Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of grape juice. The process of fermentation in Wine is the Catalyst function that turns Grape juice into an Alcoholic beverage. For the Tokyo University supercomputer see Gravity Pipe. GRAPE, or GRA phics P rogramming E nvironment is  The natural chemical balance of grapes is such that they can ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes or other nutrients.  Wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast which consume the sugars found in the grapes and convert them into alcohol. Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic Microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with about 1500 Species currently described Various varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts are used depending on the types of wine produced. 
Although other fruits such as apples and berries can also be fermented, the resultant "wines" are normally named after the fruit from which they are produced (for example, apple wine or elderberry wine) and are generically known as fruit or country wine. "Elderberry Wine" redirects here For the Elton John song of the same name see Don't Shoot Me I'm Only the Piano Player. "Elderberry Wine" redirects here For the Elton John song of the same name see Don't Shoot Me I'm Only the Piano Player. Others, such as barley wine and rice wine (e. Barley wine or Barleywine is a style of strong Ale originating in England in the nineteenth century (derived from the March or October beers Rice wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from Rice. Unlike Wine, which is made by fermentation of naturally sweet Grapes and other g. sake), are made from starch-based materials and resemble beer and spirit more than wine, while ginger wine is fortified with brandy. Beer is the world's oldest and most widely consumed Alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea The English word " spirit " comes from the Latin " spiritus " (breath Ginger Wine is a Fortified wine made from a fermented blend of ground Ginger and raisins that was first produced in England. Fortified wine is Wine to which alcohol (usually Brandy) has been added In these cases, the use of the term "wine" is a reference to the higher alcohol content, rather than production process.  The commercial use of the English word "wine" (and its equivalent in other languages) is protected by law in many jurisdictions. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland 
Wine has a rich history dating back to around 6000 BC and is thought to have originated in areas now within the borders of Georgia and Iran. Georgia ( საქართველო, Sakartvelo) is a Transcontinental country in the Caucasus region situated at the dividing line between For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics.  Wine probably appeared in Europe at about 4500 BC in what is now Bulgaria and Greece, and was very common in ancient Greece, Thrace and Rome. The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca Thrace (Тракия Trakiya or "Trakija" or Trakia, Θράκη Thráki, Trakya is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe Ancient Rome played a pivotal role in the history of Wine. The earliest influences of Viticulture on the Italian peninsula Wine has also played an important role in religion throughout history. The Greek god Dionysos and the Roman god Bacchus represented wine, and the drink is also used in Christian and Jewish ceremonies such as the Eucharist and Kiddush. Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs and rituals practiced in Ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and cult practices. In Classical mythology, Dionysus or Dionysos (in Greek, Διόνυσος or Διώνυσος; associated with Roman Ancient Roman religion encompasses the collection of Beliefs and Rituals practised in Ancient Rome in the form of Cult practices In Classical mythology, Dionysus or Dionysos (in Greek, Διόνυσος or Διώνυσος; associated with Roman A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ The Eucharist, also called Holy Communion or Lord's Supper and other names is a Christian Sacrament by which in a common interpretation those Kiddush ( Hebrew: קידוש literally "sanctification" is a blessing recited over Wine or Grape juice to sanctify the Shabbat
The word "wine" derives from the Proto-Germanic *winam, an early borrowing from the Latin vinum, "wine" or "(grape) vine", itself derived from the Proto-Indo-European stem *win-o- (cf. Proto-Germanic, or Common Germanic, is the hypothetical common ancestor ( Proto-language) of all the Germanic languages such as modern English Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. A vine is any plant of Genus Vitis (the Grape plants or by extension any similar climbing or trailing plant Ancient Greek οῖνος - oînos, Aeolic Greek ϝοίνος - woinos). The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage in the development of the Hellenic language family spanning the Archaic (c Aeolic Greek (also known as Lesbian Greek) is a linguistic term used to describe a set of rather archaic Greek sub- Dialects spoken  Similar words for wine or grapes are found in the Semitic languages (cf. The Semitic languages are a Language family whose living representatives are spoken by more than 467 million people across much of the Middle East, Arabic ﻭﻳﻦ wayn) and in Georgian (ğvino); some consider the term to be a wanderwort, or "wandering word". Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Georgian (ka ქართული ენა kartuli ena) is the Official language of Georgia, a country in the Caucasus. A Wanderwort (plural Wanderwörter, German for "wandering word") is a word that was spread among numerous languages and cultures usually in connection 
Archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest wine production came from sites in Georgia and Iran, from as early as 6000 BC. The history of Wine spans thousands of years and is closely intertwined with the history of Agriculture, Cuisine, Civilization and Georgia ( საქართველო, Sakartvelo) is a Transcontinental country in the Caucasus region situated at the dividing line between For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. 
The oldest known evidence of wine production in Europe is dated to 4500 BC and comes from archaeological sites in Greece. Symposium originally referred to a drinking party (the Greek verb sympotein means "to drink together" but has since come to refer to any Academic conference  The same sites also contain the world’s earliest evidence of crushed grapes.  In ancient Egypt, wine became a part of recorded history, playing an important role in ceremonial life. Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now A ceremony is an activity infused with Ritual significance performed on a special occasion Traces of wine have also been found in China, dating from the second and first millennia BC. 
