A window is an opening in an otherwise solid and opaque surface that allows the passage of light and, if not closed or sealed, air and sound. GlassWindowjpg|thumb|right|190px|A stained glass panel depicting Biblical scenes at a historic church in Scotland]] A window is an opening Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Windows are usually glazed or covered in some other transparent or translucent material. In Optics, transparency (also called pellucidity) is the Material property of allowing Windows are held in place by frames, which prevent them from collapsing in.
The word Window originates from the Old Norse vindauga, from vindr "wind" and auga "eye. Old Norse is the North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during the Viking Age " "Vindauga" is still used in Icelandic, as well as some Norwegian and Swedish dialects to mean exactly the same thing: window. A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος dialektos) is a variety of a Language that is characteristic of a particular group of It is first recorded in the early 13th century, and originally referred to an unglazed hole in a roof. Window replaced the Old English eagþyrl, which literally means "eye-hole," and eagduru, "eye-door". Most Germanic languages however adopted the Latin word fenestra to describe a window with glass, such as Swedish fönster, or German Fenster. Swedish ( is a North Germanic language spoken by more than nine million people predominantly in Sweden and parts of Finland, especially along the The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Notable exceptions to this, apart from English, are Danish and Norwegian, with the English word window closely resembling the words vindue and vindu respectively. Danish ( d̥ænsɡ̊ is one of the North Germanic languages (also called Scandinavian languages a sub-group of the Germanic branch of the Norwegian ( norsk) is a North Germanic Language spoken primarily in Norway, where it is an official language This is probably due to the Scandinavian influence on the English language by means of loanwords during the Viking Age. A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one Language from another with little or no translation Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 700 to 1066 in European history. In English the word fenester was used as a parallel until the mid-1700s and fenestration is still used to describe the arrangement of windows within a facade. A facade or façade (fəˈsɑːd is generally one side of the exterior of a Building, especially the front but also sometimes the sides and rear
A window is an opening in a wall that lets light and possibly air into the room and allows occupants to see out. A wall is a usually solid structure that defines and sometimes protects an area Primitive windows were just holes. Later, they were covered with animal hide, cloth, or wood. Shutters that could be opened and closed came next. A window shutter is a solid and stable Window covering usually consisting of a frame of vertical stiles and horizontal rails (top center and bottom Over time, windows were built that both protected the inhabitants from the elements and transmitted light: mullioned glass windows, which joined multiple small pieces of glass with leading, paper windows, flattened pieces of translucent animal horn, and plates of thinly sliced marble. A mullion is a structural element which divides adjacent Window units Characteristics Lead has a dull luster and is a dense, Ductile, very soft highly Paper is thin material mainly used for writing upon printing upon or packaging Marble is a nonfoliated Metamorphic rock resulting from the Metamorphism of Limestone, composed mostly of Calcite (a crystalline form of Mullioned glass windows were the windows of choice among European well-to-do, whereas paper windows were economical and widely used in ancient China , Korea , Japan. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Korea is a geographic area composed of two sovereign countries a civilization and a former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. In England, glass became common in the windows of ordinary homes only in the early 17th century whereas windows made up of panes of flattened animal horn were used as early as the 14th century in Northern Britain. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Modern-style floor-to-ceiling windows became possible only after the industrial glass making process was perfected. Glass in the common sense refers to a Hard, Brittle, transparent Solid, such as that used for Windows many Evidence of glass window panes in Italy dates back nearly 3000 years.
