|King of the English (more...)|
|William II, from the Stowe Manuscript|
|Reign||9 September 1087–2 August 1100|
|Coronation||26 September 1087|
|Royal house||Norman dynasty|
|Mother||Matilda of Flanders|
|Died||2 August 1100|
The New Forest, England
|Burial||Winchester Cathedral, Winchester|
William II (c. The precise style of British Sovereigns has varied over the years Events 1000 - Battle of Svolder, Viking Age. 1379 - Treaty of Neuberg, splitting the Austrian Events 338 BC - A Macedonian army led by Philip II defeated the combined forces of Athens and Thebes in the Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar dedicates a William I of England ( 1027 His reign which brought Norman culture to England had an enormous impact on the subsequent course of England in the Middle Ages Henry I (c 1068/1069 – 1 December 1135) was the fourth son of William I the Conqueror, the first King of England after the Norman A royal house or royal dynasty is a familial designation or Family name of sorts used by Royalty. Norman dynasty is the usual designation for the English monarchs which immediately followed the Norman conquest and lasted until the Plantagenet dynasty William I of England ( 1027 His reign which brought Norman culture to England had an enormous impact on the subsequent course of England in the Middle Ages Matilda of Flanders (c 1031 – 2 November 1083 was Queen consort of the Kingdom of England and the wife of William I the Conqueror. Normandy (Normandie Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region corresponding to the former Duchy of Normandy. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Events 338 BC - A Macedonian army led by Philip II defeated the combined forces of Athens and Thebes in the The New Forest is an area of southern England which includes the largest remaining tracts of unenclosed pasture land heathland and Forest in the heavily-populated England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Winchester Cathedral at Winchester in Hampshire is one of the largest Cathedrals in England, with the longest nave and overall length of Winchester or Winton ( archaic) is a historic city in southern England, with a population of around 40000 within a radius of its centre 1056 – 2 August 1100), the third son of William I of England (William the Conqueror), was King of England from 1087 until 1100, with powers also over Normandy, and influence in Scotland. Events 338 BC - A Macedonian army led by Philip II defeated the combined forces of Athens and Thebes in the William I of England ( 1027 His reign which brought Norman culture to England had an enormous impact on the subsequent course of England in the Middle Ages The Kingdom of England was a State (927-1707 located in Western Europe dating from the ninth or tenth century to the early eighteenth century when it was legally The Duchy of Normandy stems from various Danish, Hiberno-Norse, Orkney Viking and Anglo-Danish ( from the Danelaw) invasions of The Kingdom of Scotland ( Gaelic: Rìoghachd na h-Alba, Scots: Kinrick o Scotland) was a State in northwest Europe He was less successful in extending control into Wales. William is commonly known as 'William Rufus', perhaps because of his red-faced appearance. 
Although William was an effective soldier, he was a ruthless ruler and, it seems, was little liked by those he governed: according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, he was 'hated by almost all his people. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of Annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons. ' However, chroniclers tended to take a dim view of William's reign, arguably on account of his long and difficult struggles with the Church: these chroniclers were themselves generally products of the Church, and so might be expected to report him somewhat negatively. Thus William was roundly denounced in his time and after his death for presiding over what was held to be a dissolute court, in terms which, in modern times, have raised questions over his sexuality.  According to Norman tradition, William scorned the English and their culture. 