In medieval Europe, the Roman Catholic Church was a staunch supporter of wine since it was necessary for the celebration of Mass. Eucharist in the Catholic Church refers to both the celebration of the Mass that is the Eucharistic Liturgy, and the consecrated bread and wine which In places such as Germany, beer was banned and considered pagan and barbaric, while wine consumption was viewed as civilized and a sign of conversion to Christianity. Beer is the world's oldest and most widely consumed Alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning "country dweller rustic" is a word used to refer to various religions and religious beliefs from across the world "Barbarian" is a pejorative term for an uncivilized person either in a general reference to a member of a nation or Ethnos perceived Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings 
In the Islamic world, wine was forbidden during the Islamic Golden Age. The term Muslim world (or Islamic world) has several meanings After Geber and other Muslim chemists pioneered the distillation of wine, however, it was legalized for cosmetic and medical uses. For the 12th century astronomer see Jabir ibn Aflah. For the anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist see Pseudo-Geber. Distillation is a method of separating Mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture  In fact, the 10th-century Persian philosopher and scientist Al Biruni described recipes where herbs, minerals and even gemstones are mixed with wine for medicinal purposes. Wine became so revered and its effect so feared that elaborate theories were developed about which gemstones would best counteract its negative side effects. 
Wine is usually made from one or more varieties of the European species Vitis vinifera, such as Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, or Merlot. This is a list of varieties of cultivated Grapes whether used for Wine, or eating as a Table grape, fresh or dried ( Raisin, currant, sultana In Botanical nomenclature or biological nomenclature variety is a low-level Taxonomic rank below that of species and signifies members of different populations can In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank. Vitis vinifera ( Common Grape Vine) is a species of Vitis, native to the Mediterranean region, central Europe, and Pinot noir ('pino nwar is a red Wine Grape variety of the species Vitis vinifera. Chardonnay is a green-skinned Grape variety used to make white Wine. Merlot ('MERL-oh' in British English mer-LOH in American English and standard French is a red Wine Grape that is used as both a blending grape and for When one of these varieties is used as the predominant grape (usually defined by law as a minimum of 75 or 85%), the result is a varietal, as opposed to a blended, wine. Varietal describes Wines made primarily from a single named Grape variety. Blended wines are not considered inferior to varietal wines; in fact, some of the world's most valued and expensive wines, from regions like Bordeaux and the Rhone Valley, are blended from different grape varieties of the same vintage. ( Gascon: Bordèu) is a port city in southwest France, with one million inhabitants in its metropolitan area at a 2008 estimate The Rhône wine region in Southern France is situated in the Rhône river valley and produces numerous wines under various Appellation d'origine contrôlée Vintage, in Wine -making is the process of picking Grapes and creating the finished product
Wine can also be made from other species of grape or from hybrids, created by the genetic crossing of two species. In Biology, hybrid has two meanings The first meaning is the result of interbreeding between two animals or plants of different taxa. Vitis labrusca (of which the Concord grape is a cultivar), Vitis aestivalis, Vitis rupestris, Vitis rotundifolia and Vitis riparia are native North American grapes usually grown for consumption as fruit or for the production of grape juice, jam, or jelly, but sometimes made into wine. Vitis labrusca ( Fox grape) is a Species of Grape native to the eastern United States. Concord grapes are a Cultivar derived from the Grape species Vitis labrusca (a A cultivar is a cultivated Plant that has been selected and given a unique name because of its decorative or useful characteristics it is usually distinct from similar Vitis aestivalis ( Summer Grape) is a species of grape native to eastern North America from southern Ontario east to Vermont Vitis rupestris is a kind of Grape native to the Southern and Western United States. Muscadines ( Vitis rotundifolia) are a grapevine species native to the present-day southeastern United States that has been extensively cultivated since Vitis riparia Michx also commonly known as River Bank Grape or Frost Grape, is a native American climbing or trailing Vine,
Hybridization is not to be confused with the practice of grafting. Grafting is a method of asexual Plant propagation widely used in Agriculture and Horticulture where the tissues of one Plant are encouraged to Most of the world's vineyards are planted with European V. vinifera vines that have been grafted onto North American species rootstock. This is common practice because North American grape species are resistant to phylloxera, a root louse that eventually kills the vine. This article is about the grape phylloxera For the Genus, see Phylloxera (genus. In the late 19th century, Europe's vineyards were devastated by the bug, leading to massive vine deaths and eventual replanting. Grafting is done in every wine-producing country of the world except for the Canary Islands, Chile and Argentina, which are the only ones that have not yet been exposed to the insect. 