Styles available include:
The traditional style of window in the USA, and many other places that were formerly colonized by the UK, with two parts (sashes) that overlap slightly and slide up and down inside the frame. Bamboo is a group of Woody perennial Evergreen Plants in the True grass family Poaceae, subfamily A tea house or tearoom is a venue centered on drinking Tea. Their function varies widely depending on the culture and some cultures have a variety of distinct is a city located near Nagoya in Aichi, Japan. The city was founded on April 1, 1954. The two parts are not necessarily the same size. Nowadays, most new double-hung sash windows use spring balances to support the sashes, but traditionally, counterweights held in boxes either side of the window were used. These were and are attached to the sashes using pulleys of either braided cord or, later, purpose-made chain. Double-hung sash windows were traditionally often fitted with shutters. A window shutter is a solid and stable Window covering usually consisting of a frame of vertical stiles and horizontal rails (top center and bottom Sash windows may be fitted with simplex hinges which allow the window to be locked into hinges on one side, while the rope on the other side is detached, allowing the window to be opened for escape or cleaning.
One sash is movable (usually the bottom one) and the other fixed. This is the earlier form of sliding sash window, and is obviously also cheaper.
Has two or more sashes that overlap slightly but slide horizontally within the frame. In the UK, these are sometimes called Yorkshire sash windows, presumably because of their traditional use in that county. Yorkshire is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in Great Britain.
A window with a hinged sash that swings in or out like a door comprising either a side-hung, top-hung, or occasionally bottom-hung sash or a combination of these types, sometimes with fixed panels on one or more sides of the sash. In the USA these are usually opened using a crank, but in Europe they tend to use projection friction stays and espagnolette locking. An espagnolette is a locking device normally on a Window or French window with a handle at around hand height with bars that slide into sockets at the head and foot of the Formerly, plain hinges were used with a casement stay. Handing applies to casement windows to determine direction of swing. Handing is the method of determining how a door swings Doors are either "right handed" or "left handed"
A top hung hinged sash is also called an awning window. An awning is a secondary covering attached to the exterior wall of a building
A window (more usually a door-sized window) where the sash tilts inwards at the top and then slides horizontally behind the fixed pane.
A window which can either tilt inwards at the top, or can open inwards hinged at the side.
A window above a door; if an exterior door the transom window is often fixed, if an interior door it can often open either by hinges at top or bottom, or can rotate about hinges at the middle of its sides. Listed buildings in Moore Cheshire -->In Architecture, a transom is the term given to a horizontal glazing bar which is framed across It provided ventilation before forced air heating and cooling.
Also known as a louvred window, this window is comprised of many slats of glass that open and close like a Venetian blind, usually using a crank or a lever. For other uses see Blinds (disambiguation For the desktop theming software see WindowBlinds. The hinges may be at the top or middle of the short end of the slats of glass. They are used extensively in tropical and subtropical architecture. A Jalousie door is a door with a Jalousie window.
A vertical window set in a roof structure or high in a wall, used for daylighting. Clerestory (ˈklɪə(rstɔəri lit clear storey, also clearstory, clearstorey, or overstorey) is an architectural term denoting Vietnam roofjpg|thumb|The roofs of Vietnam.]] A roof is the covering on the uppermost part of a Building. Daylighting is the practice of placing Windows or other transparent media and reflective surfaces so that during the day natural light provides effective internal illumination
A flat or sloped window built into a roof structure that is out of reach for daylighting. Daylighting is the practice of placing Windows or other transparent media and reflective surfaces so that during the day natural light provides effective internal illumination
A sloped window built into a roof structure that is in reach for daylighting.
A roof lantern is a multi-paned glass structure, resembling a small building, built on a roof for day or moon light. In Architecture, a cupola or lantern is a radially symmetrical ornamental structure (often dome-shaped or quadrilateral located on top of a larger Sometimes includes an additional clerestory. Clerestory (ˈklɪə(rstɔəri lit clear storey, also clearstory, clearstorey, or overstorey) is an architectural term denoting May also be called a cupola. In Architecture, a cupola or lantern is a radially symmetrical ornamental structure (often dome-shaped or quadrilateral located on top of a larger
A multi-panel window, with at least three panels set at different angles to create a protrusion from the wall line. it is commonly used in cold country where snow often falls. The panels are thus set in three different directions,from where a person would have a view from the interior of a building.
