|Thomas Woodrow Wilson|
March 4, 1913 – March 4, 1921
|Vice President||Thomas R. Marshall (1913-1921)|
|Preceded by||William Howard Taft|
|Succeeded by||Warren G. Harding|
January 17, 1911 – March 1, 1913
|Preceded by||John Franklin Fort|
|Succeeded by||James Fairman Fielder|
1902 – 1910
|Preceded by||Francis L. The Nobel Peace Prize ( Swedish, Danish and Nobels fredspris is one of five Nobel Prizes Bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by Events 51 - Nero, later to become Roman Emperor, is given the title Princeps iuventutis (head of the youth Year 1913 ( MCMXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 51 - Nero, later to become Roman Emperor, is given the title Princeps iuventutis (head of the youth Year 1921 ( MCMXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1921 calendar of the Gregorian calendar The Vice President of the United States is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death Thomas Riley Marshall (March 14 1854 June 1 1925 was an American Politician who served as the twenty-eighth Vice President of the United States of America William Howard Taft (September 15 1857 – March 8 1930 was an American politician, the twenty-seventh President of the United States, the tenth Chief Justice Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2 1865 August 2 1923 was the twenty-ninth President of the United States, serving from 1921 until his death from a heart attack aged The Governor of New Jersey is the Chief executive of the US state of New Jersey. Events 38 BC - Octavian marries Livia Drusilla. 1287 - King Alfonso III of Aragon invades Minorca Year 1911 ( MCMXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Events 86 BC - Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army enters in Athens, removing the Tyrant Year 1913 ( MCMXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common John Franklin Fort (b March 20 1852 - d November 17, 1920) was an American Republican Party Politician, who James Fairman Fielder ( February 26, 1867 in Jersey City New Jersey December 2, 1954 in Newark New Jersey) was an Princeton University is led by a President selected by the Board of Trustees Patton|
|Succeeded by||John Aikman Stewart|
|Born||December 28, 1856|
|Died||February 3, 1924 (aged 67)|
|Spouse||Ellen Axson Wilson|
Edith Bolling Galt Wilson
|Alma mater||Princeton University|
University of Virginia
Johns Hopkins University
|Occupation||Academic (political science), Lawyer|
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. Events 1065 - Westminster Abbey is Consecrated. 1308 - The reign of Emperor Hanazono, Emperor of Year 1856 ( MDCCCLVI) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Staunton ( is an Independent city within the confines of Augusta County in the commonwealth of Virginia. Events 1112 - Ramon Berenguer III of Barcelona and Douce I of Provence marry uniting the fortunes of those two states Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. Ellen Louise Axson Wilson ( May 15, 1860 &ndash August 6, 1914) first wife of Woodrow Wilson, was First Lady of the United States Edith Bolling Galt Wilson ( October 15, 1872 &ndash December 28, 1961) second wife of Woodrow Wilson, was First Lady of the Alma mater is Latin for "nourishing mother" It was used in Ancient Rome as a title for the mother Goddess, and in Medieval Princeton University is a private Coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. The University of Virginia School of Law (Virginia Law was founded in Charlottesville in 1819 by Thomas Jefferson as one of the original subjects taught at his Political science is a branch of Social sciences that deals with the theory and practice of Politics and the description and analysis of Political systems A lawyer, according to Black's Law Dictionary, is "a person learned in the law as an attorney, Counsel or Solicitor; a person Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity Events 1065 - Westminster Abbey is Consecrated. 1308 - The reign of Emperor Hanazono, Emperor of Year 1856 ( MDCCCLVI) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Events 1112 - Ramon Berenguer III of Barcelona and Douce I of Provence marry uniting the fortunes of those two states Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by A devout Presbyterian, and leading intellectual of the Progressive Era, he served as President of Princeton University and then became the Governor of New Jersey in 1910. Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity The Progressive Era in the United States was a period of reform which lasted from the 1890s to the 1920s Princeton University is led by a President selected by the Board of Trustees The Governor of New Jersey is the Chief executive of the US state of New Jersey. Wilson is to date the only president from New Jersey. New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. With Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft dividing the Republican Party vote, Wilson was elected President as a Democrat in 1912. Theodore Roosevelt (ˈroʊzəvɛlt October 27 1858 January 6 1919 also known as T William Howard Taft (September 15 1857 – March 8 1930 was an American politician, the twenty-seventh President of the United States, the tenth Chief Justice The History of the United States Republican Party is an account of the second oldest currently existing Political party in the United States The United States presidential election of 1912 was fought among three major candidates two of whom had previously won election to the office The History of the United States Democratic Party is an account of the oldest Political party in the United States and arguably TalkDemocratic He proved highly successful in leading a Democratic Congress to pass major legislation that included the Federal Trade Commission, the Clayton Antitrust Act, the Underwood Tariff, the Federal Farm Loan Act and most notably the Federal Reserve System. The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses Legislation (or " Statutory law " is law which has been promulgated (or " Enacted quot by a Legislature or other Governing The Federal Trade Commission ( FTC) is an independent agency of the United States government, established in 1914 by the Federal Trade Commission Act The Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 ( October 15[[ 914]] ch 323, codified at,) was enacted in the United States to add further substance to the U The United States Revenue Act of 1913 also known as the Tariff Act, Underwood Tariff, or Underwood-Simmons Act (ch Federal Farm Loan Act of 1916 is a United States federal law that established 12 regional Farm Loan Banks to serve members of Farm Loan Associations 
Narrowly re-elected in 1916, his second term centered on World War I. The United States presidential election of 1916 took place while Europe was embroiled in World War I. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All He tried to maintain U. S. neutrality, but when the German Empire began unrestricted submarine warfare he wrote several admonishing notes to Germany, and eventually asked Congress to declare war on the Central Powers. For other uses of Neutral and Neutrality see Neutral A neutral country takes no side in a War between other parties The German Empire is the name commonly used in English to describe Germany from 1871 to 1918 when it was a semi- Constitutional monarchy: beginning with the Unification Naval warfare is divided into three operational areas Surface warfare, Air warfare and underwater warfare. A declaration of war is a formal performative Speech act or signing of a document by an authorised party of a government in order to initate a state of War The Central Powers ( German: "Mittelmächte" Hungarian: "Központi hatalmak" Turkish: "İttifak He focused on diplomacy and financial considerations, leaving the waging of the war primarily in the hands of the military establishment. The United States Armed Forces are the overall unified military forces of the United States On the home front, he began the first effective draft in 1917, raised billions in war funding through Liberty Bonds, imposed an income tax, enacted the first federal drug prohibition, set up the War Industries Board, promoted labor union growth, supervised agriculture and food production through the Lever Act, took over control of the railroads, and suppressed anti-war movements. Conscription (also known as the draft, the call-up or national service) is a general term for involuntary labor demanded by some established authority A Liberty Bond was a special type of War bond that was sold in the United States to support the allied cause in World War I. The The Harrison Narcotics Tax Act (Ch 1) was a United States federal law that regulated and taxed the production importation and distribution of Opiates. The War Industries Board (WIB was a United States government agency established on July 28, 1917, during World War I, and reorganized in 1918 A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming The Smith-Lever Act of 1914 is a United States federal law that established a system of Cooperative extension services connected to the Land-grant universities "Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here For other uses see Railroad (disambiguation. The term anti-war usually refers to the opposition to a particular nation's decision to start or carry on an armed conflict unconditional of a maybe-existing just cause. He paid surprisingly little attention to military affairs, but provided the funding and food supplies that helped the Americans in the war and hastened Allied victory in 1918.
