Windsor Castle, in Windsor in the English county of Berkshire, is the largest inhabited castle in the world and, dating back to the time of William the Conqueror, is the oldest in continuous occupation. Windsor (ˈwɪnzə/ /ˈwɪndzə is a suburban town and tourist destination in the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead in Berkshire, England. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Berkshire (ˈbɑːkʃə or /ˈbɑːkʃɪə/ say Baak-shuh/-sheer sometimes abbreviated to Berks) is a Home County in the South A castle is a defensive structure seen as one of the main symbols of the Middle Ages. William I of England ( 1027 His reign which brought Norman culture to England had an enormous impact on the subsequent course of England in the Middle Ages The castle's floor area is approximately 484,000 square feet (about 45,000 square metres). The square foot is an Imperial unit / US customary unit (non- SI non- metric) of Area, used mainly in the United States M^2 redirects here For other uses see M². CM2 redirects here 
Together with Buckingham Palace in London and Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh, it is one of the principal official residences of the British monarch. Buckingham Palace is the official London residence of the British monarch. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The Palace of Holyroodhouse, or informally Holyrood Palace, founded as a monastery by David I of Scotland in 1128, has served as the principal residence Edinburgh ( ˈɛdɪnb(ərə Dùn Èideann) is the Capital of Scotland and is its second largest city after Glasgow. TalkCommonewalth realm.--> The monarchy Queen Elizabeth II spends many weekends of the year at the castle, using it for both state and private entertaining. For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II Her other two residences, Sandringham House and Balmoral Castle, are the Royal Family's private homes. Sandringham House is a Country house on of land near the village of Sandringham in Norfolk, England, which is privately owned by the British Balmoral Castle is a large Estate house situated in the area of Aberdeenshire, Scotland known as Royal Deeside.
Most of the Kings and Queens of England have had a direct influence on the construction and evolution of the castle, which has been their garrison fortress, home, official palace, and sometimes their prison. The Kings of Wessex, who conquered Kent and Sussex from Mercia in 825 became increasingly dominant over the other kingdoms of England during Garrison (various spellings (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, "to equip" is the collective term for a body of Troops Fortifications are Military Constructions and Buildings designed for defense in Warfare Humans have constructed defensive works for A palace is a grand residence especially the home of a Head of state or some other high-ranking Public figure. The castle's history and that of the British monarchy are inextricably linked. Chronologically the history of the castle can be traced through the reigns of the monarchs who have occupied it. When the country has been at peace, the castle has been expanded by the additions of large and grand apartments; when the country has been at war, the castle has been more heavily fortified. This pattern has continued to the present day.
Over its 1,000-year history, the design of Windsor Castle has changed and evolved according to the times, tastes, requirements and finances of successive Monarchs. Nevertheless, the positions of the main features have remained largely fixed and the modern plan below is a useful guide to locations. The castle today, for example, remains centred on the motte or artificial hill ("A" on the plan) on which William the Conqueror built the first wooden castle. nA motte-and-bailey is a form of Castle. Many were built in Britain, Ireland and France in the 11th and 12th centuries favored as a relatively
Key to plan (right)
The highly visible landmark of the castle, the Round Tower ("A"), is in reality far from cylindrical, its shape being dictated by the irregular, but seemingly round, man-made hill on which it sits. The castle's layout dates back to the mediaeval fortifications. The Round Tower divides the castle into two distinct sections known as wards. The Lower Ward ("F") is home to St George's Chapel ("G"), while the upper ward ("B") contains the private Royal Apartments ("D") and the more formal state rooms ("C"), which include St George's Hall, a vast room which has a ceiling decorated with the coats of arms of past and present members of the Order of the Garter. A state room in a large European Mansion is usually one of a suite of very grand rooms which were designed to impress A coat of arms or armorial bearings (often just arms for short in European tradition is a design belonging to a particular person (or group of people The Most Noble Order of the Garter is an Order of chivalry, or Knighthood, originating in Medieval England, and presently bestowed on recipients
The immediate environs of the castle, known as the Home Park, comprise parkland and two working farms along with many estate cottages mainly occupied by employees. The Home Park, previously known as the Little Park (and originally Lydecroft Park) is a private 655 acre British Royal Park, administered The estate of Frogmore also lies within the Home Park. The Frogmore Estate or Gardens comprise 33 acres of private gardens within the grounds of the Home Park, adjoining Windsor Castle, in the English Frogmore House and Gardens are open to the public on certain days of the year (the remainder of the Home Park is private). Frogmore House is a 17th century Country house standing at the centre of the Frogmore Estate, amongst beautiful gardens about a kilometre south of Windsor Castle The Home Park adjoins the northern edge of the more extensive Windsor Great Park. Windsor Great Park (locally referred to simply as the Great Park) is a large Deer Park of 5000 acres to the south of the town of Windsor
In the Home Park, to the north of the castle, stands a private school, St George's, Windsor Castle, which provides choristers to the Chapel.  Eton College is located about 8 miles north of the castle. Eton College, or just Eton, is a world-famous British Independent school for boys founded in 1440 by King Henry VI.
