|William of Tyre|
William of Tyre writing his history, from a 13th century Old French translation, Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, MS 2631, f. Old French was the Romance Dialect continuum spoken in territories which span roughly the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city 1r
|Died||September 29, 1185|
|Known for||Medieval Chronicler|
William of Tyre (c. Events 522 BC - Darius I of Persia kills the Magian usurper Gaumâta securing his hold as king of the Persian Empire. 1130 – 1185) was archbishop of Tyre and a chronicler of the Crusades and the Middle Ages. The Archbishop of Tyre was one of the major suffragans of the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem during the Crusades and was established to serve the Catholic members of Generally a chronicle (chronica from Greek (from) is a historical account of facts and events in chronological order The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents
William of Tyre was born in Jerusalem around 1130, one of the second generation of children born to the children of the original European Crusaders in the new Kingdom of Jerusalem. Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the This article is about the Christian kingdom For the history of the city see History of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian His parents were probably French or Italian in origin, possibly Normans from Sicily. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The Normans were the people who gave their names to Normandy, a region in northern France. Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. He had a brother named Ralph who was probably a merchant in the kingdom, and the family was certainly non-noble. As a child he was educated in Jerusalem, especially in Latin but also perhaps in Greek and Arabic, and it is possible that one of his fellow pupils was the future king Baldwin III. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Baldwin III of Jerusalem (1130 &ndash February 10, 1162) was king of Jerusalem from 1143&ndash1162 He entered the church at an early age, and around 1146 went to Europe to continue his studies. He studied liberal arts and theology in Paris and Orleans for about ten years, with professors who had been students of Thierry of Chartres and Gilbert de la Porrée; he also spent time studying under Robert of Melun and Adam de Parvo Ponte, among others. The term liberal arts refers to a particular type of educational Curriculum broadly defined as a Classical education. Theology is the study of a god or the gods from a religious perspective Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city This article is about the French city of Orléans for other meanings see Orleans (disambiguation. Thierry of Chartres ( Theodoricus Chartrensis) or Theodoric the Breton ( Theodericus Brito) (died before 1155 probably 1150 was a twelfth-century philosopher Gilbert de la Porrée, also known as Gilbert of Poitiers, Gilbertus Porretanus or Pictaviensis (1070 &ndash September 4, 1154) was Robert of Melun (died 1167 was a scholastic Christian theologian born in England but who worked in France. Adam Parvipontanus (died 1181 was born in Balsham, near Cambridge, England. He also studied the classics with Hilary of Orleans, and mathematics ("especially Euclid") with William of Soissons. "Classical literature" redirects here For literature in Classical languages outside the Graeco-Roman sphere see Ancient literature. Mathematics is the body of Knowledge and Academic discipline that studies such concepts as Quantity, Structure, Space and Euclid ( Greek:.) fl 300 BC also known as Euclid of Alexandria, is often referred to as the Father of Geometry For six years, he studied theology with Peter Lombard and Maurice de Sully. Peter Lombard or Petrus Lombardus; (c 1100 — July 20, 1160 in Paris) was a scholastic theologian and Bishop and author Maurice de Sully (died September 11, 1196) was Bishop of Paris from 1160 until his death Afterwards, he studied civil law and canon law in Bologna, with the "Four Doctors", Hugolinus de Porta Ravennate, Bulgarus, Martinus Gosia, and Jacob de Boraigne. Civil law, as opposed to Criminal law, refers to that branch of Law dealing with disputes between Individuals and/or Organizations, in which Canon law is internal ecclesiastical law governing the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox churches and the Anglican Communion of churches Bologna (boloɲa from Latin Bononia, Bulåggna in Bolognese dialect is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy Bulgarus was a Twelfth century Italian Jurist, born at Bologna. Martinus Gosia was one of the Glossators and a 12th century Italian Jurist, counted among the Four Doctors of Bologna, the others