In the late stages of the war, he took personal control of negotiations with Germany, especially with the Fourteen Points and the armistice. The Fourteen Points were listed in a speech delivered by President Woodrow Wilson of the United States to a joint session of the United The armistice treaty between the Allies and Germany was signed in a railway carriage in Compiègne Forest on November 11, 1918 He went to Paris in 1919 to create the League of Nations and shape the Treaty of Versailles, with special attention on creating new nations out of defunct empires. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city The League of Nations was an International organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920 The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. Largely for his efforts to form the League, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1919. The Nobel Peace Prize ( Swedish, Danish and Nobels fredspris is one of five Nobel Prizes Bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Wilson collapsed with a debilitating stroke in 1919, as the home front saw massive strikes and race riots, and wartime prosperity turn into postwar depression. A stroke is the rapidly developing loss of brain functions due to a disturbance in the blood vessels supplying blood to the brain He refused to compromise with the Republicans who controlled Congress after 1918, effectively destroying any chance for ratification of the Versailles Treaty. The League of Nations was established anyway, but the U. S. never joined. Wilson's idealistic internationalism, calling for the U. S. to enter the world arena to fight for democracy, progressiveness, and liberalism, has been a highly controversial position in American foreign policy, serving as a model for "idealists" to emulate or "realists" to reject for the following century. The foreign policy of the United States is highly influential on the world stage as it is a Superpower.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson was born in Staunton, Virginia in 1856 as the third of four children and to Reverend Dr. Staunton ( is an Independent city within the confines of Augusta County in the commonwealth of Virginia. Joseph Wilson (1822–1903) and Janet Woodrow (1826–1888). His ancestry was Scots-Irish and Scottish. His paternal grandparents immigrated to the United States from Strabane, County Tyrone, Northern Ireland, while his mother was born in Carlisle to Scottish parents. Strabane (strəˈbæn Irish, An Srath Bán, Fair River Valley or White Strand is a Town in the west of County Tyrone and the north-west of Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of Carlisle (pronounced CARLYLE(emphasis on the first syllable is a City in northern England the largest settlement in Cumbria. The Scots people ( Scots Gaelic: Albannaich) are a Nation and an Ethnic group indigenous to Scotland. Wilson's father was originally from Steubenville, Ohio where his grandfather had been an abolitionist newspaper publisher and his uncles were Republicans. Steubenville is a city located along the Ohio River in Jefferson County, Ohio, in the United States. His earliest memory, from age 3, was of hearing that Abraham Lincoln had been elected and that a war was coming. Abraham Lincoln (February 12 1809 &ndash April 15 1865 the sixteenth President of the United States, successfully led his country through its greatest internal Wilson would forever recall standing for a moment at Robert E. Lee's side and looking up into his face. Robert Edward Lee (January 19 1807 &ndash October 12 1870 was a career United States Army officer, an Engineer, and among the most celebrated 
Wilson's parents moved South in 1851 and identified with the Confederacy. The Confederate States of America (also called the Confederacy, the Confederate States, and CSA) formed as the government set up from 1861 His father defended slavery, owned slaves and set up a Sunday school for them. They cared for wounded soldiers at their church. The father also briefly served as a chaplain to the Confederate Army. The War Department was established by the Confederate Congress in an act on February 21, 1861. 
Wilson’s father was one of the founders of the Southern Presbyterian Church in the United States (PCUS) after it split from the northern Presbyterians in 1861. The Presbyterian Church in the United States was a denomination consisting of Presbyterian churches in the Southern and border states of the U Joseph R. Wilson served as the first permanent clerk of the southern church’s General Assembly, was Stated Clerk from 1865-1898 and was Moderator of the PCUS General Assembly in 1879. Wilson spent the majority of his childhood, up to age 14, in Augusta, Georgia, where his father was minister of the First Presbyterian Church. Augusta Georgia is a city in Richmond County, Georgia, United States.
Wilson did not learn to read until he was about 12 years old. His difficulty reading may have indicated dyslexia or A.D.H.D., but as a teenager he taught himself shorthand to compensate and was able to achieve academically through determination and self-discipline. Dyslexia is considered to be a Learning disability. It manifests primarily as a difficulty with written language particularly with Reading and Spelling ADHD predominantly inattentive (ADHD-I is one of the three subtypes of Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD He studied at home under his father's guidance and took classes in a small school in Augusta.  During Reconstruction, he lived in Columbia, South Carolina, the state capital, from 1870-1874, where his father was professor at the Columbia Theological Seminary. Columbia is the state capital and largest city in the US state of South Carolina. Columbia Theological Seminary is one of the ten theological institutions affiliated with the Presbyterian Church (USA. 
In 1873, he spent a year at Davidson College in North Carolina, then transferred to Princeton as a freshman, graduating in 1879, becoming a member of Phi Kappa Psi fraternity. Davidson College is a private liberal arts college for 1700 students in Davidson, North Carolina, in the United States. Princeton University is a private Coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. Phi Kappa Psi (ΦΚΨ Phi Psi is a US national college fraternity. Beginning in his second year, he read widely in political philosophy and history. He was active in the undergraduate American Whig-Cliosophic Society discussion club, and organized a separate Liberal Debating Society. American Whig-Cliosophic Society (short form Whig-Clio is the oldest college political literary and debating society in continual existence in the world 
In 1879, Wilson attended law school at University of Virginia for one year. The University of Virginia School of Law (Virginia Law was founded in Charlottesville in 1819 by Thomas Jefferson as one of the original subjects taught at his Although he never graduated, during his time at the University he was heavily involved in the Virginia Glee Club, as well as the Jefferson Literary and Debating Society. The Virginia Glee Club is a critically acclaimed men's chorus based at the University of Virginia. Events The hallmark of the Society's public visage is its Speaker Series which draws distinguished individuals from myriad disciplines to address the Society and its guests each  His frail health dictated withdrawal, and he went home to Wilmington, North Carolina where he continued his studies. Wilmington is a city in and the County seat of New Hanover County, North Carolina, United States. North Carolina ( is a state located on the Atlantic Seaboard in the southeastern United States Wilson was also a member of the Phi Kappa Psi fraternity. Phi Kappa Psi (ΦΚΨ Phi Psi is a US national college fraternity.
Wilson’s mother was possibly a hypochondriac. Hypochondriasis (or hypochondria, sometimes referred to as health phobia) refers to an excessive preoccupation or worry about having a serious illness Consequently, Wilson seemed to think that he was often in poorer health than he really was. However, he did suffer from hypertension at a relatively early age and may have suffered his first stroke at age 39. Hypertension, also referred to as high blood pressure, HTN or HPN, is a medical condition in which the Blood pressure is chronically elevated 
In 1885, he married Ellen Louise Axson, the daughter of a minister from Rome, Georgia. Ellen Louise Axson Wilson ( May 15, 1860 &ndash August 6, 1914) first wife of Woodrow Wilson, was First Lady of the United States They had three daughters: Margaret Woodrow Wilson (1886-1944); Jessie Wilson (1887-1933); and Eleanor R. Wilson (1889-1967) He remarried in 1914 after Axson died. Margaret Woodrow Wilson (born 16 April 1886, Gainesville Georgia - died 12 February 1944, Pondicherry, India Eleanor Randolph Wilson McAdoo ( 16 October 1889 – 5 April 1967) was an American Author who wrote about her famous father
Wilson was an early automobile enthusiast, and he took daily rides while he was President. His favorite car was a 1919 Pierce-Arrow, in which he preferred to ride with the top down. If you were looking for the Peirce arrow, you will find it here.  His enjoyment of motoring made him an advocate of funding for public highways. The National Highway System (NHS of the United States comprises approximately 160000 miles (256000 kilometers of Roadway including the Interstate Highway 
Wilson was an avid baseball fan. In 1916, he became the first sitting president to attend a World Series game. For other events named "World Series" see World Series (disambiguation. Wilson had been a center fielder during his Davidson College days. A center fielder, abbreviated CF, is the Outfielder in Baseball who plays defense in center field - the baseball fielding position When he transferred to Princeton he was unable to make the varsity and so became the assistant manager of the team. He was the first President officially to throw out a first ball at a World Series. 
He cycled regularly, including several cycling vacations in the Lake District in Britain. The Lake District, also known as The Lakes or Lakeland, is a rural area in North West England. Unable to cycle around Washington, D. C. as President, Wilson took to playing golf, although he played with more enthusiasm than skill. During the winter, the Secret Service would paint some golf balls black so Wilson could hit them around in the snow on the White House lawn. 
In January 1882, Wilson decided to start his first law practice in Atlanta. One of Wilson’s University of Virginia classmates, Edward Ireland Renick, invited Wilson to join his new law practice as partner. The University of Virginia (also called UVa, UVA, Mr Jefferson's University, or The University) is a highly selective public research Wilson joined him there in May 1882. He passed the Georgia Bar. On October 19, 1882, he appeared in court before Judge George Hillyer to take his examination for the bar, which he passed with flying colors and he began work on his thesis Congressional Government in the United States. Events 202 BCE - The Battle of Zama results in the defeat of Carthage and Hannibal. Year 1882 ( MDCCCLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common George Hillyer ( March 17, 1835 &ndash October 2, 1927) was an American politician serving as mayor of Atlanta Georgia  Competition was fierce in the city with 143 other lawyers, so with few cases to keep him occupied, Wilson quickly grew disillusioned.