A window with many panels. It is most often seen in the typical Tudor-style house and monasterie. An oriel window projects from the wall and does not extend to the ground. Oriel windows originated as a form of porch. They are often supported by brackets or corbels. Buildings in the Gothic Revival style often have oriell windows.
A window that cannot be opened, whose function is limited to allowing light to enter. Clerestory windows are often fixed. Transom windows may be fixed or operable.
A very large fixed window in a wall, typically without glazing bars, or glazed with only perfunctory glazing bars near the edge of the window. Picture windows are intended to provide an unimpeded view, as if framing a picture.
A window glazed with small panes of glass separated by wooden or lead "glazing bars", or "muntins", arranged in a decorative "glazing pattern" often dictated by the architectural style at use. Due to the historic unavailability of large panes of glass, this was the prevailing style of window until the beginning of the twentieth century, and is traditionally still used today.
A window big enough and low enough so that occupants can escape through the opening in an emergency, such as a fire. Fire is the heat and light energy released during a Chemical reaction, in particular a combustion reaction. In the United States, exact specifications for emergency windows in bedrooms are given in many building codes. A building code, or building control, is a set of rules that specify the minimum acceptable level of safety for constructed objects such as Buildings and Nonbuilding Vehicles, such as buses and aircraft, frequently have emergency exit windows as well.
A window composed of pieces of colored glass, transparent or opaque, frequently portraying persons or scenes. For the Blackford Oakes novel see Stained Glass (novel The term stained glass refers either to the material of coloured Glass or to the art For the Blackford Oakes novel see Stained Glass (novel The term stained glass refers either to the material of coloured Glass or to the art In Optics, transparency (also called pellucidity) is the Material property of allowing Opacity is the measure of impenetrability to electromagnetic or other kinds of radiation especially visible Light. Typically the glass in these windows is separated by lead glazing bars. Stained glass windows were popular in Victorian houses and some Wrightian houses, and are especially common in churches. Culture The Victorian fascination with novelty resulted in a deep interest in the relationship between modernity and cultural continuities
A French window, also known as a French door is really a type of door, but one which has one or more panes of glass set into the whole length of the door, meaning it also functions as a window. A door is a panel or barrier usually hinged or sliding that is used to cover an opening in a Wall or partition going into a building or space
Etymologically speaking, any window can be called a "light". However, within the window industry, particularly in insulated glass production, the term "lite" (so-spelled to keep the meaning differentiated from actual sunlight) is used to mean a single glass pane, several of which may be used to construct the final window product. For example, a sash unit, consisting of at least one sliding glass component, is typically composed of two lites, while a fixed window is composed of one lite. The terms "single-light", "double-light" etc refer to the number of these glass panes in a window.
The lights in a window sash are divided horizontally and vertically by narrow strips of wood or metal called muntins. More substantial load bearing or structural vertical dividers are called mullions, with the corresponding horizontal dividers referred to as transoms.
In the USA, the term replacement window means a framed window designed to slip inside the original window frame from the inside after the old sashes are removed. In Europe, however, it usually means a complete window including a replacement outer frame.
The USA term new construction window means a window with a nailing fin designed to be inserted into a rough opening from the outside before applying siding and inside trim. A nailing fin is a projection on the outer frame of the window in the same plane as the glazing, which overlaps the prepared opening, and can thus be 'nailed' into place). Glazing is a transparent part of a Wall, usually made of Glass or Plastic ( acrylic and Polycarbonate)
In the UK and Europe, windows in new-build houses are usually fixed with long screws into expanding plastic plugs in the brickwork. A gap of up to 13mm is left around all four sides, and filled with expanding polyurethane foam. This makes the window fixing weatherproof but allows for expansion due to heat.