In the context of wine production, terroir is a concept that encompasses the varieties of grapes used, elevation and shape of the vineyard, type and chemistry of soil, climate and seasonal conditions, and the local yeast cultures. Terroir (/t̪εʁwaʁ/ in French (terruño pago was originally a French term in Wine, Coffee and Tea used to denote the special characteristics The range of possibilities here can result in great differences between wines, influencing the fermentation, finishing, and aging processes as well. Many wineries use growing and production methods that preserve or accentuate the aroma and taste influences of their unique terroir.  However, flavor differences are not desirable for producers of mass-market table wine or other cheaper wines, where consistency is more important. In the United States table wine is used as a legal definition to differentiate standard Wine from stronger (higher alcohol content Fortified wine or Such producers will try to minimize differences in sources of grapes by using production techniques such as micro-oxygenation, tannin filtration, cross-flow filtration, thin film evaporation, and spinning cones. Micro-oxygenation is a process used in Winemaking to introduce Oxygen into wine in a controlled manner 
Regulations govern the classification and sale of wine in many regions of the world. The classification of Wine can be done according to various methods including but not limited to place of origin or Appellation, vinification methods European wines tend to be classified by region (e. g. Bordeaux and Chianti), while non-European wines are most often classified by grape (e. Chianti is a famous Red wine of Italy, which takes its name from a traditional region of Tuscany where it is produced g. Pinot Noir and Merlot). Pinot noir ('pino nwar is a red Wine Grape variety of the species Vitis vinifera. Merlot ('MERL-oh' in British English mer-LOH in American English and standard French is a red Wine Grape that is used as both a blending grape and for More and more, however, market recognition of particular regions is leading to their increased prominence on non-European wine labels. Examples of recognized locales include: Napa Valley in California, Barossa Valley in Australia, Willamette Valley in Oregon, Marlborough in New Zealand, and Douro in Portugal. Napa Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in Napa County, California, USA. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. The Barossa Valley is a major wine-producing region and tourist destination of South Australia, located 60 km northeast of Adelaide. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The Willamette Valley () is the region in northwest Oregon in the United States that surrounds the Willamette River as it proceeds northward from its emergence Oregon ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Geography Marlborough's geography can be roughly divided into four sections New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula.
Some blended wine names are marketing terms, and the use of these names is governed by trademark or copyright law rather than by specific wine laws. A trademark or trade mark, represented by the symbols ™ and ®, or mark is a distinctive sign or indicator used by an individual Copyright is a legal concept enacted by Governments, giving the creator of an original work of authorship Exclusive rights to control its distribution usually for For example, Meritage (sounds like "heritage") is generally a Bordeaux-style blend of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, and may also include Cabernet Franc, Petit Verdot, and Malbec. Meritage is a word used to distinguish Wines that are made in the style of red Bordeaux but without infringing on that region's legally Protected designation of Cabernet Sauvignon is one of the world's most widely recognized red Wine grape varieties. Cabernet Franc is one of the major varieties of red Wine Grape in Bordeaux Petit verdot is a variety of red Wine Grape, principally used in classic Bordeaux blends Malbec is a variety of Grape used in making Red wine. The grapes tend to have an inky dark colour and robust Tannins Long known as one of the Commercial use of the term "Meritage" is allowed only via licensing agreements with an organization called the "Meritage Association".
France has an appellation system based on the concept of terroir, with classifications which range from Vin de Table ("table wine") at the bottom, through Vin de Pays and Vin Délimité de Qualité Supérieure (VDQS) up to Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC). An appellation is a Geographical indication used to identify where the Grapes for a Wine were grown In the United States table wine is used as a legal definition to differentiate standard Wine from stronger (higher alcohol content Fortified wine or Vin de pays is a French term meaning "country wine" Vins de pays are a step in the French wine classification which is above the table wine ( Vin de table Vin Délimité de Qualité Superieure ("Delimited Wine of Superior Quality" usually abbreviated as VDQS, is the second highest category of French wine, Appellation d’origine contrôlée ( AOC) which translates as "controlled term of origin" is the French certification granted to certain French  Portugal has something similar and, in fact, pioneered this technique back in 1756 with a royal charter which created the "Demarcated Douro Region" and regulated wine production and trade. . Germany did likewise in 2002, although their system has not yet achieved the authority of those of the other countries'.  Spain and Italy have classifications which are based on a dual system of region of origin and quality of product. 
New World wine—wines from outside of the traditional wine growing regions of Europe—tend to be classified by grape rather than by terroir or region of origin, although there have been non-official attempts to classify them by quality. New World wines are those Wines produced outside the traditional wine-growing areas of Europe, in particular from Argentina, Australia, Canada 
A "vintage wine" is one made from grapes that were all or mostly grown in a single specified year, and labeled as such. Vintage, in Wine -making is the process of picking Grapes and creating the finished product (Most countries allow a vintage wine to include a portion of wine that is not from the labeled vintage. ) Variations in a wine's character from year to year can include subtle differences in color, palate, nose, body and development. Good quality red table wines in particular can improve in flavor with age if properly stored.  Consequently, it is not uncommon for wine enthusiasts and traders to save bottles of an especially good vintage wine for future consumption.
In the United States, for a wine to be vintage dated and labeled with a country of origin or American Viticultural Area (AVA) (such as "Napa Valley"), it must contain at least 95% of its volume from grapes harvested in that year. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the An American Viticultural Area is a designated Wine Grape -growing region in the United States distinguishable by geographic features with boundaries Napa County is a County located north of the San Francisco Bay Area in the U  If a wine is not labeled with a country of origin or AVA the percentage requirement is lowered to 85%. 
