Yagan (IPA: /ˈjeɪgən/; rhymes with pagan) (c. 1795–11 July 1833) was a Noongar warrior who played a key part in early indigenous Australian resistance to European settlement and rule in the area of Perth, Western Australia. Events 911 - Signing of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between Charles the Simple and Rollo of Normandy. Year 1833 ( MDCCCXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common The Noongar (alternate spellings Nyungar / Nyoongar / Nyoongah / Nyungah / Nyugah) are an Indigenous Australian people who live Indigenous Australians are descendants of the first known human inhabitants of the Australian continent and its nearby islands. Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia. After he led a series of attacks in which white settlers were killed, a bounty was offered for his capture dead or alive, and he was shot dead by a young settler. A bounty (from Latin bonitās, goodness is a Payment or reward often offered by a group as an incentive for the accomplishment of a task by someone usually not associated Yagan's death has passed into Western Australian folklore as a symbol of the unjust and sometimes brutal treatment of the indigenous peoples of Australia by colonial settlers. Western Australia is a state occupying the entire western third of the Australian continent. History The concept of folklore developed as part of the 19th century ideology of Romantic nationalism, leading to the reshaping of oral traditions to serve modern ideological For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Famous throughout Australia, he is considered a hero by the Noongar people.
Yagan's head was removed and brought to London, where it was exhibited as an "anthropological curiosity". London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Anthropology (/ˌænθɹəˈpɒlədʒi/ from Greek grc ἄνθρωπος anthrōpos, "human" -λογία -logia) is the study of It spent over a century in storage at a museum before being buried in an unmarked grave in 1964. In 1993 its location was identified, and four years later it was exhumed and repatriated to Australia. The exhumation of Yagan's head was the result of a geophysical survey and archaeological dig at a grave site in the Everton Cemetery, Liverpool Since then, the issue of its proper reburial has become a source of great controversy and conflict amongst the indigenous people of the Perth area. To date, the head remains unburied.
A member of the Whadjuk Noongar people, Yagan belonged to a tribe of around 60 people whose name, according to Robert Lyon, was Beeliar. Whadjuk, also called Wadjuk, Whajook and Wadjug, is the name according to Norman Tindale for the Aboriginal group inhabiting Robert Menli Lyon (born 1789 date of death unknown was a pioneering Western Australian settler who became one of the earliest outspoken advocates for Indigenous Australian The Beeliar were a group of Indigenous Australians belonging to the Noongar people of the South West region of Western Australia. Lyon's information is not entirely reliable, however, and it is now thought that the Beeliar people may have been a family subgroup of a larger tribe that Daisy Bates called Beelgar. Daisy May Bates (nee Dwyer, CBE ( 16 October 1859 &ndash 18 April 1951) was an Irish Australian journalist welfare  According to Lyon, the Beeliar people occupied the land south of the Swan and Canning Rivers, as far south as Mangles Bay. The Swan River estuary flows through the city of Perth, in the south west of Western Australia. The Canning River is a major Tributary of the Swan River in southwestern Western Australia. Mangles Bay ( is a Bay of Cockburn Sound in Western Australia. It is evident, however, that the group had customary land usage rights over a much larger area than this, extending north as far as Lake Monger and north-east to the Helena River. This article is about Lake Monger in suburban Perth. It should not be confused with Mongers Lake in east Perenjori in the Mid West region of Western Australia The Helena River is a tributary of the Swan River in Western Australia. The group also had an unusual degree of freedom to move over their neighbours' land, possibly due to kinship and marriage ties with neighbouring tribes. 
Yagan is thought to have been born around 1795. His father was Midgegooroo, an elder of the Beeliar people; his mother was presumably one of Midgegooroo's two wives. Midgegooroo (date of birth unknown died 22 May 1833) was an Indigenous Australian of the Nyungar nation who played a key role in Indigenous Yagan was probably a Ballaroke in the Noongar classification. Noongar classification refers to the classification system in tribal law by which the Noongar, an Indigenous Australian people enforced restrictions on Intermarriage According to Green, he had a wife and two children, but most other sources state that he was unmarried and childless. Described as taller than average with an impressive burly physique, Yagan had a distinctive tribal tattoo on his right shoulder which identified him as "a man of high degree in tribal law".  He was generally acknowledged to be the most physically powerful of his tribe. 