After his return to the Holy Land in 1165 he became canon of the cathedral at Acre, and in 1167 was appointed archdeacon of the cathedral of Tyre by King Amalric I. The Holy Land ( Arabic: الأرض المقدسة al-Arḍ ul-Muqaddasah;Ancient Aramaic: ארעא קדישא Ar'a Qaddisha; Hebrew: ארץ_הקודש A canon (from the Latin canonicus, itself derived from the Greek κανωνικος 'relating to a rule' is a priest who is a member of certain bodies of the A position of archdeacon is a senior position in Anglicanism, Syrian Malabar Nasrani, and in some other Christian denominations above that of most Tyre ( Arabic صور Ṣūr, Phoenician Phoenician wawsvg|12px|ו]] Ṣur, Hebrew Amalric I of Jerusalem (also Amaury or Aimery) (1136 &ndash July 11 1174) was King of Jerusalem 1162&ndash1174 and Count of In 1168 he was sent on a diplomatic mission for Amalric to the Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus, to finalize the treaty made between the two rulers for a joint campaign against Egypt. This is a list of the Emperors of the Eastern Roman Empire, commonly known as the Byzantine Empire by modern historians For the eldest son of Andronikos I Komnenos and father of Alexios I of Trebizond, see Manuel Komnenos (born 1145. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. In 1169 he visited Rome to answer accusations made against him by Frederick de la Roche, the archbishop of Tyre; the charge is unknown but was perhaps related to William's rather large income as archdeacon, which he presumably gained through his friendship with the king. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Frederick de la Roche (died 30 October 1174 was the sixth Latin Archbishop of Tyre (1164-1174 chancellor of the Kingdom of Jerusalem (c
On his return from Rome in 1170 he became the tutor of Amalric's son and heir, Baldwin IV. Baldwin IV of Jerusalem (1161&ndash 16 March 1185) called the Leper or the Leprous, the son of Amalric I of Jerusalem and his first It was William who discovered that Baldwin suffered from leprosy, although the diagnosis only became certain as the boy neared puberty. Leprosy (from the Greek lepi (λέπι meaning scales on a fish or Hansen's disease, is a chronic disease caused by the bacterium Around this time William began writing his history of the kingdom, under the patronage of Amalric. Unfortunately Amalric died prematurely in 1174, and Baldwin IV succeeded as king. Raymond III of Tripoli, regent for the young king, named William chancellor of Jerusalem, as well as archdeacon of Nazareth. Raymond III of Tripoli (1140 &ndash 1187 was Count of Tripoli from 1152 to 1187 and Prince of Galilee and Tiberias in right of his wife Eschiva There were six major officers of the kingdom of Jerusalem: the Constable, the Marshal, the Seneschal, the chamberlain (which were known Nazareth (ˈnæzərəθ (נָצְרַת Hebrew Natz'rat or Natzeret, الناصرة an-Nāṣira or an-Naseriyye) is the capital and largest On June 6, 1175, William became archbishop of Tyre, gaining control over the most important matters of both Church and State. Events 1508 - Maximilian I Holy Roman Emperor, is defeated in Friulia by Venetian forces; he is forced to sign a three-year In 1177 he performed the funeral services for William of Montferrat, Baldwin IV's brother-in-law, when the Patriarch of Jerusalem was too sick to attend. William of Montferrat (early 1140s-1177 also called William Longsword (modern Italian Guglielmo Lungaspada, originally Occitan Guilhem The Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem is the title given to the Latin Rite Catholic Archbishop of Jerusalem
In 1179, William was one of the delegates from Outremer who attended the Third Council of the Lateran; among the others was Heraclius, archbishop of Caesarea, Joscius, bishop of Acre and William's future successor in Tyre, the bishops of Sebastea, Bethlehem and Tripoli, and the abbot of Mount Sion. The Third Council of the Lateran met in March 1179 as the 11th Ecumenical council. Heraclius or Eraclius (c 1128-1190/1191 was Archbishop of Caesarea and Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem. The Archbishop of Caesarea was one of the major suffragans of the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem during the Crusades The diocese was an ancient one established Joscius, also Josce or Josias (died 1202 was Archbishop of Tyre in the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem in the late 12th century Samaria, or the Shomron ( שֹׁמְרוֹן, Standard Šoməron Tiberian Šōmərôn Bethlehem ( بيت لحم,, lit "House of Meat" Βηθλεέμ Bethleém בית לחם Beit Lehem, lit "House of Bread" is a Tripoli ( Lebanese Arabic: طرابلس Ṭrāblos or Ṭrēblos locally Ṭrōbles Standard Arabic: Ṭarābulus Τρίπολις Tripolis is the second-largest However, they were not of sufficient weight to persuade the Pope of the need for a new crusade. William was recruited by Pope Alexander III to engage in diplomatic matters with Emperor Manuel, and then returned home in 1180. Pope Alexander III (c 1100/1105 &ndash August 30, 1181) born Rolando (or Orlando) Bandinelli, was Pope from 1159 He clearly considered himself the obvious choice for the patriarchate when the ailing patriarch finally died, but in his absence the royal court had become bitterly divided into two factions.
