William Lawrence Shirer (February 23, 1904 – December 28, 1993) was an American journalist and historian. Events 1455 - Traditional date for the publication of the Gutenberg Bible, the first Western Book printed from Movable Year 1904 ( MCMIV) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year starting on Events 1065 - Westminster Abbey is Consecrated. 1308 - The reign of Emperor Hanazono, Emperor of Year 1993 ( MCMXCIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar) The United States of America —commonly referred to as the He became known for his broadcasts on CBS from the German capital of Berlin through the first year of World War II. CBS Broadcasting Inc ( CBS) is an American radio and Television network. Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
Shirer first became famous through his account of those years in his Berlin Diary (published in 1941), but his greatest achievement was his 1960 book, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, published by The Ballantine Publishing Group. Berlin Diary (1934-1941 is a first-hand The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich by Journalist William L Shirer was the first definitive history of Nazi Germany in English. This book of well over 1000 pages is still in print, and is a detailed examination of the Third Reich filled with historical information from German archives captured at the end of the war, along with impressions Shirer gained during his days as a correspondent in Berlin. Later in 1969, his work The Collapse of the Third Republic drew on his experience spent living and working in France from 1925 to 1933. The Collapse of the Third Republic An Inquiry into the Fall of France in 1940 by William L This work is filled with historical information about the Battle of France from the secret orders and reports of the French High Command and of the commanding generals of the field. Shirer also used the memoirs, journals, and diaries of the prominent British, French, Italian, Spanish, and French figures in government, Parliament, the Army, and diplomacy.
Born in Chicago in 1904, Shirer attended Washington High School and Coe College in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. See also Washington High School for schools of the same name Coe College is a private four-year liberal arts college in Cedar Rapids Iowa. Cedar Rapids (ˌciːdɪrˈræpɨds is the second largest City in the U He graduated from Coe in 1925. Working his way to Europe on a cattle boat, intending to spend the summer there, he remained in Europe for the next fifteen years.
He was European correspondent for the Chicago Tribune from 1925 to 1932, covering assignments in Europe, the Near East and India. The Chicago Tribune is a major daily Newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois, United States, and owned by the Tribune Company In India he formed a close friendship with Mohandas K. Gandhi. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi ( Gujarati: મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી moɦən̪d̪äs kəɾəmʧən̪d̪ gän̪d̪ʱi (2 October 1869 – 30 January Shirer lived and worked in France for several years beginning in 1925. He left in the early 1930s but returned frequently to Paris throughout the decade. He lived and worked in the Third Reich from 1934 to 1940.
As a print journalist first and later as a radio reporter for CBS, Shirer covered the strengthening of one-party rule in Nazi Germany beginning in 1934. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Shirer reported on Adolf Hitler's peacetime triumphs like the return of the Saarland to Germany and the remilitarization of the Rhineland. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately Saarland (ˈzaːɐ̯lant in German; French: Sarre) is one of the 16 federal states (German Bundesländer) of Germany. The Remilitarization of the Rhineland by the German Army took place on 7 March 1936 when German forces entered the Rhineland.
Shirer was hired in 1934 for the Berlin bureau of the Universal News Service, which was one of William Randolph Hearst's two wire services. For other people named William Randolph Hearst see William Randolph Hearst (disambiguation William Randolph Hearst I (April 29 1863 &ndash When Universal Service folded in August 1937, Shirer was first taken on as second man by Hearst's other wire service, International News Service, and then laid off a few weeks later. International News Service (INS was a US-based News agency - or wire service - founded by newspaper publisher William Randolph Hearst in 1909
On the very day when Shirer received his two weeks' notice from INS, he also received what was to be a fateful wire from Edward R. Murrow, European manager of Columbia Broadcasting System, suggesting that the two men meet. Edward R Murrow (born Egbert Roscoe Murrow; April 25 1908 &ndash April 27 1965) was an American journalist CBS Broadcasting Inc ( CBS) is an American radio and Television network. At their meeting a few days later in Berlin, Murrow commented that he couldn't cover all of Europe from his London office and indicated that he was seeking an experienced correspondent to open a CBS office on the Continent. He offered Shirer the job on the spot, subject to an audition — a "trial broadcast" — to allow the CBS directors and vice presidents in New York to judge whether Shirer's voice was suitable for radio.
In spite of Shirer's fears that his reedy voice was unsuitable for radio, he was hired by CBS. As "European bureau chief" for CBS, Shirer set up headquarters in Vienna, a more central (and more neutral) spot than Berlin. Shirer's job was to arrange broadcasts and, early in his career with CBS, expressed his disappointment at having to hire newspaper correspondents to do the actual broadcasting; at the time, CBS correspondents were prohibited from speaking on the radio themselves.