Vintage wines are generally bottled in a single batch so that each bottle will have a similar taste. Climate can have a big impact on the character of a wine to the extent that different vintages from the same vineyard can vary dramatically in flavor and quality.  Thus, vintage wines are produced to be individually characteristic of the vintage and to serve as the flagship wines of the producer. Superior vintages, from reputable producers and regions, will often fetch much higher prices than their average vintages. Some vintage wines, like Brunellos, are only made in better-than-average years. Brunello di Montalcino ( brew NEL lo de mon tal CHEE no) is a red Italian wine produced in the Vineyards surrounding the town of Montalcino located
Non-vintage wines can be blended from more than one vintage for consistency, a process which allows wine makers to keep a reliable market image and maintain sales even in bad years.  One recent study suggests that for normal drinkers, vintage year may not be as significant to perceived wine quality as currently thought, although wine connoisseurs continue to place great importance on it. 
Wine tasting is the sensory examination and evaluation of wine. Wine tasting (often in wine circles simply tasting) is the sensory examination and evaluation of Wine. Wines may be classified by their effect on the drinker's palate. The palate (ˈpælɨt is the roof of the Mouth in humans and Vertebrate animals They are made up of chemical compounds which are similar or identical to those in fruits, vegetables, and spices. A spice is a dried Seed, Fruit, Root, Bark or vegetative substance used in Nutritionally insignificant quantities as a Food additive The sweetness of wine is determined by the amount of residual sugar in the wine after fermentation, relative to the acidity present in the wine. The sweetness of a Wine is defined by the level of residual sugar (or RS in the fermentation proces Dry wine, for example, has only a small amount of residual sugar. The sweetness of a Wine is defined by the level of residual sugar (or RS in the fermentation proces Inexperienced wine drinkers often tend to mistake the taste of ripe fruit for sweetness when, in fact, the wine in question is very dry.
Individual flavors may also be detected, due to the complex mix of organic molecules such as esters and terpenes that grape juice and wine can contain. Esters are a class of Chemical compounds and Functional groups Esters consist of an inorganic or organic Acid in which at least Terpenes are a large and varied class of Hydrocarbons, produced primarily by a wide variety of plants particularly Conifers though also by some insects such Tasters often can distinguish between flavors characteristic of a specific grape (e. g. , Chianti and sour cherry) and flavors that result from other factors in wine making, either intentional or not. Chianti is a famous Red wine of Italy, which takes its name from a traditional region of Tuscany where it is produced The most typical intentional flavor elements in wine are those that are imparted by aging in oak casks; chocolate, vanilla, or coffee almost always come from the oak and not the grape itself. 
Banana flavors (isoamyl acetate) are the product of yeast metabolism, as are spoilage aromas such as sweaty, barnyard, band-aid (4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol), and rotten egg (hydrogen sulfide). Refractive index | --> Isoamyl acetate, also known as isopentyl acetate, is an Organic compound that is the Ester formed from Isoamyl 4-Ethylphenol, often abbreviated to 4-EP is a Phenolic compound with the molecular formula C8H10O 4-Ethylguaiacol, often abbreviated to 4-EG, is a Phenolic compound with the molecular formula C9H12O2 Hydrogen sulfide (or hydrogen sulphide) is the Chemical compound with the formula H 2 S.  Some varietals can also have a mineral flavor, because some salts are soluble in water (like limestone), and are absorbed by the wine.
Wine aroma comes from volatile compounds in the wine that are released into the air.  Vaporization of these compounds can be sped up by twirling the wine glass or serving the wine at room temperature. For red wines that are already highly aromatic, like Chinon and Beaujolais, many people prefer them chilled. Chinon is a commune in the Indre-et-Loire department in central France. Beaujolais is a French Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC Wine generally made of the Gamay Grape which has a thin 
At the highest end, rare, super-premium wines are the most expensive of all food, and outstanding vintages from the best vineyards may sell for thousands of dollars per bottle. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been Such wines are considered by some to be Veblen goods—that is, goods for which demand increases instead of decreases as its price rises. In Economics, Veblen goods are a theoretical group of commodities for which peoples' preference for buying them increases as a direct function of their The most common wines purchased for investment include those from Bordeaux, cult wines from California, and Vintage port. A Bordeaux wine is any Wine produced in the Bordeaux region of France. Cult wines are those for which dedicated groups of committed enthusiasts will pay large sums of money California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. Port wine (also known as Vinho do Porto, Oporto, Porto, and often simply Port) is a Portuguese, Fortified Characteristics of highly collectible wines include:
Investment in fine wine has attracted fraudsters who prey on their victims' ignorance of this sector of the wine market.  Wine fraudsters often work by charging excessively high prices for off-vintage or lower-status wines from famous wine regions, while claiming that they are offering a sound investment unaffected by economic cycles. Wine fraud is a form of Fraud in which Wines are sold to a customer illicitly usually having the customer spend more money than the product is worth or causing sickness The term business cycle or economic cycle refers to the fluctuations of economic activity during its long term growth trend Like any investment, proper research is essential before investing. Counterfeiting of labels and bottles is another scam that is frequently encountered in auctions of famous wines such as 1982 Pétrus. Pétrus is a red Bordeaux wine of the Pomerol appellation made almost entirely from the Merlot Grape.