Moreover, Wilson had studied law in order to eventually enter politics, but he discovered that he could not continue his study of government and simultaneously continue the reading of law necessary to stay proficient. In April 1883, Wilson applied to the new Johns Hopkins University to study for a Ph. D. in history and political science, which he completed in 1886. 
Wilson would later serve as president of the American Political Science Association in 1910, and remains the only U. The American Political Science Association ( APSA) is an organization dedicated to Political science. S. president to have earned a doctoral degree, and the only political scientist to become president. In July 1883, Wilson left his law practice to begin his academic studies. 
Wilson came of age in the decades after the American Civil War, when Congress was supreme— "the gist of all policy is decided by the legislature" —and corruption was rampant. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South Instead of focusing on individuals in explaining where American politics went wrong, Wilson focused on the American constitutional structure. 
Under the influence of Walter Bagehot's The English Constitution, Wilson saw the United States Constitution as pre-modern, cumbersome, and open to corruption. The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme Law of the United States. An admirer of Parliament (though he first visited London in 1919), Wilson favored a parliamentary system for the United States. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in American English) is a System of government in which Writing in the early 1880s:
Wilson started Congressional Government, his best known political work, as an argument for a parliamentary system, but Wilson was impressed by Grover Cleveland, and Congressional Government emerged as a critical description of America's system, with frequent negative comparisons to Westminster. Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18 1837 June 24 1908 was both the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States. Westminster is an area of Central London, within the City of Westminster. Wilson himself claimed, "I am pointing out facts—diagnosing, not prescribing remedies. ". 
Wilson believed that America's intricate system of checks and balances was the cause of the problems in American governance. Separation of powers, a term ascribed to French Enlightenment Political philosopher Baron de Montesquieu, is a model for the Governance He said that the divided power made it impossible for voters to see who was accountable for ill-doing. If government behaved badly, Wilson asked,
The longest section of Congressional Government is on the United States House of Representatives, where Wilson pours out scorn for the committee system. The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. Power, Wilson wrote,
Wilson said that the committee system was fundamentally undemocratic, because committee chairs, who ruled by seniority, were responsible to no one except their constituents, even though they determined national policy.
In addition to its undemocratic nature, Wilson also believed that the Congressional Committee System facilitated corruption.
By the time Wilson finished Congressional Government, Grover Cleveland was President, and Wilson had his faith in the United States government restored. Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18 1837 June 24 1908 was both the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States. When William Jennings Bryan captured the Democratic nomination from Cleveland's supporters in 1896, however, Wilson refused to stand by the ticket. For other persons of the same name see William Bryan and William Jennings. Instead, he cast his ballot for John M. Palmer, the presidential candidate of the National Democratic Party, or Gold Democrats, a short-lived party that supported a gold standard, low tariffs, and limited government. John McCauley Palmer ( September 13, 1817 September 25, 1900) was an Illinois resident, an American Civil War General The National Democratic Party or Gold Democrats was a short-lived political party of Bourbon Democrats, who opposed the regular party nominee William Jennings 
After experiencing the vigorous presidencies of William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt, Wilson no longer entertained thoughts of parliamentary government at home. William McKinley Jr ( January 29, 1843 September 14, 1901) was the twenty-fifth President of the United States, and the last Theodore Roosevelt (ˈroʊzəvɛlt October 27 1858 January 6 1919 also known as T In his last scholarly work in 1908, Constitutional Government of the United States, Wilson said that the presidency "will be as big as and as influential as the man who occupies it". By the time of his presidency, Wilson merely hoped that Presidents could be party leaders in the same way prime ministers were. This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation. Wilson also hoped that the parties could be reorganized along ideological, not geographic, lines. "Eight words," Wilson wrote, "contain the sum of the present degradation of our political parties: No leaders, no principles; no principles, no parties. "
Wilson served on the faculties of Bryn Mawr College and Wesleyan University. Bryn Mawr College ( brin-mar is a highly selective women's liberal arts college located in Bryn Mawr, a community in Lower Merion This article concerns Wesleyan At Wesleyan, he also coached the football team and founded the debate team - to this date, it is named the T. American football, known in the United States and Canada simply as football, is a competitive Team sport known for mixing strategy with Woodrow Wilson debate team. He then joined the Princeton faculty as professor of jurisprudence and political economy in 1890. Princeton University is a private Coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. Jurisprudence is the Theory and Philosophy of Law. Scholars of jurisprudence or legal philosophers hope to obtain a deeper understanding of the nature Political economy originally was the term for studying production buying and selling and their relations with law custom and government While there, he was one of the faculty members of the short-lived coordinate college, Evelyn College for Women. Evelyn College for Women, often shortened to Evelyn College, was the coordinate women's college of Princeton University in Princeton, New Additionally, Wilson became the first lecturer of Constitutional Law at New York Law School where he taught with Charles Evans Hughes. New York Law School is a private Law school in the TriBeCa neighborhood of Lower Manhattan in New York City. Charles Evans Hughes Sr ( April 11, 1862 – August 27, 1948) was a Lawyer and Republican politician from the State
Wilson delivered an oration at Princeton's sesquicentennial celebration (1896) entitled "Princeton in the Nation's Service. " (This has become a frequently alluded-to motto of the University, later expanded to "Princeton in the Nation's Service and in the Service of All Nations. ") In this famous speech, he outlined his vision of the university in a democratic nation, calling on institutions of higher learning "to illuminate duty by every lesson that can be drawn out of the past".
The trustees promoted Professor Wilson to president of Princeton in 1902. Although the school's endowment was barely $4 million, he sought $2 million for a preceptorial system of teaching, $1 million for a school of science, and nearly $3 million for new buildings and salary raises. As a long-term objective, Wilson sought $3 million for a graduate school and $2. 5 million for schools of jurisprudence and electrical engineering, as well as a museum of natural history. Electrical engineering, sometimes referred to as electrical and electronic engineering, is a field of Engineering that deals with the study and application of
He achieved little of that because he was not a strong fund raiser, but he did increase the faculty from 112 to 174, most of them personally selected as outstanding teachers. The curriculum guidelines he developed proved important progressive innovations in the field of higher education.
To enhance the role of expertise, Wilson instituted academic departments and a system of core requirements where students met in groups of six with preceptors, followed by two years of concentration in a selected major. He tried to raise admission standards and to replace the "gentleman C" with serious study. Wilson aspired, as he told alumni, "to transform thoughtless boys performing tasks into thinking men. "
In 1906-10, he attempted to curtail the influence of the elitist "social clubs" by abolishing the upperclass eating clubs and moving the students into colleges, also known as "quadrangles. The eating clubs at Princeton University are private institutions resembling both Dining halls and social houses, where the majority of Princeton upperclassmen " Wilson's "Quad Plan" was met with fierce opposition from Princeton's alumni, most importantly Moses Taylor Pyne, the most powerful of Princeton's Trustees. Moses Taylor Pyne ( December 21, 1855 &ndash April 22, 1921) was a financier and philanthropist and one of Princeton University 's Wilson refused any proposed compromises that stopped short of abolishing the clubs because he felt that to compromise "would be to temporize with evil. " In October 1907, due to the ferocity of alumni opposition and Wilson's refusal to compromise, the Board of Trustees took back its initial support for the Quad Plan and instructed Wilson to withdraw it. 
Even more damaging was his confrontation with Andrew Fleming West, Dean of the graduate school, and West's ally, former President Grover Cleveland, a trustee. Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18 1837 June 24 1908 was both the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States. Wilson wanted to integrate the proposed graduate building into the same area with the undergraduate colleges; West wanted them separated. The trustees rejected Wilson's plan for colleges in 1908, and then endorsed West's plans in 1909. The national press covered the confrontation as a battle of the elites (West) versus democracy (Wilson). During this time in his personal life, Wilson engaged in an extramarital affair with socialite Mary Peck.  Wilson, after considering resignation, decided to take up invitations to move into New Jersey state politics. New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. 