Yagan would have been about 35 years old in 1829 when British settlers landed in the area and established the Swan River Colony. See also 1828 in Australia, other events of 1829, 1830 in Australia and the Timeline of Australian history. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927 Swan River Colony was a British settlement established at the Swan River on the west coast of Australia in 1829 For the first two years of the colony, relations between settlers and Noongars were generally amicable, as there was little competition for resources, and the Noongars welcomed the white settlers as Djanga, the returned spirits of the Noongar dead. As time passed, however, conflicts between the two cultures gradually became more frequent. The settlers took the view that the Noongars were nomads with no claim to the land over which they roamed, and so they considered themselves free to fence off land for grazing and farming. As more and more land was fenced off, the Noongars were increasingly denied access to their traditional hunting grounds and sacred sites, so by 1832 Yagan's family group was unable to approach the Swan or Canning Rivers without danger, because land grants lined the banks. The Swan River Colony, established in June 1829, was the only British Colony in Australia established on the basis of land grants The Noongars' response to the loss of their hunting and gathering grounds was to take the settlers' crops and spear their cattle. Cattle, colloquially referred to as cows, are domesticated Ungulates a member of the Subfamily Bovinae of the family They also developed a taste for the settlers' food, and their constant theft of flour and other food supplies became a serious problem for the colony. In Criminal law, theft (also known as stealing or filching) is the illegal taking of another person's Property without that person's freely-given Flour is a powder made of Cereal grains It is the key ingredient of Bread, which is a staple food in many countries and therefore the availability Another cause of conflict was the Noongar practice of firestick farming, firing the bush to flush out game and encourage germination of undergrowth, which threatened the settlers' crops and houses. Fire-stick farming is a term coined by Australian archaeologist Rhys Jones in 1969 to describe the practice of Indigenous Australians where fire Ladysmith-RFSJPG|right|thumb| Ladysmith NSW RFS fire fighting tanker]]A Bushfire is a Fire that occurs in the bush (collective term for The bush is a term used for rural possibly lawless undeveloped land or country areas in many places such as Australia, New Zealand, Sub-Saharan Africa 
The first significant Aboriginal resistance to white settlement in Western Australia occurred in December 1831 after Thomas Smedley, a servant of farmer Archibald Butler, ambushed some natives who were raiding a potato patch, and shot dead one of Yagan's family group. The potato is a Starchy Tuberous crop Vegetable from the perennial Solanum tuberosum of the Solanaceae A few days later, Yagan, Midgegooroo and others stormed the farmhouse and, finding the door locked, began to break through the mud-brick walls. Inside was another of Butler's servants, Erin Entwhistle, and his two sons Enion and Ralph. After hiding his sons under the bed, Entwhistle opened the door to parley and was instantly speared to death by Yagan and Midgegooroo. Noongar tribal law required that murders be avenged by the killing of a member of the murderer's tribal group, not necessarily the murderer. The spearing of Entwhistle may therefore be understood as retribution under tribal law, as the Noongars would have thought of Butler's household as a family group.  The white settlers, however, saw the act as the unprovoked murder of an innocent man.
In June 1832 Yagan led a party of Aborigines in an attack on two labourers who were sowing a field of wheat alongside the Canning River near Kelmscott. Wheat ( Triticum spp is a worldwide cultivated grass from the Levant area of the Middle East. Kelmscott is a southeastern suburb of Perth, Western Australia. One of the men escaped, but the other, William Gaze, was wounded and later died, possibly through infection of the spear wound. In response to this, Yagan was declared an outlaw with a reward of £20 offered for his capture. Yagan managed to avoid capture until early October 1832, when a group of fishermen enticed Yagan and two of his friends into their boat, then pushed off into deep water. The three Noongars were initially taken to the Perth guardhouse, then later transferred to the Round House at Fremantle. ----The Round House ( is the oldest building still standing in Western Australia. Yagan was sentenced to death, but he was saved by the intercession of a settler named Robert Lyon, who argued that Yagan was defending his land against invasion, and was therefore not a criminal but a prisoner of war, and was entitled to be treated as such. Robert Menli Lyon (born 1789 date of death unknown was a pioneering Western Australian settler who became one of the earliest outspoken advocates for Indigenous Australian At the recommendation of John Septimus Roe, Yagan and his friends were instead exiled on Carnac Island at the Governor's pleasure, under the supervision of Lyon and two soldiers. John Septimus Roe ( May 8 1797 – 28 May 1878) was the first Surveyor-General of Western Australia. Carnac Island, Western Australia ( Is an A Class nature reserve approximately 10 kilometres south west of Fremantle In 1803 French explorer Louis The Governor of Western Australia is the representative in Western Australia of Australia 's Monarch Queen Elizabeth II.
Lyon was convinced that he could civilise Yagan and convert him to Christianity, and hoped to use his tribal standing to obtain the Noongars' acceptance of white authority. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings To this end Lyon spent many hours with Yagan learning his language and customs. However, his efforts were cut short when, after a month, Yagan and his companions escaped by stealing an unattended dinghy and rowing to Woodman Point on the mainland. A dinghy is a type of small Boat, often carried or towed by a larger vessel Woodman Point is a headland on the west Coast of Western Australia. No attempt was made to recapture the men; apparently, the Government considered that they had been sufficiently punished.
In January 1833 two Noongars, Gyallipert and Manyat, visited Perth from King George Sound, where relations between settlers and natives were amicable. King George Sound is the name of a sound on the south coast of Western Australia. Two settlers, Richard Dale and George Smythe, arranged for the men to meet a party of local Noongars in the hope that it might encourage the same friendly relations in the Swan River Colony. On 26 January Yagan led a group of ten formally armed Noongars in greeting the two men near Lake Monger. Events 1340 - King Edward III of England is declared King of France. The men exchanged weapons and held a corroboree, though neither group seemed to understand the language of the other. For the frog of the same name see Corroboree frog. For the Split Enz album see Waiata. Yagan and Gyallipert then competed at spear throwing, Yagan striking a walking stick from a distance of 25 metres.
