A wing is a surface used to produce lift for flight through the air or another gaseous medium. The Laughing Gull, Leucophaeus atricilla, is a medium-sized Gull of North and South America. The gull wing is an aircraft configuration with a prominent bend in the Wing somewhere along the span, generally near the Wing root. Overview Fixed-wing aircraft range from small training and recreational aircraft to Wide-body aircraft and military cargo aircraft. A planform or Plan view is a vertical Orthographic projection of an object on a horizontal plane like a Map. A swept-wing is a wing Planform common on high-speed Aircraft, with the wing swept back instead of being set at right angles to the Fuselage. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Aerial refueling, also called air refueling, in-flight refueling ( IFR) air-to-air refueling ( AAR) or tanking, is In the context of a Fluid flow relative to a body the lift force is the component of the Aerodynamic force that is Perpendicular to the flow Flight is the process by which an object achieves sustained movement either through the Air (or movement beyond Earth's atmosphere, in the case of Temperature and layers The temperature of the Earth's atmosphere varies with altitude the mathematical relationship between temperature and altitude varies among five This page is about the physical properties of gas as a state of matter The wing shape is usually an airfoil. An airfoil (in American English) or aerofoil (in British English) is the shape of a Wing or blade (of a Propeller, rotor The word originally refered only to the foremost limbs of birds, but has been extended to include the wings of insects, bats, pterosaurs, and aircraft. A limb (from the Old English lim) is a jointed or Prehensile (as Octopus tentacles or new world Monkey tails Appendage of the Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs. Insects ( Class Insecta) are a major group of Arthropods and the most diverse group of Animals on the Earth with over a million described For other meanings see Pterodactyl (disambiguation. Pterosaurs (ˈtɛrəsɔr from the Greek πτερόσαυρος pterosauros
A wing's aerodynamic quality is expressed as a Lift-to-drag ratio. In Aerodynamics, the lift-to-drag ratio, or L/D ratio ("ell-over-dee" in the US "ell-dee" in the UK is the amount of lift generated The lift generated by a wing at a given speed and angle of attack can be 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than the drag. Angle of attack ( AOA, \alpha Greek letter alpha) is a term used in Aerodynamics to describe the Angle between the An order of magnitude is the class of scale or magnitude of any amount where each class contains values of a fixed ratio to the class preceding it In Fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called fluid resistance) is the force that resists the movement of a Solid object through a Fluid (a This means that a significantly smaller thrust force can be applied to propel the wing through the air in order to obtain a specified lift. Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newton 's Second and Third Laws.
Airplane wings may feature some of the following:
The science of wings is one of the principal applications of the science of aerodynamics.
In order for a wing to produce lift it has to be at a positive angle to the airflow. In that case a low pressure region is generated on the upper surface of the wing which draws the air above the wing downwards towards what would otherwise be a void after the wing had passed. Pressure (symbol 'p' is the force per unit Area applied to an object in a direction perpendicular to the surface On the underside of the wing a high pressure region forms accelerating the air there downwards out of the path of the oncoming wing. The pressure difference between these two regions produces an upwards force on the wing, called lift.
The pressure differences, the acceleration of the air and the lift on the wing are intrinsically one mechanism. It is therefore possible to derive the value of one by calculating another. For example lift can be calculated by reference to the pressure differences or by calculating the energy used to accelerate the air. Both approaches will result in the same answer if done correctly. Debates over which mathematical approach is the more convenient can be wrongly perceived as differences of opinion about the principles of flight and often create unnecessary confusion in the mind of the layman.
For a more detailed coverage see lift (force). In the context of a Fluid flow relative to a body the lift force is the component of the Aerodynamic force that is Perpendicular to the flow
A common misconception is that it is the shape of the wing that is essential to generate lift by having a longer path on the top rather than the underside. This is not the case, thin flat wings can produce lift efficiently and aircraft with cambered wings can fly inverted as long as the nose of the aircraft is pointed high enough so as to present the wing at a positive angle of attack to the airflow.
The common aerofoil shape of wings is due to a large number of factors many of them not at all related to aerodynamic issues, for example wings need strength and thus need to be thick enough to contain structural members. They also need room to contain items such as fuel, control mechanisms and retracted undercarriage. The primary aerodynamic input to the wing’s cross sectional shape is the need to keep the air flowing smoothly over the entire surface for the most efficient operation. In particular, there is a requirement to prevent the low-pressure gradient that accelerates the air down the back of the wing becoming too great and effectively “sucking” the air off the surface of the wing. If this happens the wing surface from that point backwards becomes substantially ineffective.
The shape chosen by the designer is a compromise dependent upon the intended operational ranges of airspeed, angles of attack and wing loadings. Usually aircraft wings have devices, such as flaps, which allow the pilot to modify shape and surface area of the wing to be able to change its operating characteristics in flight. Flaps are hinged surfaces on the trailing edge of the wings of a Fixed-wing aircraft.
The science of wings applies in other areas beyond conventional fixed-wing aircraft, including:
Structures with the same purpose as wings, but designed to operate in liquid media, are generally called fins or hydroplanes, with hydrodynamics as the governing science. fin is a surface used to produce lift and Thrust or to steer while traveling in Water, air or other Fluid media Fluid dynamics is the sub-discipline of Fluid mechanics dealing with fluid flow: Fluids ( Liquids and Gases in motion Applications arise in craft such as hydrofoils and submarines. A hydrofoil is a Boat with wing-like foils mounted on struts below the hull. A submarine is a Watercraft that can operate independently below water as distinct from a Submersible that has only limited underwater capability Sailing boats use both fins and wings. Sailing is the art of controlling a Sailing vessel. By changing the Rigging, Rudder and dagger or centre board a Sailor manages the force