William seems to have been a flamboyant character, and his reign was marked by his bellicose temperament. He did not marry, nor did he produce any offspring, legitimate or otherwise. His chief minister was Ranulf Flambard, whom he appointed Bishop of Durham in 1099: this was a political appointment, to a see that was also a great fiefdom. Ranulf Flambard, also known as Ralph Flambard or Ranulph Flambard and sometimes Ranulf Passiflamme, (c See also List of Bishops of Durham The Bishop of Durham is the Anglican Bishop responsible for the Diocese of Durham in Under the system of Feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud, feoff, or fee, often consisted of inheritable lands or revenue-producing 
William's exact date of birth is unknown, but it was sometime between the years 1056 and 1060. He was the third of four sons, born in his father's Duchy of Normandy, which would be inherited in due course by his elder brother, Robert Curthose. The Duchy of Normandy stems from various Danish, Hiberno-Norse, Orkney Viking and Anglo-Danish ( from the Danelaw) invasions of During his youth, he was educated under the eye of Lanfranc, and seemed destined to be a great lord but not a king, until the death of the Conqueror's second son, Richard, put William next in line for the English succession. Lanfranc (c 1005 – 1089 was Archbishop of Canterbury, and a Lombard by extraction  His father's favourite son, William succeeded to the throne of England on his father's death, but there was always hostility between him and his eldest brother, though they became reconciled after an attempted coup in 1091 by the youngest brother, Henry. Henry I (c 1068/1069 – 1 December 1135) was the fourth son of William I the Conqueror, the first King of England after the Norman
Relations between the three brothers had never been excellent. Orderic Vitalis relates an incident that took place at L'Aigle, in 1077 or 1078: William and Henry, having grown bored with casting dice, decided to make mischief by pouring stinking water on their brother Robert from an upper gallery, thus infuriating and shaming him. Orderic Vitalis (1075&ndashc 1142 was an English chronicler who wrote one of the great contemporary Chronicles of 11th and 12th century Normandy and L'Aigle is a commune in the Orne department, Région of Basse-Normandie. A brawl broke out, and their father King William I was forced to intercede to restore order. William I of England ( 1027 His reign which brought Norman culture to England had an enormous impact on the subsequent course of England in the Middle Ages 
|House of Normandy|
|Robert II Curthose, Duke of Normandy|
|Richard, Duke of Bernay|
|William II Rufus|
|Adela, Countess of Blois|
|Henry I Beauclerc|
According to William of Malmesbury, William Rufus was 'well set; his complexion florid, his hair yellow; of open countenance; different coloured eyes, varying with certain glittering specks; of astonishing strength, though not very tall, and his belly rather projecting. TalkCommonewalth realm.--> The monarchy The Normans were the people who gave their names to Normandy, a region in northern France. William I of England ( 1027 His reign which brought Norman culture to England had an enormous impact on the subsequent course of England in the Middle Ages Richard was born in 1054 in Normandy, France, the second legitimate son of William the Conqueror, King of England and Duke of Normandy. also Adelaide of Normandy sister of William I of England. Adela of Normandy also known as Adela of Blois and Adela of Henry I (c 1068/1069 – 1 December 1135) was the fourth son of William I the Conqueror, the first King of England after the Norman Biography The education William received at Malmesbury Abbey included a smattering of Logic and Physics; Moral philosophy and History, '
The division of William the Conqueror's lands into two parts presented a dilemma for those nobles who held land on both sides of the Channel. Since the younger William and his brother Robert were natural rivals, these nobles worried that they could not hope to please both of their lords, and thus ran the risk of losing the favour of one ruler or the other, or both.  The only solution, as they saw it, was to unite England and Normandy once more under one ruler. The pursuit of this aim led them to revolt against William in favour of Robert in the Rebellion of 1088, under the leadership of the powerful Bishop Odo of Bayeux, who was a half-brother of William the Conqueror. The Rebellion of 1088 occurred after the death of William the Conqueror and concerned the division of lands in the Kingdom of England and the Duchy of Normandy Odo of Bayeux (c 1036 &ndash February 1097 Palermo) Norman Bishop and English earl was the half-brother of William the Conqueror, and was for  As Robert failed to appear in England to rally his supporters, William won the support of the English with silver and promises of better government, and defeated the rebellion, thus securing his authority. In 1091 he invaded Normandy, crushing Robert's forces and forcing him to cede a portion of his lands. The two made up their differences and William agreed to help Robert recover lands lost to France, notably Maine. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Maine is one of the traditional provinces of France. It corresponds to the old county of Maine centered around the city of Le Mans.  This plan was later abandoned, but William continued to pursue a ferociously warlike defence of his French possessions and interests to the end of his life, exemplified by his response to the attempt by Elias de la Flèche, Count of Maine, to take Le Mans in 1099. Elias I (also Hélie or Élie; died 11 July 1110) called de la Flèche or de Baugency, was the Count of Maine This is a list of counts and dukes of Maine, with their capital at Le Mans. Le Mans (ləmɑ̃ in French) is a city in France, located on the Sarthe River. 