(with link to wine article)
Wine grapes grow almost exclusively between thirty and fifty degrees north or south of the equator. The following is a list of wine-producing countries and their volume of wine production for the year 2005 in Metric tonnes Data is reported from the Food This list of wine-producing regions catalogues significant Growing regions where Vineyards are planted This article is about the tonne or metric ton For other tons see Ton. French wine is produced in several regions throughout France, on over 800000 Hectares (over 2 million Acres of Vineyards and in a typical Italian wine is Wine produced in Italy, a Country which is home to some of the oldest wine-producing regions in the world Spanish wines are wines produced in the southwestern European country of Spain. American wine has been produced for over 300 years Today Wine production is performed in all fifty states with California leading the way in wine production followed Argentine wine, as with some aspects of Argentine cuisine, has its roots in Spain. The Australian wine industry is the fourth-largest exporter in the world exporting over 400 million litres a year to a large international export market that includes "old world" Wine in China (葡萄酒 pinyin pútáo jiǔ refers to Grape Wines that are produced in China. South African wine has a history dating back to 1659, and at one time Constantia was considered one of the greatest wines in the world Chilean wine is Wine made in the South American country of Chile. German wine is primarily produced in the southwest of Germany, along River Rhine and its tributaries with the oldest plantations going back to the Roman The equator (sometimes referred to colloquially as "the Line") is the intersection of the Earth 's surface with the plane perpendicular to the The world's southernmost vineyards are in the Central Otago region of New Zealand's South Island near the 45th parallel, and the northernmost are in Flen, Sweden, just north of the 59th parallel. Administration The Central Otago District Council based in Alexandra controls territorial authority matters while the Otago The South Island is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand, the other being the more populous North Island. Flen is a town (pop 6100 in Södermanland, Sweden and the seat of Flen Municipality, Södermanland County. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. 
Wine is a popular and important beverage that accompanies and enhances a wide range of European and Mediterranean-style cuisines, from the simple and traditional to the most sophisticated and complex. A drink, or beverage, is a Liquid specifically prepared for Human consumption European cuisine, or alternatively Western cuisine is a generalized term collectively referring to the Cuisines of Europe and other Western countries The Mediterranean diet is a modern nutritional recommendation inspired by the traditional dietary patterns of some of the countries of the Mediterranean Basin. Cuisine (from French cuisine, "cooking culinary art kitchen" ultimately from Latin coquere, "to cook" is a specific set Wine is important in cuisine not just for its value as a beverage, but as a flavor agent, primarily in stocks and braising, since its acidity lends balance to rich savory or sweet dishes. Stock is a flavoured liquid It forms the basis of many dishes particularly Soups and Sauces Stock is prepared by simmering various ingredients in water including Braised_Baby_Artichokesjpg#file|thumb|right|100px|Braised baby artichokes]] Braising (from the French “braiser” is a combination cooking method using both moist and Taste (or more formally gustation) is a form of direct Chemoreception and is one of the traditional five Senses Sweet is one of the five Basic tastes and is almost universally regarded as a pleasurable experience Red, white and sparkling wines are the most popular, and are known as light wines because they are only 10–14% alcohol-content by volume. In Chemistry, an alcohol is any Organic compound in which a Hydroxyl group ( - O[[hydrogen H]]) is bound to a Carbon Apéritif and dessert wines contain 14–20% alcohol, and are sometimes fortified to make them richer and sweeter. An apéritif (also spelled aperitif) is an alcoholic drink that is usually served to stimulate the appetite before a meal Dessert wines (or pudding wines BrE) are sweet Wines typically served with Dessert, such as Sauternes and Tokaji
Some wine labels suggest opening the bottle and letting the wine "breathe" for a couple hours before serving, while others recommend drinking it immediately. Decanting—the act of pouring a wine into a special container just for breathing—is a controversial subject in wine. A decanter is a vessel supplied with a stopper that is used to hold the Decantation of a liquid (such as Wine) which may contain Sediment. In addition to aeration, decanting with a filter allows one to remove bitter sediments that may have formed in the wine. Sediment is more common in older bottles but younger wines usually benefit more from aeration. 
During aeration, the exposure of younger wines to air often "relaxes" the flavors and makes them taste smoother and better integrated in aroma, texture, and flavor. Older wines generally fade, or lose their character and flavor intensity, with extended aeration.  Despite these general rules, breathing does not necessarily benefit all wines. Wine should be tasted as soon as it is opened to determine how long it should be aerated, if at all.
