynasty ( 265 – 420) one of the Six Dynasties, followed the Three Kingdoms period and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties Events By Place Roman Empire March 15 — Constantius II elevates his cousin Gallus to Caesar, and puts After realizing that the Jin general Yin Hao was greatly suspicious of him, however, Yao Xiang rebelled in 352 and ambushed Yin, and then occupied the cities in the Luoyang region (although not Luoyang itself), intending on establishing himself as the ruler of the region. Yin Hao (殷浩 (d 356 Courtesy name Shenyuan (深源 was a Jin Dynasty (265-420 politician Events By Place Roman Empire The Alamanni and the Franks defeat the Roman army taking control of 40 towns between the Moselle Luoyang ( is a Prefecture-level city in western Henan province, People's Republic of China. During this time, Yao Chang served as one of his strategists. In a battle in 352, Yao Xiang's horse was killed, and Yao Chang yielded his horse to Yao Xiang -- telling Yao Xiang that as long as he was still alive, the enemy would not dare to touch Yao Chang. However, as they were still discussing, they were rescued by their troops.
However, before Yao Xiang could strengthen his rule over the region, the Jin general Huan Wen attacked him in 356 and defeated him, capturing cities that he held and forcing him to abandon the plans to establish himself in the region. Huan Wen (桓溫 (312-373 Courtesy name Yuanzi (元子 formally Duke Xuanwu of Nan Commandery (南郡宣武公 was a general of the Jin Dynasty Events By Place Roman Empire February 8 — Roman authorities make an attempt to arrest Athanasius on the accusation of supporting Instead, He was forced to advanced northwest and then west to face Former Qin, ruled by the ethnically-Di emperor Fu Sheng. The Former Qin ( 351 - 394) was a State of the Sixteen Kingdoms in China. The Di (氐 were an Ethnic group in China. They lived in areas of present-day provinces of Gansu, Qinghai, Sichuan and Shaanxi Before reign Pu Sheng was born to Pu Jiàn in 335 as his third son by his wife the later Empress Qiang. In 357, Yao Xiang advanced into Former Qin territory, and a number of Qiang, Xiongnu, and Han submitted themselves to him. Events By Place Roman Empire Battle of Strasbourg: Caesar Julian leads Roman forces to victory against the The Xiongnu ( Turkish: Doğu Hun were a confederation of nomadic tribes from Central Asia with a ruling class of unknown origin and other subjugated tribes Han Chinese ( are an Ethnic group native to China and by most modern definitions the largest single Ethnic group in the world. Fu Sheng sent a force commanded by Fu Huangmei (苻黃眉), Fu Dao (苻道), Fu Jiān, and Deng Qiang (鄧羌) to resist him. Early life Fú Jiān was born in 337 when the family name was still Pu (蒲 to Fu Xiong (苻雄 and his wife Lady Gou. Initially, Yao Xiang refused to engage them, but after Deng openly insulted him, Yao attacked and fell into a trap and was captured and killed. Yao Chang took over his troops but knew he could not resist, and so surrendered. Initially, Fu Huangmei wanted to execute Yao Chang, but at Fu Jiān's intercession, Yao Chang was spared.