Gyallipert and Manyat remained in Perth for some time, and on 3 March, Yagan obtained permission to hold another corroboree, this time in the Post Office garden in Perth. Events 1284 - Statute of Rhuddlan incorporated the Principality of Wales into England 1575 - Indian The Perth and King George Sound men met at dusk, chalked their bodies, and performed a number of dances including a kangaroo hunt dance. A kangaroo is a Marsupial from the family Macropodidae (macropods meaning 'large foot' The Perth Gazette wrote that Yagan "was master of ceremonies and acquitted himself with infinite grace and dignity". The West Australian (often simply called The West) is the only locally-edited daily newspaper published in Perth Western Australia, and is owned by 
During February and March, Yagan was involved in a series of minor conflicts with settlers. In February settler William Watson complained that Yagan had pushed open his door, demanded a gun, and taken handkerchiefs, and that Watson had to give him and his companions flour and bread. A handkerchief (also called handkercher or hanky) is a form of a Kerchief, typically a square of fabric that can be carried in the Pocket The following month, he was among a group who received biscuits from a military contingent under Lieutenant Norcott; when Norcott tried to restrict his supply, Yagan threatened him with his spear. Later that month, Yagan was with a group of Noongars that entered Watson's house while he was away. The group left after Watson's wife called on neighbours for help, but were brought back the next day to be lectured about their behaviour by Captain Ellis. The constant conflict prompted The Perth Gazette to remark on "the reckless daring of this desperado who sets his life at a pin's fee . . . For the most trivial offence . . . he would take the life of any man who provoked him. He is at the head and front of any mischief. "
On the night of 29 April, a party of Noongars broke into a Fremantle store to steal flour and were fired upon by the caretaker Peter Chidlow. Events 1429 - Joan of Arc arrives to relieve the Siege of Orleans. Domjum, a brother of Yagan, was badly injured and died in jail a few days later. The rest of the party then moved from Fremantle to Preston Point, where Yagan was heard to vow vengeance for the death. Preston Point is a small headland in the Swan River Western Australia. Between fifty and sixty Noongars then gathered at Bull Creek, within sight of High Road, where they met a party of settlers who were loading carts with provisions. Bull Creek is a Suburb of Perth, Western Australia, located within the local government area of the City of Melville. Later that day, the group ambushed the lead cart, spearing to death two white men, Tom and John Velvick. Tribal law only required a single death; the native Munday later explained that both were speared because they had previously mistreated Aboriginal people. The Velvicks had previously been convicted for assaulting Aboriginal people and coloured seamen. Alexandra Hasluck has also argued that a desire to steal the provisions was an important motive in the attack, but this has been refuted elsewhere. 
For the killing of the Velvicks, the Lieutenant-Governor Frederick Irwin declared Yagan, Midgegooroo and Munday outlaws, offering rewards of £20 each for the capture of Midgegooroo and Munday, and a reward of £30 for Yagan's capture dead or alive. Colonel Frederick Chidley Irwin (1788–1860 was acting Governor of Western Australia from 1847 to 1848 Munday successfully appealed against his proscription. Midgegooroo and Yagan must have realised that they would be hunted by settlers, as their group immediately moved from their territory north towards the Helena Valley. Four days after the murder, Midgegooroo was captured on the Helena River, and after a brief, informal trial was executed by firing squad. Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. Execution by firing squad is a method of Capital punishment, particularly common in times of war Yagan, however, remained at large for over two months.
Late in May, Yagan was seen by George Fletcher Moore on his property in Upper Swan, and the two held a conversation in pidgin English. George Fletcher Moore ( 10 December 1798 – 30 December 1886) was a prominent early settler in colonial Western Australia Upper Swan is a suburb of Perth, Western Australia, located in the City of Swan local government area. A pidgin is a simplified language that develops as a means of communication between two or more groups that do not have a language in common in situations such as Trade English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Yagan then spoke in his own language; Moore wrote:
Yagan stepped forward and leaning with his left hand on my shoulder while he gesticulated with the right, delivered a sort of recitation, looking earnestly into my face. I regret that I could not understand it. I thought from the tone and manner that the purport was this:-
You came to our country; you have driven us from our haunts, and disturbed us in our occupations. As we walk in our own country we are fired upon by the white men; why should the white men treat us so?
Since Moore had little knowledge of Yagan's native language, Hasluck suggests that this conjecture is probably more indicative of "a feeling of conscience on the part of the white men" than an accurate rendering of Yagan's state of mind. 