During the New Jersey election of 1910, the Democrats took control of the state house and Wilson was elected governor. The New Jersey Legislature is the US state of New Jersey 's legislative branch seated in the New Jersey State House at the state's capital Trenton The state senate, however, remained in Republican control by a slim margin. The New Jersey Legislature is the US state of New Jersey 's legislative branch seated in the New Jersey State House at the state's capital Trenton After taking office, Wilson set in place his reformist agenda, ignoring what party bosses told him he was to do. While governor, in a period spanning six months, Wilson established state primaries. This all but took the party bosses out of the presidential election process in the state. He also revamped the public utility commission, and introduced worker's compensation. Workers' compensation (colloquially known as workers' comp in North America or compo in Australia) a form of Insurance that provides 
Wilson experienced early success by implementing his "New Freedom" pledges of antitrust modification, tariff revision, and reform in banking and currency matters. The New Freedom is the policy of US President Woodrow Wilson which promoted Antitrust modification tariff revision and reform in banking
Wilson's first wife Ellen died on August 6, 1914 of Bright's disease. Ellen Louise Axson Wilson ( May 15, 1860 &ndash August 6, 1914) first wife of Woodrow Wilson, was First Lady of the United States Events 1538 - Bogotá, Colombia, is founded by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada. Year 1914 ( MCMXIV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Bright's disease is a historical classification of kidney diseases that would be described in modern Medicine as acute or chronic Nephritis In 1915, he met Edith Galt. Edith Bolling Galt Wilson ( October 15, 1872 &ndash December 28, 1961) second wife of Woodrow Wilson, was First Lady of the They married later that year on December 18. Events 218 BC - Second Punic War: Battle of the Trebia - Hannibal 's Carthaginian forces defeat those of the Wilson arrived at the White House with severe digestive problems. He treated himself with a stomach pump. 
Wilson, born in Virginia and raised in Georgia, was the first Southerner to be elected President since Zachary Taylor in 1848 and the first Southerner to take office since Andrew Johnson in 1865. Zachary Taylor (November 24 1784 &ndash July 9 1850 was an American military leader and the twelfth President of the United States. Andrew Johnson (December 29 1808 – July 31 1875 was the seventeenth President of the United States (1865-69 succeeding to the Presidency upon the assassination Wilson was also the first Democrat elected to the presidency since Grover Cleveland in 1892. Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18 1837 June 24 1908 was both the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States. The next Democrat elected was Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932.
The Federal Reserve Act is one of the more significant pieces of legislation in the history of the United States. A gold certificate in general is a certificate of ownership that Gold owners hold instead of storing the actual gold The Federal Reserve Act (ch 6, Enacted December 23 1913) is the act of Congress that created the Federal Reserve System, the central banking system of the United  Wilson outmaneuvered bankers and enemies of banks, North and South, Democrats and Republicans to secure passage of the Federal Reserve system in late 1913.  He took a plan that had been designed by conservative Republicans—led by Nelson W. Aldrich and banker Paul M. Warburg—and passed it. Nelson Wilmarth Aldrich ( November 6, 1841 &ndash April 16, 1915) was a prominent American Politician and a leader Paul Moritz Warburg ( August 10, 1868 — January 24, 1932) was a German-American banker and early advocate of the U However, Wilson had to find a middle ground between those who supported the Aldrich Plan and those who opposed it, including the powerful agrarian wing of the party, led by William Jennings Bryan, which strenuously denounced banks and Wall Street. For other persons of the same name see William Bryan and William Jennings.
They wanted little a government-owned central bank which could print paper money whenever Congress wanted. Wilson’s plan still allowed the large banks to have important influence, but Wilson went beyond the Aldrich plan and created a central board made up of persons appointed by the President and approved by Congress who would outnumber the board members who were bankers.
Moreover, Wilson convinced Bryan’s supporters that because Federal Reserve notes were obligations of the government, the plan fit their demands. Wilson’s plan also decentralized the Federal Reserve system into 12 districts. This was designed to weaken the influence of the powerful New York banks, a key demand of Bryan’s allies in the South and West. This decentralization was a key factor in winning the support of Congressman Carter Glass (D-VA) although he objected to making paper currency a federal obligation. Carter Glass ( January 4, 1858 &ndash May 28, 1946) was a Newspaper publisher and a American politician from Lynchburg
Glass was one of the leaders of the currency reformers in the U. S. House and without his support, any plan was doomed to fail. The final plan passed, in December 1913, despite opposition by bankers, who felt it gave too much control to Washington, and by some reformers, who felt it allowed bankers to maintain too much power. (It is more plausible that the bankers objected to the plan because it would increase the plan's popularity. The plan later proved in their interest. )
Wilson named Warburg and other prominent bankers to direct the new system. Despite the reformers' hopes, the New York branch dominated the Fed and thus power remained in Wall Street. Wall Street is a street in lower Manhattan, New York City, United States. The new system began operations in 1915 and played a major role in financing the Allied and American war efforts. The Entente Powers (from Triple Entente) were the countries at war with the Central Powers during World War I. Wilson appeared on the $100,000 bill. Today the Currency of the United States, the US dollar, is printed in bills in denominations of $1, $2, $5, $10 The bill, which is now out of print but is still technically legal tender, was used only to transfer money between Federal Reserve banks. Legal tender or forced tender is Payment that by Law, cannot be refused in settlement of a Debt ( Debtor cannot successfully be sued 
Wilson's early views on international affairs and trade were stated in his Columbia University lectures of April 1907 where he said:
In 1913, the Underwood tariff lowered the tariff. The United States Revenue Act of 1913 also known as the Tariff Act, Underwood Tariff, or Underwood-Simmons Act (ch For other uses of this word see Tariff (disambiguation. A tariff is a tax imposed on goods when they are moved across a political boundary The revenue thereby lost was replaced by a new federal income tax (authorized by the 16th Amendment, which had been sponsored by the Republicans). The The "Seaman's Act" of 1915 improved working conditions for merchant sailors. As response to the RMS Titanic disaster, it also required all ships to be retrofitted with lifeboats. Construction The Titanic was a White Star Line ocean liner built at the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast, Ireland
A series of programs were targeted at farmers. The "Smith Lever" act of 1914 created the modern system of agricultural extension agents sponsored by the state agricultural colleges. The agents taught new techniques to farmers. The 1916 "Federal Farm Loan Board" issued low-cost long-term mortgages to farmers. 
Child labor was curtailed by the Keating-Owen Act of 1916, but the U.S. Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional in 1918. Child labor is the employment of Children at regular and sustained labour The Keating-Owen Child Labor Act of 1916 also known as Wick's Bill was a Statute enacted by the U The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. Additional child labor bills would not be enacted until the 1930s.
The railroad brotherhoods threatened in summer 1916 to shut down the national transportation system. Wilson tried to bring labor and management together, but when management refused he had Congress pass the "Adamson Act" in September 1916, which avoided the strike by imposing an 8-hour work day in the industry (at the same pay as before). The Adamson Act was a United States federal law passed in 1916 that established an eight-hour workday with additional pay for overtime work for Railroad It helped Wilson gain union support for his reelection; the act was approved by the Supreme Court.
Wilson broke with the "big-lawsuit" tradition of his predecessors Taft and Roosevelt as "Trustbusters", finding a new approach to encouraging competition through the Federal Trade Commission, which stopped "unfair" trade practices. Trust-busting is any government activity designed to break up trusts or monopolies. The Federal Trade Commission ( FTC) is an independent agency of the United States government, established in 1914 by the Federal Trade Commission Act In addition, he pushed through Congress the Clayton Antitrust Act making certain business practices illegal (such as price discrimination, agreements forbidding retailers from handling other companies’ products, and directorates and agreements to control other companies). The Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 ( October 15[[ 914]] ch 323, codified at,) was enacted in the United States to add further substance to the U The power of this legislation was greater than previous anti-trust laws, because individual officers of corporations could be held responsible if their companies violated the laws. More importantly, the new laws set out clear guidelines that corporations could follow, a dramatic improvement over the previous uncertainties. This law was considered the "Magna Carta" of labor by Samuel Gompers because it ended union liability antitrust laws. Magna Carta ( Latin for Great Charter, literally " Great Paper " also called Magna Carta Libertatum ( Great Charter of Freedoms Samuel Gompers (January 27 1850 - December 13 1924 was an American labor union leader and a key figure in American labor history. In 1916, under threat of a national railroad strike, he approved legislation that increased wages and cut working hours of railroad employees; there was no strike.