The use of wine in religious ceremonies is common to many cultures and regions. Libations often included wine, and the religious mysteries of Dionysus used wine as a sacramental entheogen to induce a mind-altering state. A libation (spondee in Greek) is a Ritual pouring of a drink as an offering to a god. The Dionysian Mysteries probably began as an ancient initiation society or family of similar societies centred on a primeval nature god (and his consort apparently associated with An entheogen, in the strictest sense is a Psychoactive substance used in a religious or shamanic (or entheogenic) context
Wine is an integral part of Jewish laws and traditions. Halakha ( הלכה; alternative transliterations include Halocho and Halacha) is the collective body of Jewish Religious law The Kiddush is a blessing recited over wine or grape juice to sanctify the Shabbat or a Jewish holiday. Kiddush ( Hebrew: קידוש literally "sanctification" is a blessing recited over Wine or Grape juice to sanctify the Shabbat Shabbat or Shabbos ( Hebrew: שַׁבָּת, shabbāt, shabbes, "rest/inactivity" is the Weekly Sabbath For the Gregorian dates of Jewish Holidays see Jewish holidays 2000-2050. On Pesach (Passover) during the Seder, it is a Rabbinic obligation of men and women to drink four cups of wine. Passover ( Hebrew, Yiddish: פֶּסַח Pesach, Tiberian: pɛsaħ Israeli: Pesah, Pesakh, Yiddish  In the Tabernacle and in the Temple in Jerusalem, the libation of wine was part of the sacrificial service. The Tabernacle is known in Hebrew as the Mishkan ( משכן "Residence" or "Dwelling Place" Etymology The Hebrew name given in Scripture for the building is Beit HaMikdash or "The Holy House" and only the Temple in Jerusalem is referred to by this name  Note that this does not mean that wine is a symbol of blood, a common misconception which contributes to the myth of the blood libel. Blood libels are sensationalized allegations that a person or group engages in Human sacrifice, often accompanied by the claim that the Blood of victims is used in A blessing over wine said before indulging in the drink is: "Baruch atah Hashem elokeinu melech ha-olam, boray p’ree hagafen"—"Praised be the Eternal, Ruler of the universe, who makes the fruit of the vine. "
In Christianity, wine or grape juice is used in a sacred rite called the Eucharist, which originates in Gospel accounts of the Last Supper in which Jesus shared bread and wine with his disciples and commanded his followers to "do this in remembrance of me" (Gospel of Luke 22:19). Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings The Eucharist, also called Holy Communion or Lord's Supper and other names is a Christian Sacrament by which in a common interpretation those This article is about the canonical books of the New Testament In the Christian Gospels the Last Supper (also called the Lord's Supper or Mystical Supper) was the last meal Jesus shared with his Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) The Gospel of Luke (Gk Κατά Λουκάν Ευαγγέλιον) is a synoptic Gospel, and is the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the Beliefs about the nature of the Eucharist vary among denominations; Roman Catholics, for example, hold that the bread and wine are changed into the real body and blood of Christ in a process called transubstantiation. Denominationalism|List of Christian denominations|Church (disambiguation A Christian denomination is an identifiable religious body under a common name structure and doctrine within See also Eucharist (Catholic Church On the related belief that Christ is present in the Eucharist in body blood soul and divinity see Real Presence.
Wine was used in the Eucharist by all Protestant groups until an alternative arose in 1869. Methodist minister-turned-dentist Thomas Bramwell Welch applied new pasteurization techniques to stop the natural fermentation process of grape juice. Methodism is a movement within Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations In Christian churches, a minister is someone who is authorized by a church or religious organization to perform clergy functions such as teaching of beliefs Dentistry' is the "evaluation diagnosis prevention and/or treatment (nonsurgical surgical or related procedures of diseases disorders and/or conditions of the oral cavity Thomas Bramwell Welch ( December 31, 1825 &ndash 1903 was the discoverer of the Pasteurization process to prevent the fermentation of Pasteurization is the process of heating Liquids for the purpose of destroying bacteria, Protozoa, Molds and Yeasts The process was Grape juice is a Juice obtained from crushing Grapes The juice is often fermented and made into Wine, Brandy, or Vinegar Some Christians who were part of the growing temperance movement pressed for a switch from wine to grape juice, and the substitution spread quickly over much of the United States. See also Prohibition, Teetotalism The Temperance Movement attempted to reduce the amount of Alcohol consumed within a community or society in (However, in such rites the beverage is usually still called "wine" in accordance with scriptural references. ) There remains an ongoing debate between some American Protestant denominations as to whether wine can and should be used for the Eucharist or allowed as a regular beverage. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation.
The use of wine is forbidden under Islamic law. Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law. Iran used to have a thriving wine industry that disappeared after the Islamic Revolution in 1979. The Iranian Revolution' (mostly known as the Islamic Revolution, Persian: انقلاب اسلامی Enghelābe Eslāmi was the Revolution that transformed 
|Red table wine|
Nutritional value per 100 g (3. 5 oz)
|Energy 80 kcal 360 kJ|
|10. 6 g alcohol is 13%vol. |
100 g wine is approximately 100 ml (3. 4 fl oz. )
Sugar and alcohol content can vary.