In 357, Fu Jiān overthrew the cruel and whimsical Fu Sheng (who had, in addition to many others, put Fu Huangmei to death even after his great victory) and took the throne himself. Events By Place Roman Empire Battle of Strasbourg: Caesar Julian leads Roman forces to victory against the Sometime early in his reign, Fu Jiān made Yao Chang a general. The first campaign in which he was mentioned by name was in 366, when he assisted Wang Meng in an attack on Jin's Jing Province (荊州, modern Hunan and central and southern Hubei). Events By Place Roman Empire January 2 — The Alamanni cross the frozen Rhine in large numbers invading the Roman Wang Meng (王猛 Pinyin Wáng Měng (325&ndash375 Courtesy name Jinglüe (景略 formally Marquess Wu of Qinghe (清河武侯 ( is a province of China, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting (hence the name Hunan, meaning ( Postal map spelling: Hupeh) is a central province of the People's Republic of China. In 367, he again assisted Wang Meng in attacking the rebels in modern eastern Gansu, who were led by the Qiang general Lian Qi (斂岐), whose subordinates were originally all Yao Yizhong's subordinates and therefore surrendered to him readily. Events By Place Roman Empire Great Conspiracy: A general assault of Saxons, Irish, and Attacotti, combined ( is a province located in the northwest of the People's Republic of China. Fu Jiān made him the governor of Longdong Commandery (隴東, roughly modern Baoji, Shaanxi). Baoji (宝鸡 Pinyin: bǎo jī is a Prefecture-level city in southwest Shaanxi province, China. ( Postal map spelling: Shensi) is a north-central province of the People's Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess In 371, he was part of the campaign against Chouchi's ruler Yang Cuan (楊篡), and in 373, after Former Qin seized the modern Sichuan, Chongqing, and southern Shaanxi from Jin, Yao Chang was made the governor of Ning Province (寧州, modern southern Sichuan). Events By Place Roman Empire The fortified cities of the Danube, with Sirmium at the forefront contribute to stop an invasion Chouchi ( Chinese: 仇池 Pinyin: Chóuchí) is a Chinese local regime of the Di ethnicity in modern-day Gansu Province during the Sixteen Events By Place Roman Empire Quintus Aurelius Symmachus becomes Proconsul of Africa. ( Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in western China with its capital in Chengdu. Chongqing ( Postal map spelling: Chungking; Wade-Giles: Ch'ung-ch'ing) is the largest and most populous of the People's Republic of China ( Postal map spelling: Shensi) is a north-central province of the People's Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess In 376, Yao Chang also assisted Gou Chang (苟萇) in Former Qin's conquest of Former Liang, and in 378 involved in the sieged against the Jin city Xiangyang (襄陽, in modern Xiangfan, Hubei). Events By Place Roman Empire Many Goths appear on the Danube and request entry into the Roman Empire in their flight from the The Former Liang ( 320 – 376) was a State of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Jin dynasty (265–420 in China. Events By Place Roman Empire Mid- February - The Lentienses cross the frozen Rhine invading the Roman Empire. Administration The Prefecture-level city of Xiangfan administers 8 county-level divisions, including 2 districts, 3 county-level cities ( Postal map spelling: Hupeh) is a central province of the People's Republic of China. Sometime during Fu Jiān's reign, he created Yao Chang the Marquess of Yidu.
In 383, Fu Jiān prepared a major attack on Jin, intending to destroy it and unite China. Events By Place The British Isles Niall of the Nine Hostages becomes the first High King of Ireland Roman Yao Chang was one of the few generals who was in favor of the plan, as the vast majority of Fu Jiān's subordinates opposed, including his brother and prime minister Fu Rong -- who specifically was suspicious of Yao Chang and Murong Chui (a general with Former Yan imperial ancestry), neither of whom was of Di ancestry and both of whom favored the attack on Jin. During Former Yan During Murong Hui's and Huang's reigns The future Murong Chui was born in 326 while his father Murong Huang was still the Heir apparent The Former Yan ( 337 - 370) was a State of Xianbei ethnicity during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. Fu Jiān proceeded with the plan despite Fu Rong's opposition, making Fu Rong the commander of the main invasion force. Yao Chang was put in charge of the armies of the southwest (on a separate front away from the main front), and as Fu Jiān was handing out the command assignments, he gave Yao Chang the title General Longxiang (龍驤將軍) -- a title that he himself carried previously when he overthrew Fu Sheng -- and he commented, apparently in a jocular tone:
Another general, Dou Chong (竇衝), immediately objected, stating that it is a bad omen for the emperor to joke, and Fu Jiān grew briefly silent.
Later that year, against the much weaker Jin troops, Fu Rong's forces were nevertheless defeated at the Battle of Fei River -- a battle that Yao Chang was not involved in -- and Fu Rong was killed. The Battle of Fei River or “Feishui” ( was a battle in 383, where Fu Jiān (T In early 384, Murong Chui rebelled in the eastern empire, hoping to reestablish Yan, and upon hearing Murong Chui's rebellion, Murong Chui's nephew Murong Hong rebelled as well, near the Former Qin capital Chang'an. Events By Place Roman Empire The Forum of Theodosius I is built in Constantinople. Era name Yanxing (燕興 yàn xīng 384-385 Personal information Father Murong Jun Chang'an ( is an ancient Capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history. Fu Jiān sent his brother Fu Rui (苻叡) against Murong Hong, assisted by Yao Chang. Yao Chang advocated letting Murong Hong, who was intent on leaving the Guanzhong region to return to his homeland, leave, but the brash Fu Rui insisted on intercepting Murong Hong, and was defeated and killed by Murong Hong. Guanzhong ( 關中) ( lit Center of Passes or Guanzhong Plain historically refers to an area that was closed by Hangu Pass to the east Dasan Pass Yao Chang sent messengers Zhao Du (趙都) and Jiang Xie (姜協) to report the bad news to Fu Jiān -- and Fu Jiān, inexplicably, executed Zhao and Jiang in anger. Yao Chang became fearful and abandoned his troops, gathered the Qiang of the region, and rebelled himself, claiming the title of "Prince of Qin of 10,000 Years" (萬年秦王), thus establishing Later Qin.