Shirer was the first of the group that would be called "Murrow's Boys" — the groundbreaking broadcast journalists who provided outstanding news coverage during World War II and afterward. Murrow’s Boys, or “The Murrow Boys” were the CBS broadcast journalists most closely associated with Edward R
CBS's prohibition on its correspondents talking on the radio — viewed by both Murrow and Shirer as "absurd" — ended in March 1938. Shirer was in Vienna on March 11, 1938 when the German annexation of Austria Anschluss, took place after weeks of mounting pressure by Nazi Germany on the Austrian government. Events 1425 BC - Thutmose III, Pharaoh of Egypt, dies (according to the Low Chronology of the 18th Dynasty Year 1938 ( MCMXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The ( German: "link-up" also known as the, was the 1938 Annexation of Austria into Greater Germany by the Nazi
As the only American broadcaster in the Austrian capital at the time — NBC rival Max Jordan was not in town — Shirer had a major scoop, but lacked the facilities to report the momentous events of the Anschluss to his CBS radio audience. The National Broadcasting Company ( NBC) is an American Television network headquartered in the GE Building in New York City's He was not permitted to broadcast by occupying German troops controlling the Austrian state radio studio. At Murrow's suggestion, Shirer flew to London via Berlin — he recalled in Berlin Diary that the direct flight to London was filled with Jews frantically trying to escape German-occupied Austria. Berlin Diary (1934-1941 is a first-hand Once in London, Shirer broadcast the first uncensored eyewitness account of the annexation. Meanwhile, Murrow flew from London to Vienna to cover for Shirer.
The next day, CBS's New York headquarters asked Shirer and Murrow to arrange and produce a "European round-up" — a 30-minute broadcast featuring live reporting from five European capitals — Berlin, Vienna, Paris, Rome, and London. The broadcast, arranged in a mere eight hours using the primitive telephone and broadcasting facilities of the day, was a major feat of journalism. As the first-ever news roundup, this broadcast established a formula used in broadcast journalism to this day. It also turned out to be the genesis of what became the CBS World News Roundup, which still airs on that radio network each morning and evening, and is network broadcasting's oldest news series. The CBS World News Roundup is a radio newscast that airs weekday mornings and evenings on the CBS Radio Network.
Shirer also reported on the Munich Agreement and Hitler's march into Czechoslovakia before going on to report on the growing tensions between Germany and Poland in 1939 and the German invasion of Poland that launched World War II on September 1, 1939. The Munich Agreement (Mnichovská dohoda Mníchovská dohoda Münchner Abkommen Accords de Munich was an agreement regarding the Sudetenland, which were areas along borders Czechoslovakia may also refer to what is now the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Invasion of Poland (1939 precipitated World War II. It was carried out by Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, and a small German-allied World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Events 462 - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle. Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. During much of the pre-war period, Shirer was based in Berlin and attended most of Hitler's major public speeches and other political or propaganda events like several of the massive Nazi party rallies (Reichsparteitage) in Nuremberg. The Nuremberg Rally (officially Reichsparteitag, meaning national party convention was the annual rally of the NSDAP (Nazi Party in the years 1923 to 1938 in
From Berlin, Bill Shirer covered the outbreak of war in the West in spring 1940 — first the invasion of Denmark and Norway in April, and then the invasion of the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium, and France in May. Operation Weserübung was the codename for Nazi Germany 's assault on Denmark and Norway during World War II and the opening operation In World War II, the Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries As German armies closed in on Paris, he traveled to France with the German forces. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city In one of the biggest journalistic triumphs of the war, Shirer reported the signing of the German armistice with France on June 22, 1940 to the American people before the news had even been announced by the Germans. The Second Armistice at Compiègne was signed at 1850 on 22 June 1940 near Compiègne, in the department of Oise, between Nazi Germany Events 217 BC - Battle of Raphia: Ptolemy IV of Egypt defeats Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid kingdom. Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. His commentary from Compiègne was widely hailed as a masterpiece of reporting. Compiègne is a commune in the Oise département of France, of which it is a Sous-préfecture.