Thus William Rufus was secure in the most powerful kingdom in Europe, given the contemporary eclipse of the Salian emperors. See also Salian Franks, Salic law The Salian dynasty was a Dynasty in the High Middle Ages of four German Kings (1024-1125 As in Normandy, his bishops and abbots were bound to him by feudal obligations; and his right of investiture in the Norman tradition prevailed within his kingdom, during the age of the Investiture Controversy that brought excommunication upon the Salian Emperor Henry IV. The Investiture Controversy or Investiture Contest was an 11th century dispute between Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor and Pope Gregory VII over See also Salian Franks, Salic law The Salian dynasty was a Dynasty in the High Middle Ages of four German Kings (1024-1125 Henry IV ( November 11, 1050 &ndash August 7, 1106) was King of Germany from 1056 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1084 until Anglo-Norman royal institutions reached an efficiency hitherto unknown in medieval Europe, and the king's personal power, through an effective and loyal chancery, penetrated to the local level to an extent unmatched in France. Without the Capetians' ideological trappings of an anointed monarchy forever entangled with the hierarchy of the Church, the king's administration and law unified the realm, rendering him relatively impervious to papal condemnation. For a full history of the Capetian family see Capetian dynasty.
Less than two years after becoming king, William II lost his father William I's advisor and confidant, the Italian-Norman Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury. William I of England ( 1027 His reign which brought Norman culture to England had an enormous impact on the subsequent course of England in the Middle Ages Lanfranc (c 1005 – 1089 was Archbishop of Canterbury, and a Lombard by extraction The Archbishop of Canterbury is the chief bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the After Lanfranc's death, the king delayed appointing a new archbishop for many years, appropriating ecclesiastical revenues in the interim. In panic owing to serious illness in 1093, William nominated as archbishop another Norman-Italian, Anselm of Bec – considered the greatest theologian of his generation – but this led to a long period of animosity between Church and State, Anselm being a stronger supporter of the Gregorian reforms in the Church than Lanfranc. Saint Anselm of Canterbury (1033 &ndash April 21, 1109) was an Italian medieval Philosopher, theologian, and church official The Gregorian Reform was a series of reforms initiated by Pope Gregory VII and the circle he formed in the papal curia, circa 1050&ndash1080 which dealt with the William and Anselm disagreed on a range of ecclesiastical issues, in the course of which the king declared to Anselm that Yesterday I hated him with great hatred, today I hate him with yet greater hatred and he can be certain that tomorrow and thereafter I shall hate him continually with ever fiercer and more bitter hatred.  The English clergy, beholden to the king for their preferments and livings, were unable to support Anselm publicly. In 1095 William called a council at Rockingham to bring Anselm to heel, but the archbishop remained firm. Rockingham is a village and Civil parish in the Corby district of Northamptonshire, England. In October 1097, Anselm went into exile, taking his case to the Pope. The diplomatic and flexible Urban II, a new pope, was involved in a major conflict with the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV, who supported an antipope. Pope Henry IV ( November 11, 1050 &ndash August 7, 1106) was King of Germany from 1056 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1084 until An antipope ( Latin: antipapa) is a person who makes a widely accepted claim to be the lawful Pope, in opposition to the pope recognised by the Roman Reluctant to make another enemy, Urban came to a concordat with William Rufus, whereby William recognized Urban as pope, and Urban gave sanction to the Anglo-Norman ecclesiastical status quo. A concordat usually refers to an agreement between the Apostolic See and a Government of a certain country on religious matters although it is also used Anselm remained in exile, and William was able to claim the revenues of the archbishop of Canterbury to the end of his reign. 