Yagan then asked Moore whether Midgegooroo was dead or alive. Moore gave no reply, but a servant answered that Midgegooroo was a prisoner on Carnac Island. Yagan responded with a warning: "White man shoot Midgegooroo, Yagan kill three. " Moore made no attempt to capture Yagan other than to report the sighting to the nearest magistrate; he wrote, "The truth is, every one wishes him taken, but no one likes to be the captor . . . there is something in his daring which one is forced to admire. "
On 11 July 1833, two teenage brothers named William and James Keates were herding cattle along the Swan River north of Guildford when a group of Noongars approached on their way to collect their rations of flour from Henry Bull's house. Events 911 - Signing of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between Charles the Simple and Rollo of Normandy. Year 1833 ( MDCCCXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Guildford, a suburb of Perth, Western Australia, was established in 1829 on the Swan River, being sited near a permanent fresh water supply Lieutenant Henry Bull (1799&ndashc 1848 was an early settler in the Swan River Colony. Being on friendly terms with Yagan, the Keates brothers suggested he remain with them to avoid arrest. Yagan remained with them all morning, during which time the boys decided to kill Yagan and claim the reward. William Keates tried once to shoot him but the gun stopped at half-cock; no further opportunity arose before they were rejoined by the other natives. When the natives attempted to depart, the Keates took their last opportunity. William Keates shot Yagan, and James shot another native, Heegan, in the act of throwing his spear. Both boys then ran for the river, but William was overtaken and speared to death. James escaped by swimming the river and returned shortly afterwards with a party of armed settlers from Bull's estate.
Moore records that a party of soldiers passed by the area shortly after the incident, and speculates that they must have "frightened the natives (I supposed) or they would have carried off the bodies". When the party of settlers arrived, they found Yagan dead and Heegan dying. Heegan "was groaning and his brains were partly out when the party came, and whether humanity or brutality, a man put a gun to his head and blew it to pieces. " Yagan's head was then cut from his body, and his back was skinned to obtain his tribal markings as a trophy. The bodies were buried a short distance from where they had been killed.
James Keates successfully claimed the reward, but his actions were widely criticised; The Perth Gazette referred to Yagan's killing as "a wild and treacherous act . . . it is revolting to hear this lauded as a meritorious deed. " Keates departed the colony the following month; the reasons are unknown, but it is possible that he left from fear of being murdered in retaliation.
Yagan's head was initially taken to Henry Bull's house. Moore saw it there and sketched the head a number of times in his unpublished, handwritten diary, commenting that "possibly it may yet figure in some museum at home". The head was then preserved by smoking, by hanging it in a hollow tree over a fire of Eucalyptus wood for three months. Eucalyptus (From Greek ευκάλυπτος meaning "well covered" is a diverse Genus of Trees (and a few shrubs the members of which
In September 1833 Yagan's head was taken to London by Ensign Robert Dale. Lieutenant Robert Dale (1812&ndash 20 July 1853[[ Notes|1]] was the first European explorer to cross the Darling Range in Western According to Paul Turnbull, Dale appears to have persuaded Governor Irwin to let him have the head as an "anthropological curiosity". Colonel Frederick Chidley Irwin (1788–1860 was acting Governor of Western Australia from 1847 to 1848  After arriving in London, Dale approached a number of anatomists and phrenologists attempting to sell the head for £20, claiming that it was worth twice that much. Anatomy (from the Greek anatomia, from ana separate apart from and temnein, to cut up cut open is a branch of Biology that is the consideration Phrenology (from Greek: φρήν phrēn, "mind" and λόγος Logos, "knowledge" is a defunct field of study once Having failed to find a buyer, he then entered into an arrangement with Thomas Pettigrew for the exclusive use of the head for one year. Thomas Joseph Pettigrew (1791–1865 sometimes known as "Mummy" Pettigrew, was a Surgeon and Antiquarian who became an expert on Ancient Pettigrew, a surgeon and antiquarian who was well-known in the London social scene for holding private parties at which he unrolled and autopsied Egyptian mummies, displayed the head on a table in front of a panoramic view of King George Sound that was reproduced from Dale's sketches. An autopsy, also known as a post-mortem examination, necropsy, or obduction, is a Medical procedure that consists of a thorough Examination Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now A mummy is a Corpse whose Skin and Flesh have been preserved by either intentional or Incidental exposure to Chemicals extreme For effect the head was adorned with a fresh corded headband and feathers of the Red-tailed Black Cockatoo. The Red-tailed Black Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus banksii, also known as Banksian- or Bank's Black Cockatoo, is a large Cockatoo native to