King Edward III was born in the castle on 13 November 1312, and was often referred to as "Edward of Windsor". Below are some of the important historical events which have occurred at Windsor Castle in the English county of Berkshire: 1070 Edward III (13 November 1312 &ndash 21 June 1377 was one of the most successful English monarchs of the Middle Ages. Events 1002 - English king Ethelred orders the killing of all Danes in England, known today as the St Beginning in 1350, he initiated a 24-year rebuilding program by demolishing the existing castle, with the exception of the Curfew Tower ("T") and some other minor outworks. He placed William of Wykeham in overall charge of the rebuilding and design of the new castle. William of Wykeham (1320 &ndash 27 September 1404) was Bishop of Winchester, Chancellor of England, founder of Winchester Henry II's keep (the Round Tower) was replaced by the present keep, although it was not raised to its present height until the 19th century. The fortifications too were further increased. The castle's chapel was substantially enlarged, but plans to build a new church were not executed, probably due to the scarcity of manpower and resources following the Black Death. A chapel is a holy place or area of Worship for Christians, which may be attached to an institution such as a large church, a College, a The Black Death, or the Black Plague, was one of the deadliest Pandemics in human history widely thought to have been caused by a bacterium named Yersinia Also dating from this time is the Norman Gate ("M"). This large and imposing gate at the foot of the Round Tower is the last bastion of defence before the Upper Ward ("B") where the Royal Apartments are situated.
In 1348 Edward III established the Order of the Garter, whose annual ceremony still takes place in St George's Chapel, the principal chapel of the castle. The Most Noble Order of the Garter is an Order of chivalry, or Knighthood, originating in Medieval England, and presently bestowed on recipients In 1353–1354, he had the Aerary Porch built. Aerary is a room in a building that was used to contain something precious such as treasure
In 1390, during the reign of Richard II, it was found that St George's chapel was close to collapse, and a restoration process was undertaken. Richard II (6 January 1367 &ndash ca 14 February 1400 was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399 The clerk of the works was one of King Richard's favourites, Geoffrey Chaucer, who served as a diplomat and Clerk of The King's Works. Geoffrey Chaucer (c 1343 – 25 October 1400? was an English author poet Philosopher, bureaucrat, courtier and Diplomat. Whatever his skills as a surveyor and builder were, within 50 years of his restoration the chapel was again ruinous. Surveying is the technique and science of accurately determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional space Position of points and the distances and angles between
King Edward IV (1461–1483), the first Yorkist King, who was said to be addicted to "the advauncement of vaine pompe" (sic), began the construction of the present St. George's Chapel. Edward IV ( 28 April 1442 – 9 April 1483) was King of England from 4 March 1461 until 2 October The House of York was a branch of the English royal House of Plantagenet, three of whom became English kings in the late 15th century In reality the chapel, begun in 1475, is more a miniature cathedral and royal mausoleum than a chapel. This article is about the history and organisation of the cathedral A mausoleum ( plural: mausolea is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or persons Its architecture is an exercise in the Perpendicular Gothic style. See also Gothic art Gothic architecture is a style of Architecture which flourished during the high and late medieval period. During the reign of Henry VII, some of the original chapel of St. George was demolished to make way for the Lady Chapel, which the King then abandoned. A Lady chapel is a traditional English term for a Chapel inside a Cathedral or large church dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary. The building was one of the first truly grand pieces of architecture within the castle precincts. A precinct is a space enclosed by the walls or other boundaries of a particular place or building or by an arbitrary and imaginary line drawn around it
The construction of the chapel marked a turning point in the architecture of the castle. The more stable political climate following the end of the Wars of the Roses meant that future building tended to be more considerate of comfort and style than of fortification. The Wars of the Roses (1455–1485 were a series of dynastic Civil wars fought in England between supporters of the Houses of Lancaster and York In this way the castle's role changed from that of royal bastion to that of a royal palace. A bastion is a structure projecting outward from the main enclosure of a Fortification, situated in both corners of a straight wall (termed curtain with the shape One example of this is the "Horseshoe Cloister" ("H") from 1480, built near the chapel to house its clergy. This curved brick building is said to be in the shape of a fetlock: one of the badges used by Edward IV. Fetlock is the common name for the metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal Joints (MCPJ and MTPJ of the Horse. Restoration work in 1871 was heavy, and little of the original building remains.