Wilson spent 1914 through the beginning of 1917 trying to keep America out of the war in Europe. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All He offered to be a mediator, but neither the Allies nor the Central Powers took his requests seriously. Mediation, a form of Alternative dispute resolution (ADR or "appropriate Dispute resolution " aims to assist two (or more disputants in reaching In general allies are people groups or nations that have joined together in an association for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose The Central Powers ( German: "Mittelmächte" Hungarian: "Központi hatalmak" Turkish: "İttifak Republicans, led by Theodore Roosevelt, strongly criticized Wilson’s refusal to build up the U.S. Army in anticipation of the threat of war. Theodore Roosevelt (ˈroʊzəvɛlt October 27 1858 January 6 1919 also known as T The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities. Wilson won the support of the U. S. peace element by arguing that an army buildup would provoke war. However for all his words, Wilson was anything but neutral. His pro-British views caused his Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan to resign in protest in 1915. For other persons of the same name see William Bryan and William Jennings.
While German submarines were sinking merchant ships, the U. S. and Wilson stayed neutral. Britain had declared a blockade of Germany, preventing neutral shipping carrying “contraband” goods to Germany. Wilson protested this violation of neutral rights by London, but his protests were mild, and the British knew America would not take action.
"An unprecedented number" of African Americans had left the Republicans to cast their vote for the Democrat Wilson, encouraged by his promises of support for their issues. They were disappointed when early in his administration he allowed the introduction of segregation into several federal departments. The issue came up early in an April 1913 cabinet meeting, when Albert Burleson, his Postmaster General and a southern native, complained about working conditions at the Railway Mail Service. The United States Cabinet (usually simplified as "the Cabinet" is composed of the most senior appointed officers of the Executive branch of the Federal government Albert Sidney Burleson (June 7 1863 &ndash November 24 1937 was a United States Postmaster General and Congressman. Offices and restrooms were segregated, sometimes by partitions erected between seating for white and African American employees. 
Renominated in 1916, Wilson's major campaign slogan was "He kept us out of the war", referring to his administration's avoiding open conflict with Germany or Mexico while maintaining a firm national policy. The United States presidential election of 1916 took place while Europe was embroiled in World War I. Wilson, however, never promised to keep out of war regardless of provocation. In his acceptance speech on September 2, 1916, Wilson pointedly warned Germany that submarine warfare that took American lives would not be tolerated:
Wilson narrowly won the election, defeating Republican candidate Charles Evans Hughes. The United States presidential election of 1916 took place while Europe was embroiled in World War I. Charles Evans Hughes Sr ( April 11, 1862 – August 27, 1948) was a Lawyer and Republican politician from the State As governor of New York from 1907-1910, Hughes had a progressive record, strikingly similar to Wilson's as governor of New Jersey. Theodore Roosevelt would comment that the only thing different between Hughes and Wilson was a shave. However, Hughes had to try to hold together a coalition of conservative Taft supporters and progressive Roosevelt partisans and so his campaign never seemed to take a definite form. Wilson ran on his record and ignored Hughes, reserving his attacks for Roosevelt. When asked why he did not attack Hughes directly, Wilson told a friend to “Never murder a man who is committing suicide. ”
The final result was exceptionally close and the result was in doubt for several days. Because of Wilson's fear of becoming a lame duck president during the uncertainties of the war in Europe, he created a hypothetical plan where if Hughes were elected he would name Hughes secretary of state and then resign along with the vice-president to enable Hughes to become the president. A lame duck is an elected official who loses political power or is no longer responsive to the Electorate as a result of losing an election or retiring The vote came down to several close states. Wilson won California by 3,773 votes out of almost a million votes cast and New Hampshire by 54 votes. Hughes won Minnesota by 393 votes out of over 358,000. In the final count, Wilson had 277 electoral votes vs. Hughes 254. Wilson was able to win reelection in 1916 by picking up many votes that had gone to Teddy Roosevelt or Eugene V. Debs in 1912. The United States presidential election of 1916 took place while Europe was embroiled in World War I. Eugene Victor Debs (November 5 1855 &ndash October 20 1926 was an American union leader one of the founding members of the International Labor Union and the Industrial Wilson was the only presidential candidate to defeat two former presidents in a single election.
Wilson's second term focused almost exclusively on World War I, which for the US formally began on April 6, 1917, only a little over a month after the term began. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar defeats Caecilius Metellus Scipio and Marcus Porcius Cato in the Battle of Thapsus Year 1917 ( MCMXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year After Wilson, the next U. S. President to win both of his terms with under 50% of the popular vote was fellow Democrat, Bill Clinton, in the 1992 and 1996 elections. William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III, August 19 1946 served as the forty-second President of the United States The United States presidential elections of 1992 featured a battle between incumbent President, Republican George H The United States presidential election of 1996 was a contest between the Democratic national ticket of President Bill Clinton of Arkansas and Vice
When Germany started unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917 and made a clumsy attempt to enlist Mexico as an ally (see Zimmermann Telegram), Wilson took America into World War I as a war to make "the world safe for democracy. Unrestricted submarine warfare is a type of Naval warfare in which Submarines sink merchant ships without warning as opposed to attacks per prize regulations The Zimmermann Telegram (or Zimmermann Note; German: Zimmermann-Depesche; Spanish: Telegrama Zimmermann) was a coded " He did not sign a formal alliance with the United Kingdom or France but operated as an "Associated" power. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. He raised a massive army through conscription and gave command to General John J. Pershing, allowing Pershing a free hand as to tactics, strategy and even diplomacy. Conscription (also known as the draft, the call-up or national service) is a general term for involuntary labor demanded by some established authority John Joseph "Black Jack" Pershing, GCB ( September 13, 1860 – July 15, 1948) was an officer in the United States Army
Woodrow Wilson had decided by then that the war had become a real threat to humanity. Unless the U. S. threw its weight into the war, as he stated in his declaration of war speech, Western civilization itself could be destroyed. His statement announcing a "war to end all wars" meant that he wanted to build a basis for peace that would prevent future catastrophic wars and needless death and destruction. This provided the basis of Wilson's Fourteen Points, which were intended to resolve territorial disputes, ensure free trade and commerce, and establish a peacemaking organization, which later emerged as the League of Nations. The Fourteen Points were listed in a speech delivered by President Woodrow Wilson of the United States to a joint session of the United The League of Nations was an International organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920
To stop defeatism at home, Wilson pushed the Espionage Act of 1917 and the Sedition Act of 1918 through Congress to suppress anti-British, pro-German, or anti-war opinions. The Espionage Act of 1917 was a United States federal law passed shortly after entering World War I on June 15 1917 which made it a Crime for a person The Sedition Act of 1918 was an amendment to the Espionage Act of 1917 passed at the urging of President Woodrow Wilson, who was concerned that dissent He welcomed socialists who supported the war, such as Walter Lippmann, but would not tolerate those who tried to impede the war or, worse, assassinate government officials, and pushed for deportation of foreign-born radicals. Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Walter Lippmann ( September 23, 1889 - December 14, 1974) was an influential American Writer, Journalist, and  Over 170,000 US citizens were arrested during this period, in some cases for things they said about the president in their own homes. Citing the Espionage Act, the U. S. Post Office refused to carry any written materials that could be deemed critical of the U. S. war effort. Some sixty newspapers were deprived of their second-class mailing rights.
His wartime policies were strongly pro-labor, though again, he had no love for radical unions like the Industrial Workers of the World. The Industrial Workers of the World ( IWW or the Wobblies) is an international union currently headquartered in Cincinnati Ohio, USA The American Federation of Labor and other 'moderate' unions saw enormous growth in membership and wages during Wilson's administration. The American Federation of Labor (AFL was one of the first federations of labor unions in the United States There was no rationing, so consumer prices soared. As income taxes increased, white-collar workers suffered. White-collar worker refers to a salaried professional or an educated Worker who performs semi-professional office administrative and sales coordination tasks as opposed to Appeals to buy war bonds were highly successful, however. War bonds are a type of Savings bond used by combatant nations to help fund a war effort and as a Monetary policy for controlling Inflation from an Bonds had the result of shifting the cost of the war to the affluent 1920s.
Wilson set up the first western propaganda office, the United States Committee on Public Information, headed by George Creel (thus its popular name, Creel Commission), which filled the country with patriotic anti-German appeals and conducted various forms of censorship. The Committee on Public Information, also known as the CPI and the Creel Committee, was an independent agency of the Government of the United States George Creel ( December 1, 1876 &ndash October 2, 1953) was an investigative journalist, a Politician, and most famously 
The American Protective League was a quasi-private organization with 250,000 members in 600 cities was sanctioned by the Wilson administration. The American Protective League was an American World War I -era private organization that worked with federal law enforcement agencies in support of the anti German Empire These men carried Government Issue badges and freely conducted warrantless searches and interrogations.  This organization was empowered by the U. S. Justice Department to spy on Americans for anti-government/anti war behavior. As national police, the APL checked up on people who failed to buy Liberty Bonds and spoke out against the government’s policies.