Pettigrew also arranged for the head to be examined by a phrenologist. Examination was considered difficult because of the large fracture across the back of the head caused by the gunshot. A bone fracture (sometimes abbreviated # or Fx or Fx) is a medical condition in which a Bone is cracked or broken The findings, which were predictably consistent with contemporary European opinion of Indigenous Australians, were published as part of a pamphlet by Dale entitled Descriptive Account of the Panoramic View &c. of King George's Sound and the Adjacent Country, which Pettigrew encouraged his guests to buy as a souvenir of their evening. A souvenir (from French, for memory) memento or keepsake is an object a traveler brings home for the memories associated with The frontispiece of the pamphlet was a hand-coloured aquatint print of Yagan's head by the artist George Cruikshank. Aquatint is an intaglio Printmaking technique a variant of Etching. George Cruikshank ( September 27, 1792 — February 1, 1878) was an English Caricaturist and book illustrator praised as
Early in October 1835, both Yagan's head and the panoramic view were returned to Dale, who was then living in Liverpool. Liverpool ( is a City and Metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary On 12 October he presented them to the Liverpool Royal Institution, where the head may have been displayed in a case along with some other preserved heads and wax models illustrating cranial anatomy. Events 539 BC - The army of Cyrus the Great of Persia takes Babylon. In 1894 the Institution's collections were dispersed, and Yagan's head was lent to the Liverpool Museum; it is thought not to have been put on display there. World Museum Liverpool is a large Museum in Liverpool, England which has extensive collections covering archaeology ethnology and the natural and physical By the 1960s Yagan's head was badly deteriorated, and in April 1964 the decision was made to dispose of it. On 10 April 1964, Yagan's head was placed in a plywood box, along with a Peruvian mummy and a Māori head, and buried in Everton Cemetery's General Section 16, grave number 296. Events 879 - Louis III becomes King of the Western Franks. 1407 - the lama Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. This article discusses the Māori people of New Zealand For their language see Māori language, and for other meanings see Māori (disambiguation. Everton Cemetery, Long Lane Fazakerley. Opened in July 1880 it has been used for both Church of England and Roman Catholic burials In later years a number of burials were made around the grave, and in 1968 a local hospital buried 20 stillborn babies and two babies who had lived less than twenty-four hours directly over the museum box. A stillbirth occurs when a Fetus which has died in the Uterus or during labor or delivery exits a Woman 's body
For many years, at least since the early 1980s, a number of Noongar groups sought the return of Yagan's head.
It is Aboriginal belief that because Yagan's skeletal remains are incomplete, his spirit is earthbound. The uniting of his head and torso will immediately set his spirit free to continue its eternal journey. 
It was unknown at that time, however, what had happened to the head after it left Pettigrew's possession. In the early 1980s, Ken Colbung was entrusted with the search for the head by tribal elders. Ken Colbung, AM, MBE (born 2 September 1931) also known by his indigenous name Nundjan Djiridjarkan, is an Indigenous Australian In 1985 he engaged Lily Bhavna Kauler as a researcher, and a number of unsuccessful enquiries were made to various United Kingdom museums. In the early 1990s, Colbung enlisted the aid of University of London archaeologist Peter Ucko. The University of London is a university based primarily in London, England, UK. Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek grc ἀρχαιολογία archaiologia – grc ἀρχαῖος archaīos Peter John Ucko FRAI FSA (27th July 1938- 14th June 2007 was Professor Emeritus of Comparative Archaeology, former Executive Director of University College London One of Ucko's researchers, Cressida Fforde, was funded by the Government of Australia to conduct a literature search for information on the head. This article describes the federal government of Australia See Australian governments for other jurisdictions She successfully traced the head in December 1993, and in April the following year, Colbung applied for permission to exhume it under Section 25 of the Burial Act 1857. The Burial Act 1857 is a British Law. It was passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom in 1857. Home Office regulations required next of kin consent for the remains of the 22 babies to be disturbed, but Colbung's solicitors requested that this condition be waived on grounds that the exhumation would be of great personal significance to Yagan's living relatives, and great national importance to Australia. The Home Office is the United Kingdom government department responsible for security and order Next of kin is the term used to describe a person's closest living blood relative or Relatives. A "solicitor" is a term used in many Common law jurisdictions for a lawyer who offers legal services outside of the courts
Meanwhile, divisions in the Perth Noongar community began to show, with Colbung's role in the repatriation questioned by a number of elders, and one Noongar registering a complaint with the Liverpool City Council over Colbung's involvement. See City of Liverpool for other meanings Liverpool City Council is the governing body for the city of Liverpool in Merseyside There was much acrimonious debate within the Noongar community about who had the best cultural qualifications to take possession of the head, some of which was publicly aired. On 25 July a public meeting was held in Perth, where all parties agreed to put aside their differences and co-operate to ensure that the repatriation was a "national success". Events 285 - Diocletian appoints Maximian as Caesar, co-ruler A Yagan Steering Committee was established to co-ordinate the repatriation, and Colbung's application was allowed to proceed.