Elizabeth I was followed by James I, and he by his son Charles I, neither of whom made significant changes to the castle. James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625 was King of Scotland as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James Charles I, (19 November 1600 &ndash 30 January 1649 was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution. However, following the deposition of Charles in the English Civil War, the castle became the headquarters of Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army. The English Civil War (1642-1651 was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 Old Style &ndash 3 September 1658 Old Style) was an English military and political leader best known The New Model Army was formed in 1645 by the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War. Windsor Castle fell to Cromwell's Parliamentarians early in the hostilities due to the cunning of Colonel John Venn. " Roundheads " was the Nickname given to the Puritan supporters of Parliament during the English Civil War. John Venn (1586 – 1650 was an English Member of Parliament and one of the Regicides of King Charles I. Prince Rupert of the Rhine arrived to retake the town and castle a few days later, but though he severely battered the town, he was unable to retake the castle. Rupert Count Palatine of the Rhine Duke of Bavaria (German Ruprecht Pfalzgraf bei Rhein Herzog von Bayern) commonly called Prince Rupert of the Rhine, (17 Venn remained Governor of the castle until 1645.
Under Parliamentarian jurisdiction the castle suffered, but not as badly as such an iconic symbol of monarchy could have been expected to. An icon (from Greek εἰκών eikōn, "image" is a religious work of art most commonly a painting from Eastern Christianity. However, the garrison stationed there was underpaid and was allowed to loot the castle's treasures.  For the duration of the Commonwealth period, the castle remained a military headquarters, and a prison for more important Royalists captured. The Commonwealth of England was the Republican government which ruled first England (including Wales) and then Ireland and Scotland Cavalier was the name used by Parliamentarians for a Royalist supporter of King Charles I during the English Civil War ( 1642 &ndash 1651 For a short time prior to his execution in 1649, Charles was imprisoned in the castle, although in today's terminology house arrest would be a more accurate term. In Justice and Law, house arrest (also called home confinement, home detention, or electronic monitoring) is a measure by which Following the King's execution, Britain was ruled by Cromwell until the restoration of the monarchy in 1660. Charles' body was smuggled back to Windsor in the dead of night through a snowstorm to be interred without ceremony in the vault beneath the choir in St George's Chapel, next to the coffins of Henry VIII and his wife Jane Seymour. For the New York prison see The Tombs. A Tomb is a repository for the remains of the dead. Jane Seymour (1508– 24 October 1537) was Queen Consort of England and the third wife of Henry VIII.