However, this conflict was symptomatic of medieval English politics, as exemplified by the murder of Thomas Becket during the reign of the later Norman king Henry II of England, and indeed by Henry VIII's actions centuries later, and as such should not be seen as a defect of William II's reign in particular. St Thomas Becket (c 1118 &ndash December 29, 1170) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 to 1170 Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of  Of course, contemporary churchmen were themselves not above engaging in such politics: it is reported that, when Archbishop Lanfranc suggested to William I that he imprison the rebellious bishop Odo of Bayeux, he exclaimed 'What! he is a clergyman'. William I of England ( 1027 His reign which brought Norman culture to England had an enormous impact on the subsequent course of England in the Middle Ages Odo of Bayeux (c 1036 &ndash February 1097 Palermo) Norman Bishop and English earl was the half-brother of William the Conqueror, and was for Lanfranc retorted that 'you will not seize the bishop of Bayeux, but confine the earl of Kent': Odo was both bishop of Bayeux, and earl of Kent.  Also, while we have the complaints of contemporaries regarding William II's personal behaviour, on the other hand he was instrumental in assisting the foundation of Bermondsey Abbey, endowing it with the manor of Bermondsey; and it is reported that his 'customary oath' was 'By the Face at Lucca!' It seems reasonable to suppose that such details are indicative of William II's personal beliefs. Bermondsey Abbey was an English Benedictine monastery Most widely known as an 11th century foundation it had a precursor mentioned in the early 8th century and was centred
William Rufus inherited the Anglo-Norman settlement detailed in Domesday Book, a survey undertaken at his father's command, essentially for the purposes of taxation, which could not have been undertaken anywhere else in Europe at that time, and is a sign of the control of the English monarchy. The Domesday Book (ˈduːmzdeɪ bʊk also known as Domesday, or Book of Winchester) was the record of the great survey If he was less effective than his father in containing the Norman lords' propensity for rebellion and violence, through charisma, or political skills, he was forceful in resisting its effects. In 1095, Robert de Mowbray, the earl of Northumbria, refused to attend the Curia Regis, the thrice-annual court where the King announced his governmental decisions to the great lords. Robert de Mowbray (d 1125 a Norman, was Earl of Northumbria from 1086 until 1095 when he was deposed for rebelling against William Rufus, King Curia regis is a Latin term meaning "royal council" or " king's court. William led an army against Robert and defeated him. Robert was dispossessed and imprisoned, and another noble, William of Eu, accused of treachery, was blinded and castrated. William of Eu, Count of Eu (died January 1096 was a first generation Anglo-Norman aristocrat and rebel Castration (also referred to as Gelding, Neutering, Fixing, orchiectomy, and orchidectomy is any action surgical, chemical 
In external affairs, William had some successes. In 1091 he repulsed an invasion by King Malcolm III of Scotland, forcing Malcolm to pay homage. Máel Coluim mac Donnchada ( Modern Gaelic: Maol Chaluim mac Dhonnchaidh) called in most Anglicised regnal lists Malcolm III, and in later centuries In 1092 he built a castle at Carlisle, taking control of Cumbria, which had previously been claimed by the Scots. Carlisle Castle is situated in the historic city of Carlisle, Cumbria in England. Boundaries and divisions Cumbria is neighboured by Northumberland, County Durham, North Yorkshire, Lancashire, and the Lieutenancy  Subsequently, the two kings quarreled over Malcolm's possessions in England, and Malcolm again invaded, ravaging Northumbria. At the Battle of Alnwick, on 13 November 1093, Malcolm was ambushed by Norman forces led by Robert de Mowbray. The Battle of Alnwick (1093 is one of two battles fought near the town of Alnwick, in Northumberland. Events 1002 - English king Ethelred orders the killing of all Danes in England, known today as the St Malcolm and his son Edward were slain and Malcolm III's brother Donald seized the throne. Domnall mac Donnchada ( Modern Gaelic: Dòmhnall mac Dhonnchaidh) anglicised as Donald III, and nicknamed Domnall Bán, "Donald William supported Malcolm's son Duncan, who held power for a short time, and then another of Malcolm's sons, Edgar. Donnchad mac Maíl Coluim ( Modern Gaelic: Donnchadh mac Mhaoil Chaluim) anglicised as Duncan II (before c Edgar (Mediaeval Gaelic Étgar mac Maíl Choluim; Modern Gaelic Eagar mac Mhaoil Chaluim; Mediaeval English Eadgar Margotsson) nicknamed Probus Edgar conquered Lothian in 1094 and eventually removed Donald in 1097 with William's aid in a campaign led by Edgar Ætheling. Edgar ( the) Ætheling, also known as Edgar the Outlaw (c 1051&ndashc Edgar recognised William's authority over Lothian and attended William's court.
William made unsuccessful forays into Wales in 1096 and 1097.
In 1096, William's brother Robert Curthose joined the First Crusade. The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of conquering the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land and freeing He needed money to fund this venture, and pledged his Duchy of Normandy to William in return for a payment of 10,000 marks—a sum equalling about one-fourth of William's annual revenue. The Duchy of Normandy stems from various Danish, Hiberno-Norse, Orkney Viking and Anglo-Danish ( from the Danelaw) invasions of In a display of the effectiveness of English taxation, William raised the money by levying a special, heavy, and much-resented tax upon the whole of England. William then ruled Normandy as regent in Robert's absence—Robert did not return until September 1100, one month after William's death.
