Xenophobia is a fear or contempt of that which is foreign or unknown, especially of strangers or foreign people.  It comes from the Greek words ξένος (xenos), meaning "foreigner," "stranger," and φόβος (phobos), meaning "fear. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly " The term is typically used to describe a fear or dislike of foreigners or of people significantly different from oneself. In US law, an alien is a legal term for a person, either a corporation or a human who is not a United States national.
As with all phobias, a xenophobic person is aware of the fear, and therefore has to genuinely think or believe at some level that the target is in fact a foreigner. Phobias Phobias (in the clinical meaning of the term are the most common form of Anxiety disorders An American study by the National Institute of Mental Health This arguably separates xenophobia from racism and ordinary prejudice in that someone of a different race does not necessarily have to be of a different nationality. List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that The word prejudice refers to prejudgment making a decision before becoming aware of the relevant facts of a case or event In various contexts, the terms "xenophobia" and "racism" seem to be used interchangeably, though they can have wholly different meanings (xenophobia can be based on various aspects, racism being based solely on race and ancestry).
For xenophobia there are two main objects of the phobia. The first is a population group present within a society that is not considered part of that society. Often they are recent immigrants, but xenophobia may be directed against a group which has been present for centuries. Immigration refers to the movement of people among countries While the movement of people has existed throughout human history at various levels modern immigration implies long-term This form of xenophobia can elicit or facilitate hostile and violent reactions, such as mass expulsion of immigrants, or in the worst case, genocide. Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction in whole or in part of an ethnic racial religious or national group
The second form of xenophobia is primarily cultural, and the objects of the phobia are cultural elements which are considered alien. All cultures are subject to external influences, but cultural xenophobia is often narrowly directed, for instance at foreign loan words in a national language. It rarely leads to aggression against individual persons, but can result in political campaigns for cultural or linguistic purification. Isolationism, a general aversion of foreign affairs, is not accurately described as xenophobia. Isolationism is a Foreign policy which combines a non-interventionist military policy and a political policy of Economic nationalism ( Protectionism
Germany has had a long history of tensions with minorities, the most infamous being under the Nazi regime of Adolf Hitler in which Jews, Roma, Slavs, coloured people and other minorities were initially persecuted and later mass-murdered in the genocide known as The Holocaust. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Representational Oligonucleotide Microarray Analysis ( ROMA) is a technique that was developed by Michael Wigler and Rob Lucito at the Cold Spring Harbor In the South African Namibian Zambian Botswanan and Zimbabwean context the term Coloured (also known as Bruinmense The Holocaust (from the Greek el ''ὁλόκαυστον'' (el-Latn holókauston holos, "completely" and kaustos, "burnt" also known as Both prior and since the Nazi regime, German society has contained elements of society which have endorsed xenophobic nationalism and blame Germany's historical and present problems on minorities and have sought to remove them from public life and from the country in general. As of present, various neo-Nazi and xenophobic nationalist groups and political organizations in Germany have been known to intimidate minorities. The term neo-Nazism refers to post- World War II Political movements Social movements and ideologies seeking to revive Nazism,
From 1641 to 1853, Japan had a policy of exclusion of virtually all foreigners (not merely an avoidance of foreign relations), known as 'national closure', or sakoku. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Sakoku ( Japanese: 鎖国 literally "country in chains" or "lock up of country" was the Foreign relations policy of Japan under which In the early 19th century, Mito scholars advocated jōi, the forceful expulsion of 'barbarians', though almost none existed there. By the middle of the 19th century, with outside pressure mounting, some Japanese scholars and leaders tied 'Western Learning' and 'Nativist Studies' (kokugaku) to a goal of nation building.  Nihonjinron, a widely popular type of nonfiction literature emerging in the second half of the 20th century, has been described as xenophobic, though most of the works in the genre lack this element. The term literally means theories/discussions about the Japanese.
According to an Amnesty International, the United Nations and The Human Rights Watch, physical attacks against Haitians have increased since 1992 and reports of the lynching of Haitians surfaced as late as 2006. The Dominican Republic ( Spanish: República Dominicana;) is a nation located in the Caribbean region and shares the island of Hispaniola with Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a Western based international Non-governmental organization which defines its mission as "to The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security  Homes of suspected Haitians are sometimes burned to the ground and police roundups of "Haitian looking" people are conducted on a regular basis. According to another New York Times report in 2004, grandchildren and great grandchildren of Haitians are denied birth certificates, medical care, education and social services because of their race and decendancy.     In 2007 the United Nations found "profound and entrenched" racism at all levels of Dominican society, including within families.  