The Restoration of the monarchy in 1660 was to prove the first period of significant change to Windsor Castle for many years. Sir Jeffry Wyattville ( 3 August 1766 – 18 February 1840) was an English Architect and Garden designer. Sir Jeffry Wyattville ( 3 August 1766 – 18 February 1840) was an English Architect and Garden designer. The English Restoration, or simply The Restoration began in 1660 when the English monarchy, Scottish monarchy and Irish monarchy were restored Charles II did much to restore and refurnish the castle from the damage suffered during the civil war. Charles II (Charles Stuart 29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685 was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. At this time Versailles was being constructed in France, and with this in mind Charles II laid out the avenue known as the Long Walk ("L") (see illustration right). The Palace of Versailles, or simply Versailles, is a royal Château in Versailles, in France 's Île-de-France region Running south from the castle, this avenue runs for 5 kilometres (3 miles) and is 75 metres (240 feet) wide. A mile is a unit of Length, usually used to measure Distance, in a number of different systems including Imperial units United States The original elms the King planted have since been replaced with chestnuts and planes. Elms are Deciduous and Semi-deciduous Trees comprising the genus Ulmus, family Ulmaceae, found Chestnut ( Castanea) (including some chinkapin or Chinquapin) is a Genus of eight or nine Species of Deciduous Platanus is a small genus of Trees native to the Northern Hemisphere. The Long Walk was not the only part of Windsor to be inspired by Versailles. Charles II commissioned the architect Hugh May to rebuild the Royal Apartments and St George's Hall. Hugh May (1621-1684 was an English architect who was working in the era which fell between the first introduction of Palladianism into England by Inigo Jones May replaced the original Plantagenet apartments on the north terrace with the cube-like Star Building. Angevin (ˈændʒəvɪn ( French, from Old French, from Medieval Latin Andegavinus from Andegavia Anjou, France) is the name applied The interiors of these new apartments were decorated with ceilings by Antonio Verrio and carving by Grinling Gibbons. Antonio Verrio ( 1639 -17 June 1707 was an Italian painter of the Baroque period active in England. Master Wood carver Grinling Gibbons ( 4 April 1648 - 3 August 1721) was born in Rotterdam in the Netherlands The King also acquired tapestries and paintings to furnish the rooms. These artworks were to form the core of what was to become known as the Royal Collection. The Royal Collection is the art collection of the British Royal Family. Three of these rooms survive relatively unchanged: the Queen's Presence Chamber and the Queen's Audience Chamber, both designed for Charles II's wife Catherine of Braganza, and the King's Dining Room. Catherine Henrietta of Braganza (25 November 1638 &ndash 31 December 1705 was a Portuguese Infanta and the Queen consort of Charles II of These retain both their Verrio ceilings and Gibbons' panelling. Originally there were twenty rooms in this style. Some of Gibbons' carvings were rescued at various times when alterations were being made in the name of change or restoration, and in the 19th century these carvings were incorporated into new interior design themes in the Garter Throne Room and the Waterloo Chamber.
Following the death of Charles II in 1685, the Castle fell slowly into a state of neglect. Year 1743 ( MDCCXLIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Needless to say, while the precincts and park remained a complex of inhabited royal mansions, the sovereigns themselves preferred to live elsewhere. During the reign of William and Mary (1689–1702), Hampton Court Palace was enlarged and transformed into a huge modern palace. See also William III of England, Mary II of England The phrase William and Mary usually refers to the joint sovereignty over the Kingdom of England Hampton Court Palace is a former royal palace in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, south west London, England. Later Queen Anne preferred to live in a small house close to the walls of the castle. Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714 became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702 succeeding William III of England and II of It was not until 1804 – when King George III, the father of 13 children, needed a larger residence than could be found elsewhere – that the castle was once again fully inhabited. George III (George William Frederick 4 June 1738 George III's long reign was marked by a series of military conflicts involving his kingdom much of the rest of Europe and places The work carried out by Charles II had been on the contemporary, more classical, style of architecture popular at the time. Inigo Jones had introduced Palladianism to England during the time of Charles I; George III felt this style was not in keeping with an ancient castle, and had many of Charles II's windows redesigned and given a pointed Gothic arch, and thus the castle began once again to acquire its original medieval appearance. Iñigo Jones ( July 15, 1573 &ndash June 21, 1652) is regarded as the first significant British architect, and the first to bring PLEASE DO NOT ADD AN INFO BOX TO THIS PAGE --> Palladian architecture is a European style of Architecture derived from the designs of the Italian The Gothic Revival is an architectural movement which began During this period Windsor Castle was once again to become a place of royal confinement. In 1811 King George III became permanently deranged and was confined to the castle for his own safety. During the last nine years of his life he seldom left his apartments at Windsor.
It was during the reign of King George IV between 1820–1830 that the castle was to undergo the greatest single transformation in its history. George IV, known for his extravagant building at both Carlton House and the Royal Pavilion during his regency, now persuaded Parliament to vote him £300,000 for restoration. Carlton House was a Mansion in London, best known as the town residence of the Prince Regent for several decades The Royal Pavilion is a former royal residence located in Brighton, England. Artistic trends Regency architecture Regency fashions Regency dance Regency novels The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories The architect Jeffry Wyatville was selected, and work commenced in 1824. Sir Jeffry Wyattville ( 3 August 1766 – 18 February 1840) was an English Architect and Garden designer.