President Woodrow Wilson articulated what became known as the Fourteen Points before Congress on January 8, 1918. The Fourteen Points were listed in a speech delivered by President Woodrow Wilson of the United States to a joint session of the United The Points were the only war aims clearly expressed by any belligerent nation and thus became the basis for the Treaty of Versailles following World War I. The speech was highly idealistic, translating Wilson's progressive domestic policy of democracy, self-determination, open agreements, and free trade into the international realm. It also made several suggestions for specific disputes in Europe on the recommendation of Wilson's foreign policy adviser, Colonel Edward M. House, and his team of 150 advisers known as “The Inquiry. Edward Mandell House (July 26 1858 &ndash March 28 1938 was an American diplomat politician and presidential advisor The Inquiry was a study group established in 1917 by Woodrow Wilson to prepare materials for the peace negotiations following World War I. ” The points were:
The speech was controversial in America, and even more so with its Allies. France wanted high reparations from Germany as French agriculture, industry, and lives had been so demolished by the war; and Britain, as the great naval power, did not want freedom of the seas. Wilson compromised with Clemenceau, Lloyd George, and many other European leaders during the Paris Peace talks to ensure that the fourteenth point, the League of Nations, would be established. Georges Benjamin Clemenceau ( Mouilleron-en-Pareds ( Vendée) 28 September 1841 24 November 1929 was a French statesman physician and Journalist David Lloyd George 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor OM, PC (17 January 1863 &ndash 26 March 1945 was a British Statesman and the only The League of Nations was an International organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920 In the end, Wilson's own Congress did not accept the League and only four of the original Fourteen Points were implemented fully in Europe.
Between 1914 and 1918, the United States intervened in Latin America, particularly in Mexico, Haiti, Cuba, and Panama. The American Expeditionary Force Siberia (AEF Siberia was a United States Army force that was involved in the Russian Civil War in Vladivostok The Polar Bear Expedition (also known as the Northern Russian Expedition, the American North Russia Expeditionary Force - ANREF or the American The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Haiti ( English: ˈheɪ·tiː or haɪ·ˈjiː·tiː French Haïti a·i·ti Haitian Creole: The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la Panama, officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá) is the southernmost country of Central America. The U. S. maintained troops in Nicaragua throughout his administration and used them to select the president of Nicaragua and then to force Nicaragua to pass the Bryan-Chamorro Treaty. Nicaragua (ˌnɪkəˈrɑgwə officially the Republic of Nicaragua () is a representative democratic republic and the largest nation in Central America The Bryan-Chamorro Treaty was signed on August 5, 1914 under the approval of the Taft administration American troops in Haiti forced the Haitian legislature to choose the candidate Wilson selected as Haitian president. American troops occupied Haiti between 1915 and 1934.
After Russia left the war in 1917 following the Bolshevik Revolution, the Allies sent troops there, presumably, to prevent a German or Bolshevik takeover of allied-provided weapons, munitions and other supplies, which had been previously shipped as aid to the Czarist government. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The October Revolution (Октябрьская революция Oktyabrskaya revolyutsiya) also known as the Soviet Revolution The German people (Deutsche are an Ethnic group, in the sense of sharing a common German culture, descent and speaking the German language as The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists ( Большевик Большевист (singular, derived from bolshe, "more" were a faction Tsar csar and tzar redirect here For other uses see Tsar (disambiguation. Wilson sent armed forces to assist the withdrawal of Czech and Slovak prisoners along the Trans-Siberian Railway, hold key port cities at Arkangel and Vladivostok, and safeguard supplies sent to the Tsarist forces. Czechs (Češi ˈt͡ʃɛʃɪ archaic Čechové) are a western Slavic people of Central Europe, living predominantly in the Czech Republic } The Slovaks or Slovakians are a western Slavic People that primarily inhabit Slovakia and speak the Slovak language, which is The Trans-Siberian Railway or Trans-Siberian Railroad (Транссибирская магистраль Транссиб in Russian, or Transsibirskaya magistral' Arkhangelsk (Арха́нгельск formerly called Archangel in English, is a city and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast Vladivostok ( is Russia 's largest port city on the Pacific Ocean and the administrative center of Primorsky Krai. The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya Though not sent to engage the Bolsheviks, the U. S. forces had several armed conflicts against forces of the new Russian government. Wilson withdrew most of the soldiers on April 1, 1920, though some remained as late as 1922. As Davis and Trani conclude,
In response to the circumstances of the Armenians at the time, Wilson went before Congress seeking a mandate of U. S. intervention in the form of humanitarian aid. Humanitarian aid (also called succour) is material or logistical assistance provided for humanitarian purposes typically in response to humanitarian crises
In 1913 Henry Morgenthau Sr., was appointed ambassador to the Ottoman Empire. Henry Morgenthau (ˈmɔrgəntaʊ April 26, 1856 – November 25, 1946) was a businessman and United States ambassador, most famous An ambassador is the highest ranking Diplomat who represents their country The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish In his capacity as ambassador, Morgenthau did his best to blunt the consequences of the Ottoman actions'. A telegram detailing the "Armenian situation", was sent to Wilson, imparting the magnitude of the hardships faced by the Armenians. The full extent of the Genocide was discussed in Morgenthau's book Ambassador Morgenthau's Story. Ambassador Morgenthau's Story (1918 are the published memoirs of Henry Morgenthau Sr  A book dedicated by the ambassador to Wilson. 
Also, humanitarian aid was coordinated by the American Committee for Relief in the Near East, a society founded by Morgenthau. American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief after 1918 American Committee for Relief in the Near East (ACRNE in short Near East Relief was a relief organization
After World War I, Wilson participated in negotiations with the stated aim of assuring statehood for formerly oppressed nations and an equitable peace. On January 8, 1918, Wilson made his famous Fourteen Points address, introducing the idea of a League of Nations, an organization with a stated goal of helping to preserve territorial integrity and political independence among large and small nations alike. Events 871 - Battle of Ashdown - Ethelred of Wessex defeats a Danish invasion army Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Fourteen Points were listed in a speech delivered by President Woodrow Wilson of the United States to a joint session of the United
Wilson intended the Fourteen Points as a means toward ending the war and achieving an equitable peace for all the nations. He spent six months at Paris for the 1919 Paris Peace Conference (making him the first U. S. president to travel to Europe while in office). He worked tirelessly to promote his plan. The charter of the proposed League of Nations was incorporated into the conference's Treaty of Versailles. The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I.
For his peacemaking efforts, Wilson was awarded the 1919 Nobel Peace Prize. The Nobel Peace Prize ( Swedish, Danish and Nobels fredspris is one of five Nobel Prizes Bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor  However, Wilson failed to win US Senate support for ratification and the United States never joined the League. Republicans under Henry Cabot Lodge controlled the Senate after the 1918 elections, but Wilson refused to give them a voice at Paris and refused to agree to Lodge's proposed changes. This article is about Henry Cabot Lodge (1850-1924 a US politician in the early twentieth century The key point of disagreement was whether the League would diminish the power of Congress to declare war. Historians generally have come to regard Wilson's failure to win U. S. entry into the League as perhaps the biggest mistake of his administration, and even as one of the largest failures of any American presidency.  When President Wilson came to Europe to settle the peace terms, Wilson visited Pope Benedict XV in Rome, which made Wilson the first American President to visit the Pope while in office. Pope Benedict XV ( Latin: Benedictus PP XV) (Benedetto XV ( November 21 1854 &ndash January 22 1922 born Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista della Chiesa
Wilson had ignored the problems of demobilization after the war, and the process was chaotic and violent. Four million soldiers were sent home with little planning, little money, and few benefits. A wartime bubble in prices of farmland burst, leaving many farmers bankrupt or deeply in debt after they purchased new land. In 1919, major strikes in steel and meatpacking broke out.  Serious race riots hit Chicago and other cities.