As regent for his brother Robert in Normandy, William campaigned in France from 1097 to 1099. He secured northern Maine but failed to seize the French-controlled part of the Vexin region. Maine is one of the traditional provinces of France. It corresponds to the old county of Maine centered around the city of Le Mans. The Vexin is a former region in France, divided since the 10th century between the Norman Vexin ( Vexin normand) and the French Vexin ( Vexin français At the time of his death, he was planning to invade Aquitaine, in southwestern France. Aquitaine (Aquitània Akitania archaic Guyenne / Guienne (Occitan Guiana) is one of the 26 Regions of France, in the south-western part of
Perhaps the most memorable event in the life of William Rufus was his death, which occurred while William was hunting in the New Forest. The New Forest is an area of southern England which includes the largest remaining tracts of unenclosed pasture land heathland and Forest in the heavily-populated He was killed by an arrow through the lung, but the circumstances remain unclear.
On a bright August day in 1100, William organised a hunting trip in the New Forest. An account by Orderic Vitalis describes the preparations for the hunt:
. Orderic Vitalis (1075&ndashc 1142 was an English chronicler who wrote one of the great contemporary Chronicles of 11th and 12th century Normandy and . . an armourer came in and presented to [William] six arrows. The King immediately took them with great satisfaction, praising the work, and unconscious of what was to happen, kept four of them himself and held out the other two to Walter Tyrrel. Walter Tirel III - also spelt Tyrell Thurold Turold French Gaultier or Gautier Tirel (1065 - some time after 1100 was an Anglo-Norman nobleman . . saying 'It is only right that the sharpest be given to the man who knows how to shoot the deadliest shots. '
On the subsequent hunt, the party spread out as they chased their prey, and William, in the company of Walter Tyrell (or Tirel), Lord of Poix, became separated from the others. It was the last time that William was seen alive.
William was found the next day by a group of local peasants, lying dead in the woods with an arrow wound to his chest. William's body was abandoned by the nobles at the place where he fell, because the law and order of the kingdom died with the king, and they had to flee to their English or Norman estates to secure their interests. William's younger brother, Henry, hastened to Winchester to secure the royal treasury, then to London, where he was crowned within days, before either archbishop could arrive. Henry I (c 1068/1069 – 1 December 1135) was the fourth son of William I the Conqueror, the first King of England after the Norman Legend has it that it was left to a local charcoal-burner named Purkis to take the king's body to Winchester Cathedral on his cart. Charcoal' is the blackish residue consisting of impure Carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from Animal and Vegetation Winchester Cathedral at Winchester in Hampshire is one of the largest Cathedrals in England, with the longest nave and overall length of
According to the chroniclers, William's death was not murder. Walter and William had been hunting together when Walter let loose a wild shot that, instead of hitting the stag he aimed for, struck William in the chest. Walter tried to help him, but there was nothing he could do. Fearing that he would be charged with murder, Walter panicked, leapt onto his horse, and fled. A version of this tale is given by William of Malmesbury:
The day before the king died he dreamed that he was let blood by a surgeon, and that the stream, reaching to heaven, clouded the light and intercepted the day. Biography The education William received at Malmesbury Abbey included a smattering of Logic and Physics; Moral philosophy and History, . . . he suddenly awoke, commanded a light to be brought, and forbade his attendants to leave him. . . After dinner he went into the forest, attended by few persons. . . [Walter Tirel] alone had remained with him, while the others, employed in the chase, were dispersed as chance directed. The sun was now declining, when the king, drawing his bow and letting fly an arrow, slightly wounded a stag which passed before him; and, keenly gazing, followed it, still running, a long time with his eyes, holding up his hand to keep off the power of the sun's rays. At this instant Walter [attempted] to transfix another stag. . . [but] unknowingly, and without power to prevent it, O gracious God! pierced [the king's] breast with a fatal arrow.
On receiving the wound the king uttered not a word; but breaking off the shaft of the weapon where it projected from his body, and then falling upon the wound, he accelerated his death. Walter immediately ran up, but as he found him senseless and speechless he leaped swiftly upon his horse, and escaped by spurring him to his utmost speed. Indeed there was none to pursue him, some conniving at his flight, others pitying him, and all intent on other matters. Some began to fortify their dwellings, others to plunder, and the rest to look out for a new king.