The work took twelve years to complete and included a complete remodelling of the Upper Ward ("B"), private apartments ("D"), Round Tower ("A"), and the exterior facade of the South Wing ("E") which gave the castle its near symmetrical facade seen from the Long Walk. A facade or façade (fəˈsɑːd is generally one side of the exterior of a Building, especially the front but also sometimes the sides and rear
Wyatville was the first architect to view the castle as one composition, rather than a collection of buildings of various ages and in differing styles. Sir Jeffry Wyattville ( 3 August 1766 – 18 February 1840) was an English Architect and Garden designer. As an architect he had a preference for imposing symmetry, whereas the castle which had evolved piecemeal over the previous centuries had no symmetry at all. Symmetry generally conveys two primary meanings The first is an imprecise sense of harmonious or aesthetically-pleasing proportionality and balance such that it reflects beauty or Wyatville imposed a symmetry of sorts on the existing buildings of the Upper Ward, by raising the heights of certain towers to match others, and refacing the Upper Ward in a Gothic style complete with castelated battlements to match the mediæval buildings, including St George's Chapel in the Lower Ward. A battlement, (also called a Crenellation) in defensive Architecture such as that of City walls or Castles comprises a Parapet The Round Tower had always been a squat structure, and now this was further accentuated by the new height of the buildings in the Upper Ward. Wyatville surmounted this problem by building on top of the Round Tower a hollow stone crown, basically a false upper storey. Some 33 feet (10 metres) high, this crown gives the entire castle its dramatic silhouette from many miles away. A silhouette is a view of some object or scene consisting of the outline and a featureless interior with the silhouette usually being black
Much of the interior of the Castle was given the same makeover treatment as the exterior. Many of the Charles II state rooms which remained after George III's redecorations were redesigned in the Gothic style, most notably St George's Hall (see illustration right), which was doubled in length. Wyatville also roofed over a courtyard to create the Waterloo Chamber. This vast hall lit by a clerestory was designed to celebrate the victors of the Battle of Waterloo and was hung with portraits of the allied sovereigns and commanders who vanquished Napoleon. Clerestory (ˈklɪə(rstɔəri lit clear storey, also clearstory, clearstorey, or overstorey) is an architectural term denoting In the Battle of Waterloo (Sunday 18 June 1815 near Waterloo Belgium Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. The large dining table at the centre of the chamber seats 150 people.
The work was unfinished at the time of George IV's death in 1830, but was virtually completed by Wyatville's death in 1840.
Queen Victoria and Prince Albert made Windsor Castle their principal royal residence. Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901 was from 20 June 1837 the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland A sobriquet is a Nickname or a fancy name usually a familiar name given by others as distinct from a Pseudonym assumed as a disguise but a nickname which is familiar Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901 was from 20 June 1837 the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Many of their changes were to the surrounding parklands rather than the buildings. In particular, the "Windsor Castle and Town Approaches Act", passed by Parliament in 1848, permitted the closing and re-routing of the old roads which previously ran through the park from Windsor to Datchet and Old Windsor. Datchet is an English Thameside village situated in the Unitary authority of Windsor and Maidenhead in the county of Berkshire Old Windsor is a large Village in the English county of Berkshire. These changes allowed the Royal Family to undertake the enclosure of a large area of parkland to form the private "Home Park" with no public roads passing through it.
Queen Victoria had retreated to the castle for privacy following the death in 1861 of Prince Albert, who had in fact died at the castle. Albert was buried in a Mausoleum built at Frogmore, within the Home Park of the Castle (and eventually Victoria was buried beside him). The Frogmore Estate or Gardens comprise 33 acres of private gardens within the grounds of the Home Park, adjoining Windsor Castle, in the English The Home Park, previously known as the Little Park (and originally Lydecroft Park) is a private 655 acre British Royal Park, administered
From Albert's death until her own death in 1901, Windsor Castle was Victoria's principal home, and she seldom visited Buckingham Palace again. The prince's rooms were maintained exactly as they had been at the moment of his death, and although an air of melancholy was allowed to settle on the castle for the remainder of the 19th century, this did not prevent improvements and restoration from taking place. In 1866 Anthony Salvin created the Grand Staircase in the State Apartments ("C"). Anthony Salvin ( 17 October 1799 &ndash 17 December 1881) was an English Architect. This great stone staircase in the Gothic style rises to a double height hall lit by a vaulted lantern tower. A Vault (French voute Italian volta German Gewölbe Polish sklepienie, Spanish The hall is decorated with arms and armour, including the suit of armour worn by King Henry VIII, made in 1540. The top of the stairs are flanked by life-size equestrian statues mounted by knights in armour. An equestrian statue is a Statue of a Horse -mounted rider The term is from the Latin " eques," meaning " Knight This theme of decoration continues into the Queen's Guard Chamber and the Grand Vestibule. Salvin also added the château-style conical roof to the Curfew Tower ("T") at this time.