The Middle East is subject to multiple disputes along religious and ethnic lines which have involved xenophobia, especially in Israel, the Palestinian National Authority, Cyprus, Lebanon, and Iraq. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. In Israel and the Palestinian National Authority, continuous violence between Jews and Arabs over disputed territory has created xenophobic sentinment amongst the two sides as well as in many Muslim countries towards Israel. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding In the island of Cyprus, the land is divided between a majority-Greek and minority-Turk population who both have claims on the island. Civil violence has occured in Cyprus between Greeks and Turks, the Turks have their own, unrecognized autonomous republic in the north. In Lebanon, xenophobia has increased towards Palestinian Arab refugees who a number of Lebanese see as causing instability in their country. In Iraq, religious and ethnic tensions have exploded since the Iraq War began in 2003. The Iraq War, also known as the Second Gulf War, the Occupation of Iraq, or the War in Iraq, is an ongoing Military campaign Religious sectarian violence exists, as Shi'ite and Sunni Muslims have engaged in violent attacks on each other, while in the north, ethnic tensions are high between the Kurds and Arabs in northern Iraq and Turks in neighbouring Turkey. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches
South Africa has had continual problems with xenophobia, most infamously under Apartheid rule by the white-minority led government during the twentieth century. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Under apartheid, black South Africans were automatically second-class citizens, they could not vote, they could not participate in the political affairs of the country, and they were not allowed to access facilities and public places that were designated for white South African use only. The apartheid government of South Africa was beligerant to neighbouring African countries, occupying Namibia whose people demanded independence, its support of white-minority rule in the former Rhodesia (now called Zimbabwe) and waging war on Angola which was fighting for independence from Portugese colonial rule. Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia, is a country in Southern Africa on the Atlantic coast Rhodesia was the name adopted when the formerly British colony of Southern Rhodesia declared itself independent ( Unilateral Declaration of Independence See also Great Zimbabwe National Monument. For information about the March and June 2008 presidential elections see Zimbabwean presidential election Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola Pronounced ʁɛˈpublikɐ dɨ ɐ̃ˈgɔlɐ Repubilika ya Ngola is a country in south-central For some time, the response in South Africa by radical black nationalist groups was to engage in civil upheaval and violence against the apartheid regime. This tactic failed, and was replaced by a non-violent opposition movement led by Nelson Mandela, who himself had abandoned violent methods after being arrested, and became committed to creating a multicultural South Africa in which blacks and whites could live in equality. Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (xolíɬaɬa mandéːla born 18 July 1918 is a former President of South Africa, the first to be elected in fully representative The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of racial, cultural and ethnic diversity within the Demographics of a specified Under pressure from Mandela and his supporters, apartheid rule came to an end in the 1990s, but tensions remained especially among the white minority who lost their previously dominant role in South African society.
A new phenomenon in South Africa has been increasing xenophobia towards foreigners by South Africa's black majority. A series of attacks against foreigners in South African townships in May 2008. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa The attacks originated in the township of Alexandra which is an impoverished suburb in the city of Johannesburg. Social tension is high, because of the influx of foreigners into South Africa in recent years, most notably 2–4 million Zimbabweans (roughly a quarter of the population of Zimbabwe). See also Great Zimbabwe National Monument. For information about the March and June 2008 presidential elections see Zimbabwean presidential election The South African government seems unwilling or unable to enforce border control. In additions to the porous borders, the South African Department of Home Affairs –tasked with matters of immigration– are slow and inefficient at processing asylum seekers, creating many loopholes for unscrupulous immigrants who simply apply for refugee status in order to obtain the necessary permits to then work and move freely in South Africa. Immigration refers to the movement of people among countries While the movement of people has existed throughout human history at various levels modern immigration implies long-term According to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, a refugee is a person who owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race These foreigners are in direct competition for jobs and living space with the poorest citizens. Many incidents of crime are also blamed on these foreigners. More than 60 foreigners were reportedly killed in the attacks with roads barricaded and police battling with the protesters.  South African President Thabo Mbeki has since called on the South African National Defence Force to help the SAPS (South African Police Service) to prevent any further killings of immigrants. The South African National Defence Force ( SANDF) is the name of the Armed forces of South Africa. For the apartheid-era police force see South African Police. The South African Police Service is the national Police force of the Xenophobic violence also spread to the Western Cape in Du Noon in Milnerton with hundreds of terrified foreigners forced to run for their lives. 