Source: USDA Nutrient database
|Alcohol and Health|
|Short-term effects of alcohol|
|Long-term effects of alcohol|
|Alcohol and cardiovascular disease|
|Alcoholic liver disease|
|Alcohol and cancer|
|Alcohol and weight|
|Fetal alcohol syndrome|
|Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder|
|Blackout (alcohol-related amnesia)|
|Recommended maximum intake of alcoholic beverages|
The health effects of wine (and alcohol in general) are the subject of considerable ongoing study. Regularly having more than two drinks a day increases the risk of developing Alcoholism, Alcoholic liver disease, and some forms of Cancer. The short-term effects of alcohol on the human body can take several forms Regularly having more than two drinks a day increases the risk of developing Alcoholism, Alcoholic liver disease, and some forms of Cancer. The subject of alcohol and heart attacks is important because the major cause of death in many countries is Cardiovascular disease. Alcoholic liver disease is the major cause of Liver disease in Western countries (in Asian countries viral Hepatitis is the major cause Alcoholic hepatitis is Hepatitis (inflammation of the liver due to excessive intake of alcohol. "Considerable evidence suggests a connection between heavy alcohol consumption and increased risk for cancer with an estimated 2 to 4 percent of all cancer cases thought to be caused either Alcohol and weight is a subject relevant to millions of people who like to drink Alcoholic beverages and who also either want to maintain or to lose Body weight. History Historical references Anecdotal accounts of prohibitions against maternal alcohol use from biblical, ancient Greek, and ancient Roman Alcoholism is a term with multiple and sometimes conflicting definitions A blackout is a phenomenon caused by the intake of alcohol in which long term memory creation is impaired Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (also called Wet brain, Korsakoff psychosis alcoholic encephalopathy Wernicke's disease and encephalopathy - alcoholic is a manifestation This article summarizes the recommended maximum intake (or 'safe limits' of alcohol as recommended by the health agencies of various governments Health effects, health impacts or health risks are changes in Health resulting from exposure to a source  In the United States, a boom in red wine consumption was initiated in the 1990s by the TV show 60 Minutes, and additional news reports on the French paradox. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Not to be confused with the BBC news magazine program Sixty Minutes (TV series. The French paradox refers to the observation that the French suffer a relatively low incidence of Coronary heart disease, despite having a diet relatively rich in The French paradox refers to the comparatively lower incidence of coronary heart disease in France despite high levels of saturated fat in the traditional French diet. Coronary disease (or coronary heart disease) refers to the failure of Coronary circulation to supply adequate circulation to Cardiac muscle and surrounding Saturated fat is Fat that consists of Triglycerides containing only saturated Fatty acids Explanation Fat that occurs Epidemiologists suspect that this difference is due to the high consumption of wines by the French, but the scientific evidence for this theory is currently limited.
Population studies have observed a J curve association between wine consumption and the risk of heart disease. The term J-curve is used in several different fields to refer to a variety of unrelated J-shaped diagrams where a curve initially falls but then rises to higher than the starting point  This means that abstainers and heavy drinkers have an elevated risk, while moderate drinkers have a lower risk. Studies have also found that moderate consumption of other alcoholic beverages may be cardioprotective, although the association is considerably stronger for wine. Also, the studies have found increased health benefits for red wine over white wine, included cancer protection. Researchers suspect that this may be because red wine contains more polyphenols than white wine. Polyphenols are a group of chemical substances found in plants characterized by the presence of more than one Phenol unit or building block per molecule 
A chemical in red wine called resveratrol has been shown to have both cardioprotective and chemoprotective effects in animal studies. Resveratrol is a Phytoalexin produced naturally by several Plants when under attack by Pathogens such as Bacteria or Fungi  According to a study published in PLoS One (online, June 3, 2008), low doses of resveratrol in the diet of middle-aged mice has a widespread influence on the genetic levers of aging and may confer special protection on the heart. Events 350 - Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, proclaims himself Roman Emperor, entering 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Specifically, the researchers found that low doses of resveratrol mimic the effects of what is known as caloric restriction - diets with 20-30 percent fewer calories than a typical diet. Calorie restriction, or caloric restriction (CR aims to improve health and slow the aging process by limiting dietary energy intake  Resveratrol is produced naturally by grape skins in response to fungal infection, including exposure to yeast during fermentation. The process of fermentation in Wine is the Catalyst function that turns Grape juice into an Alcoholic beverage. As white wine has minimal contact with grape skins during this process, it generally contains lower levels of the chemical.  Other beneficial compounds in wine include other polyphenols, antioxidants, and flavonoids. An antioxidant is a Molecule capable of slowing or preventing the oxidation of other molecules The term flavonoid (or bioflavonoid refers to a class of Plant Secondary metabolites According to the IUPAC nomenclature they can be classified into 
Red wines from south of France and from Sardinia in Italy have been found to have the highest levels of procyanidins, which are compounds in grape seeds suspected to be responsible for red wine's heart benefits. Sardinia (sɑrˈdɪnɪə Sardegna Sardigna or Sardinnya is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily) Proanthocyanidin (also known as procyanidin oligomeric proanthocyanidin ( OPC) pycnogenol, leukocyanidin and leucoanthocyanin Red wines from these areas have between two and four times as much procyanidins as other red wines. Procyanidins suppress the synthesis of a peptide called endothelin-1 that constricts blood vessels. Endothelins are proteins that constrict blood vessels and raise blood pressure 
A 2007 study found that both red and white wines are effective anti-bacterial agents against strains of Streptococcus. Streptococcus is a Genus of spherical Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and the  Interestingly, wine has traditionally been used to treat wounds in some parts of the world. 