Following the accession of King Edward VII in 1901, the castle often remained empty for long periods, the new King preferring his other homes elsewhere. The King visited for Ascot week and Easter. Ascot Racecourse is an English racecourse located in the village of Ascot, Berkshire used for Thoroughbred horse racing. Easter ( Greek: Πάσχα Pascha or Pasxa) is the most important religious feast in the Christian Liturgical year. One of the few alterations he made was to lay out the castle's golf course. A golf course consists of a series of holes each consisting of a Teeing ground, Fairway, rough and other hazards and a green with a pin and cup all designed for
Edward VII's successor George V, who was King from 1910 until his death in 1936, also preferred his other country homes. However, his wife Queen Mary was a great connoisseur of the arts, and not only sought out and re-acquired long-dispersed items of furniture from the castle, but also acquired many new works of art to furnish the state rooms. Mary of Teck (Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes 26 May 1867 – 24 March 1953 was the queen-empress consort of George V of the United Kingdom She also rearranged the fashion in which the castle was used, abandoning the baroque idea of a large suite of state rooms reserved just for important guests on the principal floor. Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc New, more comfortable bedrooms with modern bathrooms were installed on the upper floors, allowing the formerly reserved state rooms below to be used for entertaining and court functions. The state bedroom itself was retained, but more as a historical curiosity. It has not been used as a bedroom since 1909.
During the First World War, when the members of the Royal Family felt the need to change its dynastic name from the German "House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha", they took their new name from the castle, becoming the "House of Windsor". World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The British Royal Family is the group of close relatives of the monarch of the United Kingdom. Saxe-Coburg and Gotha or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha served as the name of the two German duchies of Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha in The House of Windsor is the current Royal House of the United Kingdom and each of the other Commonwealth realms The older part is a branch of the Saxe-Coburg
Queen Mary was a lover of all things miniature, and had created a large dolls' house, based on a large aristocratic mansion—it was designed by the architect Lutyens. Queen Mary's Dolls' House is a magnificent dollhouse built in the early 1920s, completed in 1924 for Queen Mary, the wife of King George V of the United Kingdom Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens, OM, KCIE, PRA, FRIBA, LLD ( 29 March 1869 – 1 January 1944 Its furniture and picture were created by the great craftsmen and designers of the 1930s. The dolls' house today is one of the castle's many tourist attractions.
George VI came to the throne in 1936 following the abdication of his brother Edward VIII; on 11 December Edward had broadcast his abdication speech to the British Empire from the castle, but had preferred during his short reign to live at his home Fort Belvedere in Windsor Great Park. The Edward VIII abdication crisis occurred in the British Empire in 1936 when the desire of King-Emperor Edward VIII to marry his mistress Wallis Events 359 - Honoratus, the first known Prefect of the City of Constantinople, takes office The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. Fort Belvedere is a Country house on Shrubs Hill in Windsor Great Park, England very near Sunningdale, Berkshire, but actually over Windsor Great Park (locally referred to simply as the Great Park) is a large Deer Park of 5000 acres to the south of the town of Windsor George VI (and his wife Queen Elizabeth) preferred their original Windsor home, Royal Lodge. Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (Elizabeth Angela Marguerite 4 August 1900 &ndash 30 March 2002 was the Queen Consort of King George Royal Lodge is a house in Windsor Great Park, located half a mile north of Cumberland Lodge and 3 miles south of Windsor Castle. On the outbreak of World War II in 1939 the castle resumed its role as a royal fortress, and the King and Queen and their children Princess Elizabeth (the future Queen Elizabeth II) and Princess Margaret lived, for safety, in the castle. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II The King and Queen drove daily to London, returning to Windsor to sleep, although at the time this was a well-kept secret, as for propaganda and morale purposes it was reported that the king was still residing full-time at Buckingham Palace. Following the cessation of hostilities in 1945, the Royal Family left Windsor Castle and returned to Royal Lodge.