In January 1995 the Home Office advised Colbung that it was unable to waive the necessity of obtaining next of kin consent for the exhumation. It then contacted the five relatives whose addresses were known, receiving unconditional consent from only one. Accordingly, on 30 June 1995, Colbung and the other interested parties were advised that the application for exhumation had been rejected. Events 350 - Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, is defeated and killed by troops of the Usurper Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 
The Yagan Steering Committee then met on 21 September and decided to proceed by lobbying Australian and British politicians for support. Events 1217 - The Estonian tribal leader Lembitu of Lehola was killed in a battle against Teutonic Knights. This approach led to an invitation for Colbung to visit the United Kingdom at the British government's expense. Colbung arrived in the United Kingdom on 20 May 1997. Events 325 - The First Council of Nicaea &ndash the first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church is held Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar His visit attracted substantial media coverage and increased the political pressure on the British Government. It also allowed him to secure the support of the former Prime Minister of Australia, John Howard, after gate crashing the Prime Minister's June visit to the United Kingdom. The Prime Minister of Australia is the Head of government of the Commonwealth of Australia, holding office on commission from the Governor-General. See also Howard Government John Winston Howard AC (born 26 July 1939 was the 25th Prime Minister of Australia from 11 March
While Colbung was in the United Kingdom, Martin and Richard Bates were engaged to undertake a geophysical survey of the grave site. Geophysics, a major discipline of Earth sciences, is the study of the Earth by quantitative physical methods especially by seismic, electromagnetic Using electromagnetic and ground penetrating radar techniques, they identified an approximate position of the box that suggested it could be accessed from the side via the adjacent plot. Electromagnetism is the Physics of the Electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a Force on particles that possess the property of Ground-penetrating radar ( GPR) is a geophysical method that uses Radar pulses to image the subsurface A report of the survey was passed to the Home Office, prompting further discussions between the British and Australian Governments. 
Of concern to the Home Office were an undisclosed number of letters that it had received objecting to Colbung's involvement in the repatriation process; it therefore sought assurances from the Australian Government that Colbung was a correct applicant. In response Colbung asked his elders to ask the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission (ATSIC) to tell the British Home Office that he was the correct applicant. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission ( ATSIC) ( 1990 &ndash 2005) was the Australian Government body through which Aboriginal ATSIC then convened a meeting in Perth at which it was again resolved that Colbung's application could proceed.
Colbung continued to press for the exhumation, asking that it be performed before the 164th anniversary of Yagan's death on 11 July, so that the anniversary could be the occasion of a celebration. Events 911 - Signing of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between Charles the Simple and Rollo of Normandy. His request was not met, and on the anniversary of Yagan's death, Colbung conducted a short memorial service at the burial plot in Everton. He returned to Australia empty-handed on 15 July. Events 1099 - First Crusade: Christian soldiers take the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem after the final
The exhumation of Yagan's head eventually proceeded, without Colbung's knowledge, by excavating six feet down the side of the grave, then tunnelling horizontally to the location of the box. The exhumation of Yagan's head was the result of a geophysical survey and archaeological dig at a grave site in the Everton Cemetery, Liverpool Thus the exhumation was performed without disturbing any other remains. The following day, a forensic palaeontologist from the University of Bradford positively identified the skull as Yagan's by correlating the fractures with those described in Pettigrew's report. Palaeontology redirects here For the Scientific journal, see Palaeontology (journal. The University of Bradford (est 1966 is a University in Bradford, West Yorkshire in the United Kingdom.  The skull was then kept at the museum until 29 August, when it was handed over to the Liverpool City Council. Events 708 - Copper coins are minted in Japan for the first time (Traditional Japanese date: August 10, 708)
On 27 August 1997, a delegation of Noongars consisting of Ken Colbung, Robert Bropho, Richard Wilkes and Mingli Wanjurri-Nungala arrived in the UK to collect Yagan's head. Events 479 BC - Greco-Persian Wars: Persian forces led by Mardonius are routed by Pausanias, the Spartan Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar Robert Charles Bropho (born 1930 is an Indigenous Australian and activist and convicted serial child sex offender from Perth Western Australia. The delegation was to have been larger, but Commonwealth funding was withdrawn at the last minute. The handover of Yagan's skull was further delayed, however, when a Noongar named Corrie Bodney applied to the Supreme Court of Western Australia for an injunction against the handover. The Supreme Court of Western Australia is the highest state court in the Australian State of Western Australia. Claiming that his family group has sole responsibility for Yagan's remains, Bodney declared the exhumation illegal and denied the existence of any tradition or belief necessitating the head's exhumation and removal to Australia. Another Noongar, Albert Corunna, then came forward with a claim to be Yagan's closest living relative. The Supreme Court had no power to grant an emergency injunction binding the Government of the United Kingdom, so instead it asked the Government of Western Australia to object formally to the handing over of Yagan's remains. Her Majesty's Government, or when the monarch is male His Majesty's Government, is the title used by the Government of the United Kingdom, based at The formation of the Government of Western Australia is prescribed in its Constitution which dates from 1890 although it has been amended many times since then The United Kingdom Government responded favourably to the objection, agreeing to withhold the head until the injunction application had been considered. On 29 August the court rejected the injunction application, on the grounds that Bodney had previously agreed to the current arrangements, and on the evidence of another Noongar elder and an anthropologist, both of whom refuted Bodney's claim to sole responsibility. Events 708 - Copper coins are minted in Japan for the first time (Traditional Japanese date: August 10, 708) 
Yagan's skull was handed over to the Noongar delegation at a ceremony at the Liverpool Town Hall on 31 August 1997. The Liverpool Town Hall is a Grade I Listed Building built in a striking style of architecture Events 1056 - Byzantine Empress Theodora becomes ill dying suddenly a few days later without children to succeed the Throne Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar In accepting the skull, Colbung made comments that allegedly linked Yagan's death with the death of Princess Diana, who had died that day:
Because the Poms did the wrong thing they have to suffer. They have to learn too, to live with it as we did and that is how nature goes.