A few countrymen conveyed the body, placed on a cart, to the cathedral at Winchester, the blood dripping from it all the way. Here it was committed to the ground within the tower, attended by many of the nobility. . . Next year the tower fell. . . [William Rufus] died in . . . aged above forty years. . . He was a man much to be pitied by the clergy, for throwing away the soul they laboured to save; to be beloved by stipendiary soldiers for the multitude of his gifts; but not to be lamented by the people, because he suffered their substance to be plundered. 
To the chroniclers - men of the Church - such an 'act of God' was a just end for a wicked king. Act of God is a legal term for events outside of human control such as sudden Floods or other Natural disasters for which no one can be held responsible Over the following centuries, the obvious suggestion that one of William's enemies may have had a hand in this extraordinary event has repeatedly been made: chroniclers of the time point out themselves that Walter was renowned as a keen bowman, and thus was unlikely to have fired such an impetuous shot. Moreover, William's brother Henry, who was among the hunting party that day, benefited directly from William's death, shortly thereafter being crowned king. Henry I (c 1068/1069 – 1 December 1135) was the fourth son of William I the Conqueror, the first King of England after the Norman
Abbot Suger, another chronicler, was Tirel's friend and sheltered him in his French exile. Suger (c 1081 &ndash 13 January 1151) was one of the last French abbot-statesmen a historian and the influential first patron of Gothic architecture He said later:
It was laid to the charge of a certain noble, Walter Tirel, that he had shot the king with an arrow; but I have often heard him, when he had nothing to fear nor to hope, solemnly swear that on the day in question he was not in the part of the forest where the king was hunting, nor ever saw him in the forest at all. 
William's remains are in Winchester Cathedral, scattered among royal mortuary chests positioned on the presbytery screen, flanking the choir.
The inscription on the Rufus Stone reads:
Here stood the oak tree, on which an arrow shot by Sir Walter Tyrell at a stag, glanced and struck King William the Second, surnamed Rufus, on the breast, of which he instantly died, on the second day of August, anno 1100. The British national grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references commonly used in Great Britain, different from using Latitude and Longitude King William the Second, surnamed Rufus, being slain, as before related, was laid in a cart, belonging to one Purkis, and drawn from hence, to Winchester, and buried in the Cathedral Church, of that city.
The current monument is made of cast iron and was erected in 1865. Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but identifies a large group of Ferrous Alloys which solidify with a Eutectic. Year 1865 ( MDCCCLXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year
The Rufus Stone
The Rufus Stone (side 1)
The Rufus Stone (side 2)
The Rufus Stone (side 3)
Major sources for William Rufus include Orderic Vitalis, William of Malmesbury, and Eadmer. Orderic Vitalis (1075&ndashc 1142 was an English chronicler who wrote one of the great contemporary Chronicles of 11th and 12th century Normandy and Biography The education William received at Malmesbury Abbey included a smattering of Logic and Physics; Moral philosophy and History, Eadmer, or Edmer (c 1060&ndashc 1124 was an English historian, theologian and ecclesiastic Studies by Frank Barlow and Emma Mason have replaced the judgmental Victorian account of Freeman, E. Frank Barlow (born 1911 is a British historian known particularly for biographies of medieval figures A. , The Reign of William Rufus and the Accession of Henry the First (2 vols. ), Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1882, in which the king is said to have combined 'the habits of the ancient Greek and modern Turk' with unseemly irreligion, and which portrays his realm anachronistically as a precursor of the United Kingdom. An anachronism (from the Greek "ana" " ανά " "against anti-" and "chronos" " χρόνος "
William Rufus is a major character in Valerie Anand's historical novel, King of the Wood (1989). Valerie Anand (1937-) is a British author of historical fiction
He is also a major character in Parke Godwin's Robin and the King (1993), the second volume in Godwin's reinterpretation of the Robin Hood legend. Parke Godwin ( 28 January 1929 -) is an American writer known for his lyrical yet precise prose style and sardonic humor Robin Hood is an archetypal figure in English folklore, whose story originates from medieval times but who remains significant in popular culture where
William II is indirectly the subject of two historical novels by George Shipway, called The Paladin and The Wolf Time. A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story George Shipway (1908–1982 was a British Author best known for his historical novels but he also tried his hand at political satire in his book The Chilian The main character of the novels is Walter Tirel (or Tyrell) the supposed assassin of King William, and the main thrust of the plot of the novels is that the assassination was engineered by Henry.