Yao Chang initially opted to keep his troops mobile, as he anticipated Murong Hong's Western Yan forces to siege Chang'an and destroy Former Qin and then depart for their homeland, so that he could take Chang'an without major engagements. The Western Yan ( 384 - 394) was a State of Xianbei ethnicity during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. In doing this, he hoped to conserve and increase his strength while his rivals battled. He therefore temporarily placed his capital at Beidi (北地, in modern Tongchuan, Shaanxi), seizing the cities of the modern northern Shaanxi. Tóngchuān (铜川 pinyin: Tóngchuān Shì is a Prefecture-level city located in central Shaanxi Province on the southern fringe of the Northern Shaanxi ( Postal map spelling: Shensi) is a north-central province of the People's Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Despite this, he had periodic battles with Former Qin and Western Yan forces, as Former Qin and Western Yan also battled each other.
In 385, an incident involving the city of Xinping (新平, in modern Xianyang, Shaanxi) helped to further establish Yao Chang's reputation as wily and treacherous. Events By Place Asia Jinsa of Baekje becomes king of the ancient Korean kingdom of Baekje. This article is related to a city for the airport located in the city see Xi'an Xianyang International Airport Xianyang ( Sienyang Hsienyang ( Postal map spelling: Shensi) is a north-central province of the People's Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess The people of Xinping had fought extremely hard to preserve their city for Former Qin when Yao Chang first started sieging the city in late 384. Events By Place Roman Empire The Forum of Theodosius I is built in Constantinople. Eventually, when Xinping ran out of food supplies and military equipment, Yao Chang assured the governor of Xinping commandery, Gou Fu (苟輔), that if he yielded the city, he would be allowed to safely lead the people of Xinping to Chang'an. Gou believed him, but as soon as he exited the city with the 5,000 remaining people, Yao Chang surrounded them with his troops and slaughtered them all, with only a single person who escaped.
In fall 385, Fu Jiān abandoned Chang'an, long under siege by Western Yan, and he sought to try to find food supplies. When he arrived at Wujiang Mountain (五將山, in modern Baoji, Shaanxi), Yao Chang sent his general Wu Zhong (吳忠) to surround Fu Jiān, eventually capturing him and delivering him to Xinping to be imprisoned there. Baoji (宝鸡 Pinyin: bǎo jī is a Prefecture-level city in southwest Shaanxi province, China. ( Postal map spelling: Shensi) is a north-central province of the People's Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Yao Chang tried to persuade him to ceremonially pass the throne to him, but Fu Jiān, angry at Yao's betrayal, refused. Later in 385, Yao sent his soldiers to strangle Fu Jiān. Even Later Qin soldiers mourned Fu Jiān, however, and Yao, in order to pretend as if he did not put Fu Jiān to death, posthumously honored him as Heavenly Prince Zhuanglie (壯烈天王).
Western Yan forces, under its now-emperor Murong Chong, occupied Chang'an, and Western Yan and Later Qin battled on-and-off. Era name Gengshi (更始 gēng shǐ 385-386 Personal information Father Murong Jun However, the Western Yan people were unhappy that Murong Chong was not leading them back to their homeland in the east, and, in 386, Murong Chong was assassinated in a coup and replaced with Deng Sui, who was then assassinated and replaced with Murong Yi, under whom the Western Yan people abandoned Chang'an and headed east. Events By Place Roman Empire Theodosius I concludes peace with Persia, dividing Armenia between them Murong Yi (慕容顗 (d 386 was a ruler of the Chinese / Xianbei state Western Yan. Briefly, Chang'an was held by the Xiongnu chief Hao Nu (郝奴), but Yao Chang then advanced on Chang'an, and Hao surrendered. Yao Chang made Chang'an his capital and claimed the title of emperor. He created his wife Lady She as empress and his son Yao Xing as crown prince. Empress She (蛇皇后 personal name unknown (died 397 was an Empress of the Chinese / Qiang state Later Qin. An emperor (from the Latin " Imperator " is a (male Monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an Empire or another type of Before and during Yao Chang's reign Yao Xing was born in 366 when his father Yao Chang was a general under the Former Qin emperor Fu Jiān. Crown Princess redirects here for the ship see Crown Princess (ship.