While evidence from both laboratory studies as well as epidemiological (observational) studies suggest a cardioprotective effect, no controlled studies have yet been completed that study the effect of alcoholic drinks on the risk of developing heart disease or stroke. Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the Health and Illness of populations and serves as the foundation and Logic of interventions made in the Moreover, excessive consumption of alcohol can cause some diseases including cirrhosis of the liver and alcoholism. Cirrhosis is a consequence of chronic Liver Disease characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrous Scar tissue as well as regenerative Alcoholism is a term with multiple and sometimes conflicting definitions  Also, the American Heart Association cautions people "not to start drinking . The American Heart Association (AHA is a Non-profit organization in the United States that fosters appropriate . . if they do not already drink alcohol. Consult your doctor on the benefits and risks of consuming alcohol in moderation. "
Based on the UK unit system for measuring alcoholic content, the average bottle of wine contains 9. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located 4 units. 
Sulphites are present in all wines and are formed as a natural product of the fermentation process. Sulfites (also sulphites) are compounds that contain the sulfite Ion S[[oxygen O]]32− Additionally, many wine producers add sulfur dioxide in order to help preserve wine. The level of added sulfites varies, and some wines have been marketed with low sulfite content.  Sulphites in wine are not a problem for most people, although some, particularly those with asthma, can have adverse reactions. Asthma is a chronic Condition involving the Respiratory system in which the airways occasionally constrict become inflamed, and are Sulfur dioxide is also added to many other foods as well, such as dried apricots and orange juice. The Apricot ( Prunus armeniaca, "Armenian plum" in Latin syn Orange juice is a Fruit juice obtained by squeezing pressing or otherwise crushing the interior of an orange.
Wine's effect on the brain has also been studied. Although some researchers have concluded that wine made from the Cabernet Sauvignon grape reduces the risk of Alzheimer's Disease, others have found that among diagnosed alcoholics, wine damages the hippocampus to a greater degree than other alcoholic beverages. Cabernet Sauvignon is one of the world's most widely recognized red Wine grape varieties. Alzheimer's disease ( AD) also called Alzheimer disease or simply Alzheimer's, is the most common form of Dementia. 
Most wines are sold in glass bottles and are sealed using corks. Cork material is a Prime-subset of generic cork tissue, harvested for commercial use primarily from the Cork Oak tree Quercus Alternative wine closures are substitutes used in the wine industry for sealing Wine bottles in place of traditional cork closures A wine bottle is a Bottle used for holding wine generally made of Glass. A box wine (or cask wine, bladder pack Cheap cask wine is also known as "goon" in Australia and also New Zealand ("goon" is diminutive slang A wine bottle is a Bottle used for holding wine generally made of Glass. Cork material is a Prime-subset of generic cork tissue, harvested for commercial use primarily from the Cork Oak tree Quercus Recently, a growing number of wine producers have been using alternative closures such as screwcaps or synthetic plastic "corks". A screw cap or Closure is a common type closure for Bottles Jars and Tubes Usage A screw closure is a mechanical device which is screwed Plastic is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semisynthetic organic solid materials suitable for the manufacture of industrial products Some wines are packaged in heavy plastic bags within cardboard boxes, like breakfast cereal, and are called box wines or cask wine. A breakfast cereal (often simply called cereal is a packaged food product made from Cereal intended to be consumed as part of a Breakfast. A box wine (or cask wine, bladder pack Cheap cask wine is also known as "goon" in Australia and also New Zealand ("goon" is diminutive slang One advantage of box wine is that it can stay fresh for up to a month after opening, while bottled wine will start to oxidize immediately. Redox (shorthand for reduction-oxidation reaction describes all Chemical reactions in which atoms have their Oxidation number ( Oxidation state The wine in a box wine is typically accessed via a tap on the side of the box. In addition to being less expensive, alternative closures prevent cork taint, although they have been blamed for other problems such as excessive reduction. Cork taint is a broad term referring to a set of undesirable smells or tastes found in a bottle of Wine, especially spoilage that can only be detected after bottling aging and Redox (shorthand for reduction-oxidation reaction describes all Chemical reactions in which atoms have their Oxidation number ( Oxidation state
Wine cellars (also called wine rooms if they are aboveground) are places designed specifically for the storage and aging of wine. A wine cellar is a storage room for Wine in Bottles or Barrels, or more rarely in Carboys Amphorae or plastic containers In an active wine cellar, factors such as temperature and humidity are maintained by a climate control system. In contrast, passive wine cellars are not climate-controlled, and thus must be carefully located. Wine is a natural, perishable food product. Left exposed to heat, light, vibration or fluctuations in temperature and humidity, all types of wine, including red, white, sparkling, and fortified, can spoil. When properly stored, wines not only maintain their quality but can actually improve in aroma, flavor, and complexity as they mature. Most experts say the optimal temperature for aging wine is 55 °F.