In 1952, Queen Elizabeth II came to the throne and decided to make Windsor her principal weekend retreat. Year 1952 ( MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The private apartments ("D") which had not been properly occupied since the era of Queen Mary were renovated and further modernised, and the Queen, Prince Philip and their (then) two children took up residence. This arrangement has continued to the present day.
On 20 November 1992, a fire which began in the Queen's private chapel (between "C" and "D" on plan) quickly spread. Events 284 - Diocletian was chosen as Roman Emperor. 762 - Bögü Khan of the Uyghurs, Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) In 1992 Windsor Castle to the west of London, England the largest inhabited Castle in the world and one of the official residences of the British monarch The fire raged for 15 hours until it had destroyed nine of the principal state rooms, and severely damaged over 100 more—in all the larger part of the upper ward. One-fifth of the floor space of the castle was damaged—an area of 9,000 square metres. M^2 redirects here For other uses see M². CM2 redirects here The restoration programme was not complete until 1997, 70% of it funded by the decision to open to the public for the first time the state rooms of Buckingham Palace. Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar The total cost of repairing the damage was £37 million The restoration was undertaken at no additional cost to the British taxpayer. So successful was the restoration and faithfulness to the original plans and decorations that the distinction between old and new is hard to detect. Although some of the rooms that had been gutted by the fire were completely redesigned in a modern interpretation, the new design is very organic and of the Gothic style, called "Downesian Gothic" after the rooms’ architect Giles Downes, of Sidell Gibson Partnership. These rooms include the new Private Chapel, the new Lantern Lobby and the new ceiling of St George's Hall. The latter is made of green-oak, a technique used in mediæval times. However, what is less obvious to the eye is that the restoration work resulted in significant improvements, particularly to the arrangements of the public rooms and the service quarters.
In latter years, the Queen has increasingly used the castle as a royal palace as well as her weekend home. It is as often used for state banquets and official entertaining as Buckingham Palace. When during the great fire in 1992 Prince Andrew was interviewed for television, he stated that Windsor Castle was the one place the royal family regarded as home.
During the Queen's tenure of the Castle much has been done, not only to restore and maintain the fabric of the building, but also to transform it into a major British tourist attraction. Tourism plays a significant part in the economic life of England.  This has had to be achieved in co-ordination with the castle's role as a working royal palace. In 1994, oil was discovered on the grounds of the Castle, and the Queen granted permission to sink an exploratory well to test the reserves, which experts predicted could be worth more than $1 billion. An oil is a substance that is in a viscous Liquid state ( "oily") at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer and is  Any resulting profits would have been split between the oil company and the state. 
In a June 1999 story, the BBC reported that Prince Charles was considering moving the royal court to Windsor Castle instead of Buckingham Palace when he ascends the throne. Events in June Madaraka Day June 1 to commemorate when Kenya gained internal self-rule Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) The story speculated that the Prince may be attempting to gain more independence from the traditional court at Buckingham Palace. So far, the Palace has not commented on the story, but Prince Charles, along with the rest of the royal family, is said to be fond of Windsor Castle.
Architectural historian Dan Cruickshank selected the Palace as one of his four choices for the 2002 BBC television documentary series Britain's Best Buildings. The term architecture (from Greek αρχιτεκτονικήarchitektoniki) can be used to mean a process a profession or documentation History is the study of the past particularly the written record Those who study history as a Profession are called Historians Etymology Dan Cruickshank (born 26 August, 1949) is an architectural historian and Television presenter currently working for the BBC The year 2002 in television involved some significant eventsBelow is a list of Television -related events in 2002. Television ( TV) is a widely used Telecommunication medium for sending ( Broadcasting) and receiving moving Images, either monochromatic Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt in one fashion or another to " Document " reality Britain's Best Buildings is a BBC documentary series in which Dan Cruickshank chooses the finest examples of British architecture 
Windsor Castle was one of three royal sites excavated over four days on behalf of Channel 4's Time Team from 25 to 28 August 2006. Channel 4 is a public-service Television and Radio broadcaster in the United Kingdom centred around a television channel of the same name which began Time Team is a British television series that has aired on Channel 4 since 1994 Events 1248 - The Dutch city of Ommen receives city rights and fortification rights from Otto III the Events 475 - The Roman General Orestes forces western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos to flee his Capital Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. It was undertaken by Oxford Archaeology. Oxford Archaeology (formerly the Oxford Archaeological Unit) is along with MoLAS and Wessex Archaeology, one of the big three private Archaeological In the United Kingdom, Channel 4 devoted an evening television program to each day's findings, presented by Tony Robinson, and also followed the dig live on More4, together with a simulcast on the internet. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Dr Tony Robinson (born 15 August 1946 in Leytonstone, London) is an English Actor, broadcaster and More4 is a Digital television channel produced by United Kingdom broadcaster Channel 4, that launched on 10 October 2005.