In peacetime, Shirer's reporting was subject only to "self-censorship". He and other reporters in Germany knew that if Nazi officials in Joseph Goebbels' Propaganda Ministry objected to their reporting, they could withdraw the reporters' access to the state-owned broadcasting facilities or expel them from Germany. Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation ˈɡœbəls English generally ˈɡɝbəlz (29 October 1897 1 May 1945 was a German politician and Reich Minister of Public Still, Shirer's early reporting was permitted more freedom than were German reporters writing or broadcasting for domestic audiences. At the beginning of the war, German officials established censorship; Shirer recalled that the restrictions were similar to wartime censorship elsewhere, and were concerned primarily with restricting information that could be used to Germany's military disadvantage by its enemies. Censorship is the suppression of speech or deletion of communicative material which may be considered objectionable harmful or sensitive as determined by a censor
However, as the war continued and as Britain not only rebuffed Hitler's peace overtures to end the war, but began to bomb German cities (including Berlin), the tightening Nazi censorship became more onerous to Shirer and his colleagues. In contrast to Ed Murrow's live broadcasts of the German bombing of London in the Blitz, foreign correspondents in Germany were not allowed to report British air raids on German cities. The Blitz was the sustained bombing of Britain by Nazi Germany between 7 September 1940 and 10 May 1941 in World War II. Furthermore, reporters were not permitted to cast doubt upon statements made by the Propaganda Ministry and Military High Command. For other uses of OKW see OKW (disambiguation. The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht ( OKW) ( English: "High Command Reporters were discouraged by the Propaganda Ministry from reporting news or from using terms like Nazi that were liable to "create an unfavorable impression. " For a time, Shirer resorted to subtler ways of attempting to convey his message until the censors caught on.
As the summer of 1940 progressed, the Nazi government put increasing pressure on Shirer to broadcast the official accounts which he knew were incomplete or false. As his frustration grew, he wrote to his bosses in New York that the tightening censorship was undermining his ability to report objectively in Germany and mused that he had outlived his usefulness reporting from Berlin. Shirer was subsequently tipped off by an acquaintance that the Gestapo was building a case against him, and began making arrangements to leave Germany, which he did in December 1940. The ( contraction of ge heime Sta ats' po' lizei: "Secret State Police" was the official Secret police of Nazi Germany Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Shirer managed to smuggle his diaries and notes out of Germany and used them as the basis for his Berlin Diary, which provides a first-hand, day-by-day account of events inside the Third Reich during five years of peacetime and one year of war. Berlin Diary (1934-1941 is a first-hand Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers It was published in 1941.
He returned to Europe to report the Nuremberg trials in 1945. The Nuremberg Trials were a series of trials most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political military and economic leadership of Nazi Germany after
The close friendship between Shirer and Murrow ended in 1947, in one of the great confrontations of American broadcast journalism, that culminated in Shirer leaving CBS.
The dispute started when J. B. Williams, maker of shaving soap, withdrew his sponsorship of Shirer's Sunday news show. CBS, of which Murrow was then vice president for public affairs, did not find Shirer another sponsor and allowed the show to keep running on a "sustaining" (non-sponsored) basis, which resulted in a loss of income for its moderator.
Shirer contended that the root of his troubles was the network and sponsor not standing by him because of his on-air comments, such as those critical of the Truman Doctrine, and what he viewed as an emphasis on placating sponsors instead of on journalism. The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by US President Harry S Shirer blamed Murrow for his departure from CBS, at one time bitterly referring to Murrow as "Paley's toady. "
The episode hastened Murrow's own desire to give up his network vice presidency and return to newscasting, and foreshadowed his own later misgivings about the future of broadcast journalism and his own difficulties with CBS founder and chief executive William S. Paley. William Samuel Paley ( September 28, 1901 &ndash October 26, 1990) was the chief executive who built Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS
Shirer himself briefly provided analysis for the Mutual Broadcasting System, then found himself unable to find regular radio work. His appearance in Red Channels blacklisted him, effectively barring him from broadcasting or print journalism, and he was forced into the lecture circuit for income. Red Channels The Report of Communist Influence in Radio and Television is an anti-Communist tract published in the United States at the height of the Red Scare. Times remained tough for Shirer, his wife Tess and daughters Eileen, Inga, and Linda until Simon & Schuster published his book, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich in 1960. Simon & Schuster Inc, a division of CBS Corporation, is a Publisher founded in New York in 1924 by Richard L A best seller for many years, the book went through twenty printings in the first year after publication.
The friendship between Shirer and Murrow never recovered. In her preface to This is Berlin, a compilation of Shirer's Berlin broadcasts published after his death, Shirer's daughter Inga describes how Murrow, suffering from lung cancer that he knew could be terminal, tried to heal the breach with Shirer before his death by inviting the Shirers to his farm in 1964. Lung cancer is a Disease of uncontrolled Cell growth in tissues of the Lung. During this visit, Murrow tried to discuss the breach so as to heal it. Though the two men chatted in a superficially pleasant manner, Shirer stubbornly steered the conversation away from the contentious issues between the two men, and the men never had another opportunity to air their grievances before Murrow died in 1965. Shirer's daughter also writes that, shortly before her father's own death in 1993, he rebuffed her attempts to learn the source of the breach that opened between the two journalists 45 years earlier.
In 2001 a compilation of Shirer's CBS broadcasts from Europe, called This Is Berlin: Reporting from Nazi Germany, 1938-40 (ISBN 1-58567-279-3) was published. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar.