The xylophone (from the Greek words ξύλον - xylon, "wood" + φωνή - phone, "voice", meaning "wooden sound") is a musical instrument in the percussion family which probably originated in Indonesia. The kulintang a kayo (literally “wooden Kulintang ” is a Philippine Xylophone of the Maguindanaon people with eight tuned slabs arranged horizontally atop a wooden The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making Music. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia.  It consists of wooden bars of various lengths that are struck by plastic, wooden, or rubber mallets. Each bar is tuned to a specific pitch of the musical scale. In Music, a scale is a group of musical notes collected in ascending and descending order that provides material for or is used to conveniently represent part or all Xylophone can refer to western style concert xylophones or to one of the many wooden mallet percussion instruments found around the world. Xylophones are tuned to different scale systems depending on their origin, including pentatonic, heptatonic, diatonic, or chromatic. A pentatonic scale is a musical scale with five pitches per Octave in contrast to an heptatonic (seven note scale such as the Major scale A heptatonic scale is a musical scale with seven pitches per octave In Music theory, a diatonic scale (from the Greek διατονικος, meaning " through tones" also known as the heptatonia prima and The chromatic scale is a Musical scale with twelve pitches each a Semitone or Half step apart The arrangement of the bars is generally from low (longer bars) to high (shorter bars).
The xylophone is an ancient instrument that originated independently in Africa and Asia. Wooden bars were originally seated on a series of hollow gourds, and the gourds generated the resonating notes that are produced on modern instruments by metal tubes. For centuries, xylophone makers struggled with methods of tuning the wooden bars. Old methods consisted of arranging the bars on tied bundles of straw, and, as still practiced today, placing the bars adjacent to each other in a ladder-like layout. Ancient mallets were made of willow wood with spoon-like bowls on the beaten ends.
Java and Bali use xylophones (called gambang) in gamelan ensembles. A gambang, properly called a gambang kayu ('wooden gambang' is a Xylophone -like instrument used among peoples of Indonesia and the southern Philippines A gamelan is a musical ensemble of Indonesia typically featuring a variety of instruments such as metallophones xylophones drums and gongs bamboo flutes bowed and Still have traditional significance in Africa, Malaysia, Melanasia, Center Valley, Indonesia, and regions of the Americas.
It is likely that the xylophone reached Europe during the Crusades and the earliest historical reference in Europe is in 16th Century Germany in organist Arnold Schlick's Spiegel der Orgelmacher und Organisten.  The earliest known model was from the 9th Century in southeast Asia (However, a model of a hanging wood instrument exists, dated to ca. 2000 BC in China. ) 
The xylophone, which had been known in Europe since the Middle Ages, was by the 19th Century associated largely with the folk music of Eastern Europe, notably Poland and Eastern Germany. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. By 1830, the xylophone had been popularized to some extent by a Russian virtuoso named Michael Josef Gusikov, who through extensive tours had made the instrument known. Michal Josef Gusikov (born Yehiel-Michl also spelt Guzikow or Gusikow ( 2 September 1806 - 21 October 1837) was a Klezmer who His instrument was the five-row “continental style” xylophone made of 28 crude wooden bars, arranged in semi-tones in the form of a trapezoid, and resting on straw supports. It was sometimes called the “strohfiedel” or “straw fiddle”. There were no resonators and it was played with spoon shaped sticks. According to musicologist, Curt Sachs, Gusikov performed in garden concerts, variety shows, and as a novelty at symphony concerts. Certainly in the 1830’s a xylophone solo was a novelty. Noted musicians, including Felix Mendelssohn, Frederic Chopin, and Franz Liszt spoke very highly of Gusikov’s performances. Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3 1809 &ndash November 4 1847 was a German Composer Perhaps due to his great influence, xylophonists continued to be featured in theater shows and concert halls until well into the 20th century
The xylophone is a precursor to the vibraphone, which was developed in the 1920s. The vibraphone, sometimes called the vibraharp or simply the vibes, is a Musical instrument in the mallet subfamily of the percussion family
Other forms of "xylophone" include xylophonist, and xylophoning.
2000BC – First xylophone artifacts: Wood harmonicon with 16 suspended wood bars found in China Xylophone-like 'ranat' of Hindi regions. Numerous temple reliefs of musicians playing xylophones support these evidences.
1300 – First written account
1500 – First brought to Europe, and then Latino countries by African slaves between 1500-1700A. D. It evolved in Central and South America into the marimba.
1511 – First European mention by German composer Arnolt Schlick; also listed by Praetorius in his catalogue of musical instruments (a. k. a. , Strohfideln, or Hulzen G'lachter, or Gigelyra, or straw fiddle )
1866, April 7 – The word xylophone is coined, recorded in the Athenaeum: "A prodigy . Events 529 - First draft of Corpus Juris Civilis (a fundamental work in Jurisprudence) is issued by Eastern Roman Emperor . . who does wonderful things with little drumsticks on a machine of wooden keys, called the 'xylophone. ’"
1874 – The first usage of the European-derived orchestral by Charles Camille Saint-Saens in 'Danse Macabre'.
1910 – 1940 golden age, a favorite in vaudeville and ragtime. Famous xylophonists of the era include George Cary, George Hamilton Green, and Harry Breuer. It was displaced in jazz by the vibraphone.
The modern western-style xylophone has bars made of rosewood or more commonly, kelon, an extremely durable fiberglass that allows a louder sound at the expense of tone quality. Some xylophones can be as small as 2 1/2 octaves but concert xylophones are typically 3 1/2 or 4 octaves.
Concert xylophones have resonators below the bars to enhance the tone and sustain. A resonator is a device or system that exhibits Resonance or resonant behavior that is it naturally oscillates at some frequencies, called its resonance Frames are made of wood or cheap steel tubing; more expensive xylophones feature height adjustment and more stability in the stand.
In other music cultures, xylophones have wooden bars and a wooden frame. Wood is hard fibrous lignified structural tissue produced as secondary Xylem in the stems of Woody plants notably trees but also shrubs Some versions have resonators made of gourds. This article refers to the Dried fruit shell For the alternative country musical group of a similar name see The Gourds.
Western-style xylophones are characterised by a bright, sharp tone and high register. Modern xylophones include resonating tubes below the bars. A resonator is a device or system that exhibits Resonance or resonant behavior that is it naturally oscillates at some frequencies, called its resonance A xylophone with a range extending downwards into the marimba range is called a xylorimba. The xylorimba (sometimes referred to as xylo-marimba or marimba-xylophone) is a pitched percussion instrument corresponding to a Xylophone
Sometimes xylophones are constructed using whale bones as a base with a halibut backbone mallet.