Windows can be a significant source of heat transfer. Different kinds of glazing and window frames can reduce thermal losses and gains. Insulated Glazing Unit or Insulating Glass Unit (commonly referred to as IGU) is a set of two or more sheets of glass spaced apart and Hermetically sealed
Frames and sashes are traditionally made of wood, but metal, vinyl or PVC, and composites are also common. Composite materials (or composites for short are engineered Materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical The cost and availability of may vary from country to country. Solid metal frames and sashes are poor insulators because metals conduct heat quickly. Vinyl frames are popular in Europe because they conduct heat poorly. Wood is also a good insulator. Composite frames may combine materials to obtain aesthetics of one material with the functional benefits of another. Modern metal window parts typically consist of two surfaces separated by insulating spacer material.
Many windows have movable window coverings such as blinds or curtains to keep out light, provide additional insulation, or ensure privacy. Window coverings are material used to cover a Window to manage Sunlight, to provide additional weatherproofing to ensure privacy or for purely decorative purposes For other uses see Blinds (disambiguation For the desktop theming software see WindowBlinds.
Air infiltration and hence convective heat losses can be reduce by good window seals and attention to construction. Evacuated or argon-filled Insulated glazing units are also dependent on meticulous frame construction to prevent entry of air and loss of efficiency. Insulated Glazing Unit or Insulating Glass Unit (commonly referred to as IGU) is a set of two or more sheets of glass spaced apart and Hermetically sealed
Modern windows are usually glazed with one large sheet of glass per sash, while windows in the past were glazed with multiple panes separated by "glazing bars", or "muntins", due to the unavailability of large sheets of glass. Today, glazing bars tend to be decorative, separating windows into small panes of glass even though larger panes of glass are available, generally in a pattern dictated by the architectural style at use. Glazing bars are typically wooden, but occasionally lead glazing bars soldered in place are used for more intricate glazing patterns.
A beam over the top of a window is known as the lintel or transom. For lintel as a decorative element see Lintel (architecture For beam as load-bearing member see beam Listed buildings in Moore Cheshire -->In Architecture, a transom is the term given to a horizontal glazing bar which is framed across
Historically, windows are designed with surfaces parallel to vertical building walls. Such a design allows considerable solar light and heat penetration due to the most commonly occurring incidence of sun angles. In passive solar building design, an extended eave is typically used to control the amount of solar light and heat entering the window(s). Passive solar buildings aim to maintain interior Thermal comfort throughout the sun's daily and annual cycles whilst reducing the requirement for active heating and cooling An eave is the edge of a Roof. Eaves usually project beyond the side of the building generally to provide weather protection
An alternate method would be to calculate a more optimum angle for mounting windows which accounts for summer sun load minimization, with consideration of the actual latitude of the particular building. An example where this process has been implemented is the Dakin Building, Brisbane, California; much of the fenestration has been designed to reflect summer heat load and assist in preventing summer interior over-illumination and glare, by designing window canting to achieve a near 45 degree angle. The Dakin Building is an architectural award winning class A office building on the San Francisco Bay in Brisbane California. Brisbane is a small city located in the northern part of San Mateo County California on the lower slopes of San Bruno Mountain. Over-illumination is the presence of lighting intensity ( Illuminance) beyond that required for a specified activity
The symbolism of windows plays a part in the customs and traditions of certain religions.
A sash window in Paddington, City of Westminster, London. A sash window or hung sash window is made of one or more movable panels or "sashes" that form a frame to hold panes of glass which are often separated from other panes Paddington is an area of the City of Westminster, in Central London, England. The City of Westminster ( is a borough of London with city status. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom.
Window - Budapest, Hungary
Stained glass skylight and window, Auckland Museum. The Auckland War Memorial Museum (or simply the Auckland Museum) is one of New Zealand 's most important national Museums and War memorials
Window with Ivy. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. An is a term for Hot springs ' in the Japanese language, though the term is often used describe the bathing facilities and inns around the hot springs is a town in Japan, in Kanagawa Prefecture, in Ashigarashimo District, located on the eastern foot of Hakone Pass. jpg
Magic Window, etching by István Orosz