As the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia collapsed in the 1990s, xenophobic views between ethnicities who were rivals over territory began to develop. The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene, Macedonian: The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene, Macedonian: Atrocities and ethnic cleansing occurred during the Yugoslav wars between these ethnic groups. Ethnic cleansing is a Euphemism referring to the persecution through imprisonment expulsion or killing of members of an ethnic minority by a majority to achieve ethnic homogeneity The Yugoslav Wars were a series of violent conflicts in the territory of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY that took place between 1991 and Since the collapse of Yugoslavia, ethnic Albanians, Bosniaks, and Croats typically have a negative and sometimes hostile outlook on Serbs, whose armed forces fought wars to keep Serbs united with Serbia and committed atrocities against all these groups. } Albanians (Shqiptarët are an Ethnic group and a Nation, in the sense of sharing a common Albanian culture speaking the Albanian language The Bosniaks or Bosniacs (Bošnjak pl Bošnjaci bɔ'ʃɲaːt͡si are a South Slavic people living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina ("Bosnia" Croats (Hrvati are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries Serbs ( Serbian: Срби Srbi) are a South Slavic people living in the Balkans and Central Europe, mainly in Serbia, Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country In Bosnia and Herzegovina, the number of serious and large scale atrocities committed by nationalist Serb forces there caused the United Nations to intervene and push for the internal partition of Bosnia & Herzegovina into a Serb Republic (Republika Srpska) and a Bosniak-Croat federation (Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina). Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Latin script: Bosna i Hercegovina, Cyrillic script: Босна и Херцеговина is a country on the Balkan The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Republika Srpska ( Serbian: Република Српска Republika Srpska ( often abbreviated PC or RS) also Српска Srpska The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine Федерација Босне и Херцеговине) is one of the two political In turn, Serbs have an especially negative outlook on ethnic Albanians, Bosniaks, and Croats. Many Serbs saw Croatia under the leadership of Franjo Tudjman as similar to that of the fascist Ustase regime in World War II which committed genocide against Serbs, and nationalistic Serbs see Croats themselves as the enemies of Serbs. Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between Franjo Tuđman ( May 14, 1922 - December 10, 1999. Tuđman was elected to the position of President of Croatia by the Parliament For the militiamen of the Military Frontier, see Uskoci The Ustaša - Croatian Revolutionary Movement ( Croatian: In Kosovo, many Serbs are opposed to Kosovo's declaration of independence due to Kosovo's historical links to Serbia, and Serbs have claimed that Kosovo's ethnic Albanian majority have pressured Serbs to leave and committed atrocities against Serbs. These ethnicities which fought each other during the Yugoslav Wars typically have poor and antagonistic relations with each other.
The effects of xenophobia (dislike against the genetically dissimilar out-group and nepotistic favoritism towards the genetically similar in-group) are analyzed by many sociobiological researchers. Sociobiology is a neo-Darwinian and Socialism Synthesis of Scientific disciplines that attempts to explain Social behavior Some see it as an innate biological response on the part of the evolved human organism in inter-group competition. In his famous book, The Ethnic Phenomenon, Pierre L. van den Berghe, anthropological professor of the University of Washington, discusses the concepts of kin selection, ethnic nepotism, and the biologically-rooted tendency of people that are more similar genetically to behave more generously toward each other. Pierre L van den Berghe (born 1933 is professor of sociology and anthropology at the University of Washington, where he has worked since 1965 See Washington (disambiguation for other uses The University of Washington, founded in 1861, is a public research University From the time of antiquity field biologists have observed that some organisms tend to exhibit strategies that favor the reproductive success of their relatives even at a cost to their own survival Ethnic nepotism describes a human tendency for In-group bias or in-group favouritism applied on the Ethnic level In Becoming Evil: How Ordinary People Commit Genocide and Mass Killing, author James Waller argues that all human beings "have an innate, evolution-produced tendency to seek proximity to familiar faces because what is unfamiliar is probably dangerous and should be avoided. James Waller is the author of Becoming Evil How Ordinary People Commit Genocide and Mass Killing. More than two hundred social psychological experiments have confirmed the intimate connection between familiarity and fondness. This universal human tendency is the foundation for the behavioral expressions of ethnocentrism and xenophobia" (Oxford University Press, USA, 2002, p. 156). Frank Salter, an ethological researcher of the Max Planck Institute, deals with similar "taboo" topics in his controversial book, On Genetic Interests: Family, Ethnicity and Humanity in An Age of Mass Migration; this work has been praised by well-known sociobiology innovator E.O. Wilson as "a fresh and deep contribution to the sociobiology of humans. The Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e Edward Osborne Wilson (born June 10, 1929) is an American biologist researcher ( Sociobiology, Biodiversity) theorist ( " Salter posits an "innate group-descent module" in the human mind to explain the universal occurrence of ethnic nepotism. In Salter's view, favoritism towards one's own ethnicity is an evolutionarily-based "objective" value and, from a political science perspective, Salter proposes a "universal nationalism", in which all planetary ethnic-based communities or nations have the right to preserve their own heritage and distinctiveness.