|German Emperor, King of Prussia|
In this photo of William, his right hand is holding the withered one, concealing it. This article lists the German monarchs, ruling over the territory of Germany from the creation of a separate Eastern Frankish Kingdom in 843 until the end of monarchy
|Reign||15 June 1888 – 9 November 1918|
|Born||27 January 1859|
|Died||4 June 1941 (aged 82)|
|Place of death||Doorn, Netherlands|
Friedrich Ebert (as Chancellor and de facto Head of State of the Weimar Republic)
|Consort||Augusta Viktoria of Schleswig-Holstein|
|Issue||Crown Prince William|
Prince Eitel Friedrich
Prince August Wilhelm
Princess Viktoria Luise
|Royal anthem||Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial)|
|Father||Frederick III, German Emperor|
|Mother||Victoria, Princess Royal|
William II (German: Wilhelm II) (born Prince Frederick William Victor Albert of Prussia; German: Prinz Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Preußen) (27 January 1859 – 4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (German: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling both the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from June 15, 1888 to November 9, 1918. Events 763 BC - Assyrians record a Solar eclipse that will be used to fix the Chronology of Mesopotamian history Year 1888 ( MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Events 694 - Egica, a king of the Visigoths of Hispania, accuses Jews of aiding Muslims sentencing all Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 98 - Trajan becomes Roman Emperor after the death of Nerva. Year 1859 ( MDCCCLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. Prussia ( Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Prūsija Prūsija Prusy Old Prussian: Prūsa) was most recently a historic state Events 781 BC - The first historic Solar eclipse is recorded in China. Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Doorn is a Town in the municipality of Utrechtse Heuvelrug in the central Netherlands, in the province of Utrecht. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Frederick III (German Friedrich Wilhelm Nikolaus Karl, English Frederick William Nicholas Charles; October 18 1831 – June 15 1888 (German Friedrich Friedrich Ebert ( February 4, 1871 February 28, 1925) was a German Politician ( SPD) who served as The term Weimar Republic ( ˈvaɪmarɐ repuˈbliːk is used by historians to signify the democratic and Republican period of Germany from 1919 to 1933 Princess Auguste Viktoria Friederike Luise Feodora Jenny of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg ( October 22 1858 - April 11 1921) This article is about the Crown Prince Wilhelm For German ships of the same name please see the Kronprinz Wilhelm or SMS Kronprinz Wilhelm. Prince Eitel Friedrich (Wilhelm Eitel Friedrich Christian Karl ( July 7, 1883 &ndash December 8, 1942) was a son of Kaiser Prince Adalbert of Prussia ( Adalbert Ferdinand Berengar Viktor) ( July 14, 1884 in Potsdam, Germany – September 22, For the brother of King Frederick II of Prussia see Prince Augustus William of Prussia (1722-1758 Prince Oskar of Prussia ( Oskar Karl Gustav Adolf) ( July 27, 1888 in Potsdam, Germany &ndash January 27, 1958 Prince Joachim Franz Humbert of Prussia ( 17 December 1890 - 18 July 1920) was the youngest son of Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia Duchess of Brunswick (Victoria Louise Adelaide Matilda Charlotte Viktoria Luise Adelheid Mathilde Charlotte 13 September 1892 Heil dir im Siegerkranz ( German: "Hail to Thee in Victor's Crown" was from 1871 to 1918 the unofficial National anthem of the German Empire Frederick III (German Friedrich Wilhelm Nikolaus Karl, English Frederick William Nicholas Charles; October 18 1831 – June 15 1888 (German Friedrich The Princess Victoria Princess Royal (Victoria Adelaide Mary Louisa 21 November 1840 &ndash 5 August 1901) was the eldest child and daughter The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Events 98 - Trajan becomes Roman Emperor after the death of Nerva. Year 1859 ( MDCCCLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 781 BC - The first historic Solar eclipse is recorded in China. Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. This article lists the German monarchs, ruling over the territory of Germany from the creation of a separate Eastern Frankish Kingdom in 843 until the end of monarchy Prussia ( Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Prūsija Prūsija Prusy Old Prussian: Prūsa) was most recently a historic state The German Empire is the name commonly used in English to describe Germany from 1871 to 1918 when it was a semi- Constitutional monarchy: beginning with the Unification Prussia ( Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Prūsija Prūsija Prusy Old Prussian: Prūsa) was most recently a historic state Events 763 BC - Assyrians record a Solar eclipse that will be used to fix the Chronology of Mesopotamian history Year 1888 ( MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Events 694 - Egica, a king of the Visigoths of Hispania, accuses Jews of aiding Muslims sentencing all Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
William II was born in Berlin to Prince Frederick William of Prussia and his wife, Victoria, Princess of Prussia (born Princess Royal of the United Kingdom), thus making him a grandson of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. Frederick III (German Friedrich Wilhelm Nikolaus Karl, English Frederick William Nicholas Charles; October 18 1831 – June 15 1888 (German Friedrich The Princess Victoria Princess Royal (Victoria Adelaide Mary Louisa 21 November 1840 &ndash 5 August 1901) was the eldest child and daughter Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901 was from 20 June 1837 the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland He was Queen Victoria's first grandchild. As the son of the Crown Prince of Prussia, William was (from 1861) the second in the line of succession to Prussia, and also, after 1871, to the German Empire, which according to the constitution of the German Empire, was ruled by the Prussian King. The Constitution of the German Empire was the basic law of the German Empire of 1871-1919 As with most Victorian era Royalty, he was related to many of Europe's royal families. Culture The Victorian fascination with novelty resulted in a deep interest in the relationship between modernity and cultural continuities
Traumatic breech birth left him with a withered left arm due to Erb's Palsy, which he tried with some success to conceal. A breech birth (also known as breech presentation) refers to the position of the Baby in the Uterus such that it will be delivered Erb's Palsy ( Erb-Duchenne Palsy, Brachial plexus paralysis) is a paralysis of the arm caused by injury to the upper group of the arm's main nerves (specifically In many photos he carries a pair of white gloves in his left hand to make the arm seem longer, or has his crippled arm on the hilt of a sword or clutching a cane to give the effect of the limb being posed at a dignified angle.