After a series of bombings by radical anarchist groups in New York and elsewhere, Wilson directed Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer to put a stop to the violence. Alexander Mitchell Palmer (May 4 1872 - May 11 1936 was the Attorney General of the United States from 1919 to 1921 Palmer then ordered the Palmer Raids, with the aim of collecting evidence on violent radical groups, to deport foreign-born agitators, and jail domestic ones. The Palmer Raids were a series of controversial raids by the U 
Wilson broke with many of his closest political friends and allies in 1918-20, including Colonel House. Historians speculate that a series of strokes may have affected his personality. He desired a third term, but his Democratic party was in turmoil, with German voters outraged at their wartime harassment, and Irish voters angry at his failure to support Irish independence.
Wilson was sympathetic to the plight of Jews, especially in Poland and in France. As President, Wilson repeatedly stated in 1919 that U. S. policy was to "acquiesce" in the Balfour Declaration but not officially support Zionism. Balfour Declaration of 1917 (dated November 2 1917) was a Classified formal statement of Policy by the British government stating  After he left office Wilson wrote a letter of strong support to the idea of a Jewish state in Palestine and objected to territorial concessions regarding its borders. The terms " Jewish state " and " homeland of the Jewish people " are used to describe the State of Israel and refer to its status as a Nation-state Palestine is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River.  Also at this time, Justice Brandeis on the Supreme Court, was a supporter of Zionism. 
Until Wilson announced his support for suffrage, a group of women calling themselves Silent Sentinels protested in front of the White House, holding banners such as "Mr. The Silent Sentinels were a group of women in favor of women's Suffrage organized by Alice Paul to protest in front of the White House during Woodrow See also Executive Office of the President of the United States The White House, formerly known as the Executive Mansion, is the Official residence President—What will you do for woman suffrage? Absolutely nothing. " In January 1918, after years of lobbying and public demonstrations, Wilson finally announced his support of the 19th Amendment guaranteeing women the right to vote. The Nineteenth Amendment ( Amendment XIX) to the United States Constitution prohibits each of the states and the federal government from The Amendment passed the House but initially failed in the Senate. Finally, on June 4, 1919, the Senate passed the amendment.
The cause of his incapacitation was the physical strain of the demanding public speaking tour he undertook to obtain support of the American people for ratification of the Covenant of the League. After one of his final speeches to attempt to promote the League of Nations in Pueblo, Colorado, on September 25, 1919 he collapsed. The City of Pueblo (ˈpwɛbloʊ is a Home Rule Municipality that is the County seat and the most populous city of Pueblo County On October 2, 1919, Wilson suffered a serious stroke that almost totally incapacitated him, leaving him paralyzed on his left side and blind in his left eye. Events 1187 - Siege of Jerusalem: Saladin captures Jerusalem after 88 years of Crusader rule Year 1919 ( MCMXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common A stroke is the rapidly developing loss of brain functions due to a disturbance in the blood vessels supplying blood to the brain For at least a few months, he was confined to a wheelchair. Afterwards, he could walk only with the assistance of a cane. The full extent of his disability was kept from the public until after his death on February 3, 1924.
Wilson was purposely, with few exceptions, kept out of the presence of Vice President Thomas R. Marshall, his cabinet or Congressional visitors to the White House for the remainder of his presidential term. The Vice President of the United States is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death Thomas Riley Marshall (March 14 1854 June 1 1925 was an American Politician who served as the twenty-eighth Vice President of the United States of America The United States Cabinet (usually simplified as "the Cabinet" is composed of the most senior appointed officers of the Executive branch of the Federal government See also Executive Office of the President of the United States The White House, formerly known as the Executive Mansion, is the Official residence His first wife, Ellen, had died in 1914, so his second wife, Edith, served as his steward, selecting issues for his attention and delegating other issues to his cabinet heads. Ellen Louise Axson Wilson ( May 15, 1860 &ndash August 6, 1914) first wife of Woodrow Wilson, was First Lady of the United States Edith Bolling Galt Wilson ( October 15, 1872 &ndash December 28, 1961) second wife of Woodrow Wilson, was First Lady of the This was, as of 2008, the most serious case of presidential disability in American history and was later cited as a key example why ratification of the 25th Amendment was seen as important. The Twenty-fifth Amendment ( Amendment XXV) to the United States Constitution partially replaced the ambiguous wording of Article II Section 1 Clause
Wilson's chief of staff ("Secretary") was Joseph Patrick Tumulty 1913-1921, but he was largely upstaged after 1916 when Wilson's second wife, Edith Bolling Wilson, assumed full control of Wilson's schedule. Joseph Patrick Tumulty (pronounced TUM-ulty ( May 5, 1879 - April 19, 1954) was an American attorney and politician from New Jersey. Edith Bolling Galt Wilson ( October 15, 1872 &ndash December 28, 1961) second wife of Woodrow Wilson, was First Lady of the An important foreign policy advisor and confidant was "Colonel" Edward M. House. Edward Mandell House (July 26 1858 &ndash March 28 1938 was an American diplomat politician and presidential advisor
|Vice President||Thomas R. Marshall||1913–1921|
|Secretary of State||William J. Bryan||1913–1915|
|Secretary of the Treasury||William G. McAdoo||1913–1918|
|David F. Houston||1920–1921|
|Secretary of War||Lindley M. Garrison||1913–1916|
|Newton D. Baker||1916–1921|
|Attorney General||James C. McReynolds||1913–1914|
|Thomas W. Gregory||1914–1919|
|A. Mitchell Palmer||1919–1921|
|Postmaster General||Albert S. Burleson||1913–1921|
|Secretary of the Navy||Josephus Daniels||1913–1921|
|Secretary of the Interior||Franklin K. Lane||1913–1920|
|John B. Payne||1920–1921|
|Secretary of Agriculture||David F. Houston||1913–1920|
|Edwin T. Meredith||1920–1921|
|Secretary of Commerce||William C. Redfield||1913–1919|
|Joshua W. Alexander||1919–1921|
|Secretary of Labor||William B. Wilson||1913–1921|
Wilson appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States:
Wilson was a remarkably effective writer and thinker. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by The Vice President of the United States is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death Thomas Riley Marshall (March 14 1854 June 1 1925 was an American Politician who served as the twenty-eighth Vice President of the United States of America The United States Secretary of State (commonly abbreviated as SecState) is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with Foreign affairs For other persons of the same name see William Bryan and William Jennings. For the actor see Robert Lansing (actor. Robert Lansing ( October 17, 1864 &ndash October 30, 1928 Bainbridge Colby ( December 22, 1869 &ndash April 11, 1950) was an American lawyer a founder of the United States Progressive The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and until William Gibbs McAdoo ( October 31, 1863 &ndash February 1, 1941) was an American Lawyer and political leader who served Carter Glass ( January 4, 1858 &ndash May 28, 1946) was a Newspaper publisher and a American politician from Lynchburg David Franklin Houston ( February 17, 1866 &ndash September 2, 1940) was an American academic businessman and politician The Secretary of War was a member of the United States President's Cabinet, beginning with George Washington 's administration Lindley Miller Garrison ( November 28, 1864 &ndash October 19, 1932) was a New Jersey lawyer who served as Secretary of Newton Diehl Baker Jr ( December 3, 1871 &ndash December 25, 1937) was an American Politician of the United States The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement James Clark McReynolds ( February 3, 1862 &ndash August 24, 1946) was an American Lawyer and Judge who served Thomas Watt Gregory ( November 6, 1861 &ndash February 26, 1933) was an American attorney and Cabinet Secretary Alexander Mitchell Palmer (May 4 1872 - May 11 1936 was the Attorney General of the United States from 1919 to 1921 The United States Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. Albert Sidney Burleson (June 7 1863 &ndash November 24 1937 was a United States Postmaster General and Congressman. The United States Secretary of the Navy ( SECNAV) is the Civilian head of the Department of the Navy. Josephus Daniels ( May 18, 1862 &ndash January 15, 1948) was an American politician and newspaper publisher from North Carolina The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior. Franklin Knight Lane ( July 15, 1864 &ndash May 18, 1921) was a Canadian - American Democratic politician John Barton Payne ( January 26, 1855 &ndash January 24, 1935) was United States Secretary of the Interior from 1920 through 1921 The United States Secretary of Agriculture is the head of the United States Department of Agriculture. David Franklin Houston ( February 17, 1866 &ndash September 2, 1940) was an American academic businessman and politician Edwin Thomas Meredith ( December 23, 1876 in Avoca, Iowa – June 17, 1928) was a United States Secretary of Agriculture The United States Secretary of Commerce is the head of the United States Department of Commerce concerned with business and industry the Department states its mission to Joshua Willis Alexander ( January 22 1852 &ndash February 27 1936) was United States Secretary of Commerce from December 16 "Secretary of Labor" redirects here See also Secretary of Labor (Mexico. William Bauchop Wilson ( April 2, 1862 - May 25, 1934) was a U The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. James Clark McReynolds ( February 3, 1862 &ndash August 24, 1946) was an American Lawyer and Judge who served Louis Dembitz Brandeis ( November 13, 1856 – October 5, 1941) was an American litigator, Supreme Court Justice, advocate John Hessin Clarke ( September 18, 1857 – March 22, 1945) was an American lawyer and judge who served as an Associate Justice He composed speeches and other writings with two fingers on a little Hammond typewriter.  Wilson's diplomatic policies had a profound influence on shaping the world. Diplomatic historian Walter Russell Mead has explained:
American foreign relations since 1914 have rested on Wilsonian idealism, argues historian David Kennedy, even if adjusted somewhat by the "realism" represented by Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Henry Kissinger. Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German -born American bureaucrat diplomat and 1973 Kennedy argues that every president since Wilson has,
While president of Princeton University, Wilson discouraged blacks from even applying for admission. Princeton University is a private Coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey.  Princeton would not admit its first black student until the 1940s.