For the next few years, Yao Chang would not have complete control over the region, as many Di, Qiang, Xiongnu, and Han generals were still remaining semi-independent throughout the region. Further, in 386, a distant member of Former Qin's imperial Fu clan, Fu Deng, rose in modern eastern Gansu to oppose him, and after the death of Fu Jiān's son Fu Pi that year, claimed imperial title and became the main adversary for Yao Chang. Events By Place Roman Empire Theodosius I concludes peace with Persia, dividing Armenia between them Early career Fu Deng was born in 343 to Fu Chang (苻敞 a distant grandnephew of Former Qin's founder Fu Jiàn, while still under Later Zhao rule ( is a province located in the northwest of the People's Republic of China. Early career Fu Pi was first mentioned in historical records in 357 when his father Fu Jiān overthrew the violent and whimsical emperor Fu Sheng and took the throne with Fu Deng used Yao Chang's killing of Fu Jiān to good propaganda effect, and for several years was quite successful in battles against Yao Chang, although the battles were generally inconclusive in their impact, with neither Fu Deng nor Yao Chang being able to decisively defeat the other. However, Yao Chang was able to gradually subdue the other Former Qin generals of the region, taking advantage of Fu Deng's cautiousness. In 387, for example, after the Former Qin general Fu Zuan (苻纂) was killed by his brother Fu Shinu (苻師奴), Yao Chang took the opportunity to quickly advance against Fu Shinu and defeat him, seizing his troops. For the processor see Intel 80387. Events By Place Roman Empire The widowed Emperor Theodosius I He also, at the same time, seized the remaining cities held by Western Yan west of the Yellow River. The Yellow River or Huang He / Hwang Ho ( Hatan Gol Queen river) is the second-longest river in China (after the Yangtze River) and the
In 389, after losing several battles to Former Qin, Yao Chang became apprehensive and thought that it was Fu Jiān's spirit aiding Former Qin, so he, following Fu Deng's lead, made an image of Fu Jiān and worshipped it, claiming to it that he had killed Fu Jiān only to avenge Yao Xiang and asking for forgiveness. Events By Place Roman Empire All pagan buildings in Alexandria, including the library are destroyed on the order of Theodosius The image did not help Yao Chang, and he eventually cut off its head and sent it to Fu Deng. Later that year, as Fu Deng was pressuring Yao Chang, however, Yao Chang made a surprise attack at night, around Fu Deng's army, against Fu Deng logistics base Dajie (大界, in modern Xianyang, Shaanxi), capturing it and Fu Deng's wife Empress Mao and killing his sons Fu Bian (苻弁) and Fu Shang (苻尚). This article is related to a city for the airport located in the city see Xi'an Xianyang International Airport Xianyang ( Sienyang Hsienyang ( Postal map spelling: Shensi) is a north-central province of the People's Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Empress Mao (毛皇后 personal name unknown (died 389 was an Empress of the Chinese / Di state Former Qin. He initially wanted to make Empress Mao his concubine, but after she cursed him, he executed her. Concubinage is the state of a woman or youth in an ongoing quasi-matrimonial relationship with a man of higher social status While Former Qin and Later Qin would continue to stalemate for the next few years, Fu Deng was unable to again threaten Later Qin's existence from this point on.
In 392, Yao Chang grew ill, and Fu Deng, hearing this, made a major attack on the important Later Qin city Anding (安定, in modern Pingliang, Gansu), but Yao Chang, in his illness, nevertheless faced him in battle, forcing Fu Deng to withdraw -- and then, in the engagement, made a clean evasive maneuver with his troops and disengaged, to Fu Deng's surprise, and Fu Deng commented:
Around the new year 394, Yao Chang died. Events By Place Roman Empire September 6 — Battle of the Frigidus: Emperor Theodosius I defeats and kills the usurper Yao Xing succeeded him.
None (dynasty founded)
|Prince/Emperor of Later Qin|
Yao Xing (Emperor Wenhuan)
Fu Jiān of Former Qin
|Emperor of China (Northern Shaanxi)|
Duan Sui of Western Yan
|Emperor of China (Central Shaanxi)|