Colbung's comments prompted a media furore throughout Australia, with newspapers receiving many letters from the public expressing shock and anger at the comments. Colbung later claimed that his comments had been misinterpreted.
On its return to Perth, Yagan's head continued to be a source of controversy and conflict. Responsibility for reburial of the head was given to a "Committee for the Reburial of Yagan's Kaat", headed by Richard Wilkes. However, the reburial was delayed by disputes between elders over the burial location, mainly due to uncertainty of the whereabouts of the rest of his body, and disagreement about the importance of burying the head with the body.
A number of attempts were made to locate the remains of Yagan's body, which are believed to be on a property on West Swan Road in the outer Perth suburb of Belhus. Belhus is a suburb of Perth, Western Australia. It is in the City of Swan local government area. A remote sensing survey of the site was carried out in 1998, but no remains were found. Remote sensing is the small or large-scale acquisition of information of an object or phenomenon by the use of either recording or real-time sensing device(s that is not in physical An archaeological survey of the area was undertaken two years later, but this also was unsuccessful.  Disputes then arose over whether the head could be buried separately from the body. Wilkes has claimed that it can, so long as it is placed where Yagan was killed, so that Dreamtime spirits can reunite the remains. The traditions and lore of Australia's indigenous peoples belongs to what may be the oldest continuous culture on Earth (circa 50000 years 
In 1998 the Western Australian Planning Commission and the Department of Aboriginal Affairs jointly published a document entitled Yagan's Gravesite Master Plan, which discussed "matters of ownership, management, development and future use" of the property on which Yagan's remains are believed to be buried. Under consideration was the possibility of turning the site into an indigenous burial site, to be managed by the Metropolitan Cemeteries Board.
To date, Yagan's head remains unburied. It spent some time in storage in a bank vault, before being handed over to forensics experts who reconstructed a model from it. Since then it has been in storage at Western Australia's state mortuary. Plans to re-bury the head have been deferred or delayed numerous times, and this has caused ongoing conflict between Noongar groups. The reburial committee have been accused of acting against the wishes of the Noongar community, by deferring its burial in the hope of making money out of it with elaborate parks and monuments. Richard Wilkes, however, says that the committee has direct kinship lines to Yagan, and wants the head to be buried properly, but has been delayed by searches and burial site negotiations. Alternative proposals have been put forward: for example, early in 2006 Ken Colbung called for the head to be cremated and the ashes scattered on the Swan River. Cremation is the act of reducing a Corpse by burning, generally in a crematorium furnace or crematory fire  In June 2006, Wilkes stated that the head would be buried by July 2007. 
Yagan is now a famous historical figure throughout Australia, with material about him appearing in such publications as the Australian Dictionary of Biography, and Western Australia's school curriculum. The Australian Dictionary of Biography (ADB or AuDB is a multi-volume project published by Melbourne University Press. In formal education a curriculum (plural curricula) is the set of courses and their content offered at a School or University.  He is of greatest significance, however, to the Noongar people, for whom he is "a revered, cherished and heroic individual. . . patriot and visionary hero of WA's South-West". 
On 6 September 1997 The West Australian published a Dean Alston cartoon entitled Alas Poor Yagan, which was critical of the fact that the return of Yagan's head had become a source of conflict between Noongars instead of fostering unity. Events 3114 BC - According to the Proleptic Julian calendar the current era in the Maya Long Count Calendar started Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar The West Australian (often simply called The West) is the only locally-edited daily newspaper published in Perth Western Australia, and is owned by Dean John Douglas Alston (born 1950) is an Australian Cartoonist who joined The West Australian newspaper in 1986. The word cartoon has various meanings based on several very different forms of Visual art and Illustration. Alas Poor Yagan is an Editorial cartoon, drawn by Dean Alston and published in The West Australian Newspaper on 6 September The cartoon could also be interpreted as insulting aspects of Noongar culture, and casting aspersions on the motives and legitimacy of indigenous Australians with mixed racial heritage. The content of the cartoon offended many indigenous Australians, and a group of Noongar elders complained about the cartoon to the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission. The commission ruled that the cartoon made inappropriate references to Noongar beliefs but did not breach racial discrimination law. List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society  This ruling was upheld on appeal by the Federal Court of Australia. The Federal Court of Australia is the Australian court in which most civil disputes and some summary criminal matters governed by federal law are decided 