As President, Wilson allowed many of his cabinet officials to establish official segregation in most federal government offices, in some departments for the first time since 1863. "His administration imposed full racial segregation in Washington and hounded from office considerable numbers of black federal employees. " Wilson and his cabinet members fired many black Republican office holders in political appointee positions, but also appointed a few black Democrats to such posts. W. E. B. Du Bois, a leader of the NAACP, campaigned for Wilson and in 1918 was offered an Army commission in charge of dealing with race relations. William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (duːˈbɔɪz ( February 23, 1868 August 27, 1963) was an American Civil rights activist The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, usually abbreviated as NAACP, is one of the oldest and most influential Civil rights organizations (DuBois accepted, but he failed his Army physical and did not serve. ) When a delegation of blacks protested the discriminatory actions, Wilson told them that "segregation is not a humiliation but a benefit, and ought to be so regarded by you gentlemen. " In 1914, he told the New York Times, "If the colored people made a mistake in voting for me, they ought to correct it. "
Wilson was attacked by African Americans for his actions. He was also criticized by southern hard-line racists such as Georgian Thomas E. Watson, who believed Wilson did not go far enough in restricting black employment in the federal government. For the US Marine Corps general see Thomas E Watson (USMC (1892-1966 The segregation introduced into the federal workforce by the Wilson administration was kept in place by the succeeding presidents and not officially ended until the Truman Administration.
Woodrow Wilson's History of the American People explained the Ku Klux Klan of the late 1860s as the natural outgrowth of Reconstruction, a lawless reaction to a lawless period. Ku Klux Klan ( KKK) is the name of several past and present secret domestic terrorist organizations in the United States, generally in the southern states that are Wilson noted that the Klan “began to attempt by intimidation what they were not allowed to attempt by the ballot or by any ordered course of public action. ” Although it is unclear whether Wilson's harsh critique of the Reconstruction was colored by his personal racist beliefs, it is clear that his critique provided much of the intellectual/historical justification for the racist policies/reactions of the 20th century American South.
Indeed, Wilson's words were repeatedly quoted in the film The Birth of a Nation, which is notable for its blatant racism. The Birth of a Nation (also known as The Clansman) a Silent film directed by D Thomas Dixon, author of the novel The Clansman upon which the film is based, was one of Wilson's graduate school classmates at Johns Hopkins in 1883-1884. Thomas F Dixon Jr ( January 11, 1864 &ndash April 3, 1946) was an American Baptist minister Playwright, The Clansman is the title of a novel published in 1905 and the play based on it Dixon arranged a special White House preview (this was the first time a film was shown in the White House) without telling Wilson what the film was about. See also Executive Office of the President of the United States The White House, formerly known as the Executive Mansion, is the Official residence There is debate about whether Wilson made the statement, "It is like writing history with lightning; my only regret is that it is all so terribly true. ", or whether it was invented by a film publicist. It was widely circulated.  Others argue Wilson believed he had been tricked by Dixon and in public statements claimed he did not like the film; Wilson blocked its showing during the war.  In a 1923 letter to Senator Morris Sheppard of Texas, Wilson noted of the reborn Klan, “. John Morris Sheppard ( May 28, 1875 - April 9, 1941) was a Democratic United States Congressman and United States Senator Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. . . no more obnoxious or harmful organization has ever shown itself in our affairs. ” Although Wilson had a volatile relationship with American blacks, he was a friend of the Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie, a black African monarch. Haile Selassie I ( Ge'ez: am ኃይለ፡ ሥላሴ "Power of the Trinity " 23 July 1892 &ndash 27 August 1975 born Tafari Makonnen, was A sword, a gift from Selassie, is on display at Wilson's Washington, DC house, now a museum. 
Wilson had harsh words to say about immigrants in his history books. But after he entered politics in 1910, Wilson worked to integrate immigrants into the Democratic party, into the army, and into American life. During the war, he demanded in return that they repudiate any loyalty to enemy nations.
Irish Americans were powerful in the Democratic party and opposed going to war as allies of their traditional enemy Great Britain, especially after the violent suppression of the Easter Rebellion of 1916. Irish Americans (Gael-Mheiriceánach are citizens of the United States who can claim ancestry originating in Ireland. The Easter Rising (Éirí Amach na Cásca was a rebellion staged in Ireland in Easter Week, 1916 Wilson won them over in 1917 by promising to ask Great Britain to give Ireland its independence. At Versailles, however, he reneged and the Irish-American community vehemently denounced him. Wilson, in turn, blamed the Irish Americans and German Americans for lack of popular support for the League of Nations, saying,
In 1921, Wilson and his wife retired from the White House to a home in the Embassy Row section of Washington, D.C. Wilson continued going for daily drives and attended Keith's vaudeville theater on Saturday nights. Washington National Cathedral, whose official name is the Cathedral Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul is a Cathedral of The Episcopal Church. This article is about Embassy Row in Washington DC See Embassy Row (disambiguation for additional uses Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Vaudeville was a Genre of variety entertainment prevalent on the stage in the United States and Canada, from the early 1880s Wilson was one of only two Presidents (Theodore Roosevelt was the first) who had been president of the American Historical Association. Theodore Roosevelt (ˈroʊzəvɛlt October 27 1858 January 6 1919 also known as T The American Historical Association ( AHA) is the oldest and largest society of Historians and Teachers of History in the United States
Wilson died in his S Street home on February 3, 1924. Events 1112 - Ramon Berenguer III of Barcelona and Douce I of Provence marry uniting the fortunes of those two states Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Because his plan for the League of Nations ultimately failed, he died feeling that he had lied to the American people and that his motives for joining the war had been in vain. The League of Nations was an International organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920 He was buried in Washington National Cathedral. Washington National Cathedral, whose official name is the Cathedral Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul is a Cathedral of The Episcopal Church.
Mrs. Wilson stayed in the home another 37 years, dying on December 28, 1961. Events 1065 - Westminster Abbey is Consecrated. 1308 - The reign of Emperor Hanazono, Emperor of Year 1961 ( MCMLXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. She passed away with her favorite dog, Rooter, at her bedside. Mrs. Wilson left the home to the National Trust for Historic Preservation to be made into a museum honoring her husband. The National Trust for Historic Preservation is an American member-supported organization that was founded in 1949 by Congressional charter to support preservation Woodrow Wilson House opened as a museum. The Woodrow Wilson House was the residence of the Twenty-Eighth President of the United States, Woodrow Wilson. It is also on the National Register of Historic Places. The National Register of Historic Places (NRHP is the United States government's official list of districts sites buildings structures and objects deemed worthy of
Francis L. The National Governors Association (NGA is a primarily taxpayer-funded lobbying Organization of the Governors of the fifty U Patton
|President of Princeton University|
1902 – 1910
John Grier Hibben
John Franklin Fort
|Governor of New Jersey|
January 17, 1911 – March 1, 1913
James Fairman Fielder
William Howard Taft
|President of the United States|
March 4, 1913 – March 4, 1921
Warren G. Harding
|Party political offices|
William Jennings Bryan
|Democratic Party presidential candidate|
James M. Cox
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Wilson, Thomas Woodrow|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||28th President of the United States|
|DATE OF BIRTH||December 28, 1856|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Staunton, Virginia, United States|
|DATE OF DEATH||February 3, 1924|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Washington, D.C., United States|