Timed to help celebrate the 80th birthday of Queen Elizabeth II, along with many other events ongoing throughout 2006, this marked the 150th dig conducted by Time Team. For the first time, the Queen gave permission for trenches to be dug in the Garden of Buckingham Palace, as well as in Windsor Castle and the Palace of Holyroodhouse, Edinburgh. Buckingham Palace Garden or to give it its full title "The Garden at Buckingham Palace" is the garden situated at the rear of Buckingham Palace. The Palace of Holyroodhouse, or informally Holyrood Palace, founded as a monastery by David I of Scotland in 1128, has served as the principal residence The Big Royal Dig is an example of the Queen opening up her homes for greater access to the public, as she did during her Golden Jubilee Weekend in 2002 and throughout 2006 for her birthday. The Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II marked the fiftieth anniversary of Queen Elizabeth II 's accession to the throne
The archaeologists had an unprecedented opportunity to probe the geophysics and history of three royal residences over a four-day period, with teams working concurrently in the three locations.
Windsor Castle was the scene of two remarkable finds:
These finds have added to knowledge of the location, history, and uses of the Round Table and the Great Hall. 
Although this has been less well publicised than Buckingham Palace, security at Windsor Castle has occasionally been breached, most recently when an intruder (the self-styled "comedy terrorist", Aaron Barschak) "gate-crashed" the birthday party for Prince William. Aaron Barschak (born 1966 styles himself as a "comedy terrorist" and fringe UK politician Police from the Thames Valley Police and from the Royalty and Diplomatic Protection Department of the London Metropolitan Police provide the main element of physical security. Thames Valley Police is one of the largest Home Office Police services in England and the largest non- metropolitan one covering 2200 sq mi (5700 The Royalty and Diplomatic Protection Department ( RDPD) is a Specialist Operations branch of London 's Metropolitan Police Service. "Metropolitan Police" redirects here See also Metropolitan police. The Windsor Castle Guard of the Foot Guards of the Household Division, provided by a public duties battalion in London, or by the battalion at Victoria Barracks, Windsor, contributes to this. Foot guards is a term used to describe elite Infantry Regiments British Army The Foot Guards are the Infantry Regiments of the Household Division is a term used principally in the Commonwealth of Nations to describe a country’s most elite or historically senior military units or those military units Public duties are performed by military personnel and usually have a ceremonial or historic significance rather than an overtly operational role A battalion is a Military unit of around 500-1500 men usually consisting of between two and seven companies and typically commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel The Foot Guards Battalion stationed at Windsor generally provides the Windsor Castle Guard Windsor (ˈwɪnzə/ /ˈwɪndzə is a suburban town and tourist destination in the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead in Berkshire, England.
The Foot Guards battalion at Victoria Barracks, a quarter of a mile from the Castle, is supported by the armoured reconnaissance squadron of the Household Cavalry based at Combermere Barracks, Windsor, one mile from the Castle. The Formation Reconnaissance Regiment is one of two organisations currently provided by Cavalry regiments of the British Army. A squadron is a small unit or formation of Cavalry, armour, Aircraft (including Balloons) or Warships Army The term Household Cavalry is used across the Commonwealth to describe the Cavalry of the Household Divisions a country’s most elite or historically Combermere Barracks, Windsor, is a British military installation one mile from Windsor Castle. In times of emergency at the castle, several thousand soldiers, as well as the FV107 Scimitar Light Tanks of the Household Cavalry, would be able to respond quickly to protect the castle and its occupants. FV107 Scimitar is an Armoured Reconnaissance Vehicle (sometimes classed as a light tank) The term Household Cavalry is used across the Commonwealth to describe the Cavalry of the Household Divisions a country’s most elite or historically