The death of William Rufus is portrayed in Edward Rutherfurd's fictionalised history of the New Forest, called The Forest (novel) (2000). Edward Rutherfurd (born 1948 in Salisbury, England) is primarily known as a writer of epic Historical novels His debut novel Sarum set the The New Forest is an area of southern England which includes the largest remaining tracts of unenclosed pasture land heathland and Forest in the heavily-populated The Forest is a Historical novel by Edward Rutherfurd, published in 2000 In Rutherfurd's version of events, the King's death takes place nowhere near the Rufus Stone, and Walter Tyrrell is framed for it by the powerful Clare family. Also, Purkiss is a clever story teller who manages (much later) to convince Charles II that one of his ancestors had been involved.
Flambard's Confession (1984) by Marilyn Durham purports to tell the story of William Rufus' reign through the eyes of his right-hand man, Ranulf Flambard. Ranulf Flambard, also known as Ralph Flambard or Ranulph Flambard and sometimes Ranulf Passiflamme, (c
William Rufus and his relationship with Tyrell is mentioned and the manner of his death is included in Lammas Night by Katherine Kurtz and Deborah Turner Harris. Lammas Night is a Fantasy novel by American -born author Katherine Kurtz, first published in paperback by Ballantine Books in Katherine (Irene Kurtz (born 18 October 1944) is the author of numerous Fantasy novels especially the Deryni novels. Deborah Turner Harris (born 1951 in Pennsylvania) is an American Fantasy author best known for her collaborations with Katherine Kurtz.
William Rufus is a character in Stephen R. Lawhead's King Raven Trilogy about Robin Hood. Stephen R Lawhead (born July 2, 1950) is a best-selling American Writer known for his works of Fantasy, Science fiction Robin Hood is an archetypal figure in English folklore, whose story originates from medieval times but who remains significant in popular culture where
On television, William was portrayed by Peter Firth in the 1990 play Blood Royal: William the Conqueror. Peter Firth (born 27 October, 1953) is an English Actor. He is well known for a variety of starring roles in Film and on Television
William II of EnglandBorn: 1056 Died: 2 August 1100
|King of England|
1087 – 1100
William I of England
only clarified his succession
on his deathbed
|Heir to the English Throne|
as heir apparent
Robert II, Duke of Normandy
|Robert II of Normandy|
House of Norman
King of England
|William II of England|
|Herleva of Falaise|
|Baldwin V of Flanders|
House of Flanders
|Matilda of Flanders|
|Adela of France|
House of Capet Major
|Notes and references|
|1. The Normans were the people who gave their names to Normandy, a region in northern France. William I of England ( 1027 His reign which brought Norman culture to England had an enormous impact on the subsequent course of England in the Middle Ages The Kings of Wessex, who conquered Kent and Sussex from Mercia in 825 became increasingly dominant over the other kingdoms of England during Henry I (c 1068/1069 – 1 December 1135) was the fourth son of William I the Conqueror, the first King of England after the Norman The Kings of Wessex, who conquered Kent and Sussex from Mercia in 825 became increasingly dominant over the other kingdoms of England during William I of England ( 1027 His reign which brought Norman culture to England had an enormous impact on the subsequent course of England in the Middle Ages This is a list of the individuals who were at any given time considered the next in line to inherit the thrones of England Great Britain or the United Kingdom should the incumbent monarch An heir apparent is an Heir who (short of a fundamental change in the situation cannot be displaced from inheriting the term is used in contrast to Heir presumptive The Normans were the people who gave their names to Normandy, a region in northern France. William I of England ( 1027 His reign which brought Norman culture to England had an enormous impact on the subsequent course of England in the Middle Ages Herleva (c 1003 - c 1050 also known as Arlette, Arletta, and Herlève, was the mother of William I of England. Baldwin V of Flanders (died 1 September 1067 was Count of Flanders from 1036 until his death counts of Flanders were the Rulers over the county of Flanders from the 9th century until the abolition of the Countship by the French revolutionaries Matilda of Flanders (c 1031 – 2 November 1083 was Queen consort of the Kingdom of England and the wife of William I the Conqueror. Adela Capet, Adèle of France or Adela of Flanders, known also as Adela the Holy or Adela of Messines; (1009 – 8 January, 1079 For a full history of the Capetian family see Capetian dynasty. Tompsett, Brian, Directory of Royal Genealogical Data (Hull, UK: University of Hull, 2005). |
2. Ross, Kelley L. , The Proceedings of the Friesian School (Los Angeles, US: Los Angeles Valley College, 2007).