By Easter 1180, the King and his mother Agnes of Courtenay foiled an attempt by Raymond III of Tripoli and Bohemond III of Antioch to marry the King's widowed sister Sibylla to Baldwin of Ibelin, a noble of their party. Agnes of Courtenay (c 1136 &ndash c 1184 was the daughter of Joscelin II of Courtenay by his wife Beatrice (widow of William Lord of Saone and the mother of king Bohemond III of Antioch (1144 &ndash 1201 also known as the Stammerer or the Stutterer, was Prince of Antioch from 1163 to his death Sibylla of Jerusalem (c 1160 &ndash 1190 was the Countess of Jaffa and Ascalon from 1176 and Queen of Jerusalem from 1186 to 1190 "Baldwin of Ibelin" may also refer to Baldwin of Ibelin Seneschal of Cyprus or Baldwin of Ibelin (died 1313. Sibylla was instead married off to a Poitevin newcomer, Guy of Lusignan, whose older brother Amalric of Lusignan was already an established figure at court. Poitou was a province of west-central France whose capital city was Poitiers. Guy of Lusignan, Guy of Jerusalem or Guy of Cyprus (c 1150 or 1159/1160 &ndash Nicosia, July 18, 1194) was a French Amalric II of Jerusalem or Amalric I of Cyprus, born Amalric of Lusignan (1145 &ndash April 1, 1205) King of Jerusalem 1197&ndash1205 This seems to have hardened the factional lines within the court.
When the Patriarch died on October 6, 1180, the contest for his successor was between William and Heraclius of Caesarea. They were fairly evenly matched in background and education, although William had played a larger political role as the King's tutor and chancellor. It seems that, following the precedent of the 1157 patriarchal election, the King delegated the decision to his mother Agnes, now wife of Reginald of Sidon. Reginald Grenier (1130s &ndash 1202 also Reynald or Renaud) was Lord of Sidon and an important noble in the late-12th century crusade Kingdom of She chose Heraclius, since William was closer to Raymond of Tripoli, then in disfavour. As Bernard Hamilton has noted, there is no reason to credit the rumours that Heraclius was Agnes's lover as more than a reflection of the grudges held by the defeated party.
William remained archbishop of Tyre and chancellor of the kingdom, and the King and Raymond were reconciled. Heraclius possibly excommunicated William in 1184, but this may have been an invention of the 13th century writer who first claimed it. In any case his importance had ceased by the accession of Baldwin V in 1185, by which time he was probably in failing health. Baldwin V of Jerusalem ( Baldwin of Montferrat, also known as Baudouinet) (1177 &ndash August 1186 was the son of Sibylla of Jerusalem and her first husband The date of William's death was later recorded as September 29, but the year is unknown; there was a new chancellor in May of 1185 and a new archbishop of Tyre by October of 1186, so 1185 seems to be the most reasonable date.
William himself reports that he wrote an account of the Lateran Council which he attended, as well as a Historia or Gesta orientalium principum dealing with the history of the Holy Land from time of Muhammad until 1184. IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics However, neither of these works have survived.
His great work is a chronicle of twenty-three unfinished books. The work begins with the conquest of Syria by Umar, but most of it deals with the advent of the First Crusade and the subsequent political history of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية Umar (a=عمر بن الخطاب|t=`Umar ibn al-Khattāb c 581-83 CE &ndash 7 November, 644) also known as Umar the Great or Omar the Great The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of conquering the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land and freeing Although he used older works, including chronicles of the First Crusade such as Fulcher of Chartres and other, unnamed sources, the work is also valuable as a primary source itself. The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of conquering the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land and freeing Fulcher of Chartres (born around 1059 in or near Chartres) was a chronicler of the First Crusade. It was widely translated and circulated throughout Europe after William's death. James of Vitry and Matthew Paris had copies of it and used it in their own chronicles. Jacques de Vitry (c 1160/70 &ndash 1240 or 1244) was a theologian chronicler and cardinal from 1228 &ndash 40 Matthew Paris (c 1200 &ndash 1259 was a Benedictine monk English chronicler, artist in Illuminated manuscripts and Cartographer A translation into Old French was particularly well-circulated and had many anonymous additions made to it in the 13th century, including the so-called chronicle of Ernoul; one Renaissance author translated the Old French version back into Latin, unaware that a Latin original already existed. Old French was the Romance Dialect continuum spoken in territories which span roughly the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium Ernoul is the name generally given to the author of a Chronicle of the late 12th century dealing with the fall of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere A Middle English translation of the Old French version was made by William Caxton in the 15th century. Middle English is the name given by Historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of
It is unknown what title William himself gave it, but the most usual title given to it in recent history is Historia rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum. This was translated as History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea in the standard English edition by E. A. Babcock and A. C. Krey, published in 1943. The Latin original was published in various places including the Patrologia Latina and the Recueil des historiens des croisades, but the now standard Latin critical edition was published as Willelmi Tyrensis Archiepiscopi Chronicon in the Corpus Christianorum in 1986, edited by R. The Patrologia Latina is an enormous collection of the writings of the Church Fathers and other ecclesiastical writers published by Jacques-Paul Migne between The Recueil des Historiens des Croisades (trans Collection of the Historians of the Crusades) is a major collection of several thousand medieval documents written The Corpus Christianorum is a major publishing undertaking of the Belgian publisher Brepols devoted to patristic and medieval Latin texts B. C. Huygens.
|Archbishop of Tyre|