From the mid-1970s, members of the Noongar community lobbied for the erection of a statue of Yagan as part of the WAY 1979 sesquicentennial celebrations. A statue is a Sculpture in the round representing a person or persons an animal or an event normally full-length as opposed to a bust, and at least close to life-size WAY '79, also referred to as WAY 79 and WAY 1979, was the official 1979 sesquicentennial (150th anniversary celebration of the establishment Their requests were refused, however, after then Premier of Western Australia Sir Charles Court was advised by local historians that Yagan was not important enough to warrant a statue. The Premier of Western Australia is the head of the executive government in the Australian State of Western Australia. Sir Charles Walter Michael Court, AK, KCMG, OBE, ( 29 September 1911 &ndash 22 December 2007) was a Western Colbung claims "Court was more interested in spending tax payers' money on refurbishing the badly neglected burial place of Captain James Stirling, WA's first governor. Bold text' ]] ==Family background==He was the fifth son of eight of the fifteen children of Andrew Stirling Esq " Despite this setback, the Noongar community persisted, establishing a Yagan Committee and running a number of fund-raising drives. Eventually, sufficient funds were collected to allow the commissioning of Australian sculptor Robert Hitchcock to create a statue. The result was a life-size statue in bronze, depicting Yagan standing naked with a spear held across his shoulders. Bronze is any of a broad range of Copper alloys, usually with Tin as the main additive but sometimes with other elements such as Phosphorus Hitchcock's statue of Yagan was officially opened by Yagan Committee chairperson Elizabeth Hanson on 11 September 1984. Events 9 - The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest ends 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul Year 1984 ( MCMLXXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar) It stands on Heirisson Island in the Swan River near Perth. Heirisson Island is an island in the Swan River in Western Australia at the eastern end of Perth Water (
In 1997, within a week of the return of Yagan's head to Perth, vandals beheaded the statue and stole the head. After restoration of the statue, it was beheaded for a second time. Since receiving a second restoration, it has been left unharmed. To date, the Western Australia Police have not succeeded in identifying the vandals or recovering the bronze heads, although credit for the act was anonymously claimed by a "British loyalist" as an act of retaliation for Colbung's comments about Princess Diana. The Western Australia Police services an area of 25 million square kilometres the world's largest non-federated area of jurisdiction
In 2002 Member of the Western Australian Legislative Assembly Janet Woollard called for the statue's private parts to be covered up, but nothing was done. In Western Australia, a Member of the Legislative Assembly or MLA is a person elected to sit in the Western Australian Legislative Assembly, the lower house Janet May Woollard (born February 13 1955) is the sitting member for the seat of Alfred Cove in the Western Australian Legislative Assembly An intimate or private part is a place on the human body which it is usually customary to keep covered with Clothing in public areas as a matter of Decency In November 2005 Richard Wilkes again called for the statue's private parts to be covered, on the grounds that such a depiction would be more historically accurate as Yagan would have worn a covering for most of the year. Also under consideration is the creation of a new statue with a head shape that accords better with the forensic reconstruction of Yagan's head. 
Mary Durack published a fictionalised account of Yagan's life in her 1964 children's novel The Courteous Savage: Yagan of the Swan River. Mary Durack, ( 20 February 1913 &ndash 16 December 1994) was an Australian Author and Historian.  When reissued in 1976, it was renamed Yagan of the Bibbulmun because the word "Savage" was by then considered racist. List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that
The repeated beheading of Yagan's statue in 1997 prompted indigenous writer Archie Weller to write a short story entitled Confessions of a Headhunter. Archie Weller (born 13 July 1957 is an Australian award winning writer of novels short stories and screen plays Weller later worked with film director Sally Riley to adapt the story into a script, and in 2000 a 35 minute movie, also named Confessions of a Headhunter, was released.  Directed by Sally Riley, the movie won Best Short Fiction Film at the 2000 AFI Awards. The Australian Film Institute Awards (often abbreviated to AFI Awards) are awards of merit presented annually by the Australian Film Institute. The following year the script won the Script Award in the 2001 Western Australian Premier's Book Awards. The Western Australian Premier's Book Awards is an award for books and scripts written by Western Australians or about Western Australia
In 2002 the South African-born Australian poet John Mateer published his fourth collection of poems, entitled Loanwords. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa A poet is a person who writes Poetry. Etymology From the Ancient greek: ποιέω, poieō: "I make or compose" John Mateer (born 1971 is a South African born Australian Poet and Author.  The collection is divided into four sections, of which the third, In the Presence of a Severed Head, has Yagan as its subject.
In September 1989 an early maturing cultivar of barley, bred by the Western Australian Department of Agriculture for performance on sandy soils, was released under the name "Hordeum vulgare (Barley) c. Barley ( Hordeum vulgare) is an annual Cereal Grain, which serves as a major animal Feed crop, with smaller amounts used for v. Yagan".  Commonly referred to simply as "Yagan", the cultivar is named for Yagan, continuing a tradition of labeling Western Australian grain cultivars after historic people of Western Australia.
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Egan, Eagan|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Noongar warrior|
|DATE OF BIRTH||c. 1795|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Western Australia|
|DATE OF DEATH||11 July 1833|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Belhus, Western Australia|
Western Australia is a state occupying the entire western third of the Australian continent. Events 911 - Signing of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between Charles the Simple and Rollo of Normandy. Year 1833 ( MDCCCXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Belhus is a suburb of Perth, Western Australia. It is in the City of Swan local government area.