William was educated at Kassel at the Friedrichsgymnasium and the University of Bonn. Kassel (until 1926 officially Cassel) is a city situated along the Fulda River in northern Hessen, Germany, one of the two sources of the A gymnasium (pronounced with ɡ- in several languages is a type of school providing Secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar The University of Bonn ( German: Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn) is a public research university located in Bonn, Germany William was possessed of a quick intelligence, but unfortunately this was often overshadowed by a cantankerous temper. William also took a certain interest in the science and technology of the age, but though he liked to pose, in conversation, as a man of the world, he remained convinced that he belonged to a distinct order of mankind, designated for monarchy by the grace of God. A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or The Divine Right of Kings is a general term that refers to the philosophy and ideas used to justify the authority and legitimacy of Monarchs in Medieval and William was accused of megalomania as early as 1892, by the Portuguese man of letters Eça de Queiroz, then in 1894 by the German pacifist Ludwig Quidde. Megalomania (from the Greek word μεγαλομανία is a historical term for behavior characterized by Delusional fantasies of Wealth, power Ludwig Quidde ( March 23, 1858 &ndash March 4, 1941) was a German pacifist who is mainly remembered today for his acerbic
As a scion of the Royal house of Hohenzollern, William was also exposed from an early age to the military society of the Prussian aristocracy. Frederick III (German Friedrich Wilhelm Nikolaus Karl, English Frederick William Nicholas Charles; October 18 1831 – June 15 1888 (German Friedrich * See Louise of Prussia (disambiguation for women with similar names Frederick III (German Friedrich Wilhelm Nikolaus Karl, English Frederick William Nicholas Charles; October 18 1831 – June 15 1888 (German Friedrich Princess Charlotte of Prussia ( Viktoria Elisabeth Auguste Charlotte) Duchess of Saxe-Meiningen ( 24 July[[ 860]] Potsdam, Germany - For the brother of King Frederick II of Prussia see Prince Henry of Prussia (1726-1802 Princess Viktoria of Prussia ( Friederike Amalia Wilhelmine Viktoria) ( April 12, 1866 &ndash November 13, 1929) was the See also Sophia of Prussia (1582-1610. Princess Sophie of Prussia ( Sophie Dorothea Ulrike Alice; June 14, 1870 Princess Margaret of Prussia ( Margarete Beatrice Feodora) ( April 22, 1872 - January 22, 1954) was a daughter of Frederick III Prince Waldemar of Prussia (Waldemar Wilhelm Ludwig Friedrich Viktor Heinrich ( 20 March, 1889 at Kiel - 2 May, 1945 at Tutzing Prince Sigismund of Prussia (Wilhelm Viktor Karl August Heinrich Sigismund) ( 27 November, 1896 at Kiel - 14 November, 1978 This article is about the Crown Prince Wilhelm For German ships of the same name please see the Kronprinz Wilhelm or SMS Kronprinz Wilhelm. Prince Eitel Friedrich (Wilhelm Eitel Friedrich Christian Karl ( July 7, 1883 &ndash December 8, 1942) was a son of Kaiser Prince Adalbert of Prussia ( Adalbert Ferdinand Berengar Viktor) ( July 14, 1884 in Potsdam, Germany – September 22, For the brother of King Frederick II of Prussia see Prince Augustus William of Prussia (1722-1758 Prince Oskar of Prussia ( Oskar Karl Gustav Adolf) ( July 27, 1888 in Potsdam, Germany &ndash January 27, 1958 Prince Joachim Franz Humbert of Prussia ( 17 December 1890 - 18 July 1920) was the youngest son of Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia Duchess of Brunswick (Victoria Louise Adelaide Matilda Charlotte Viktoria Luise Adelheid Mathilde Charlotte 13 September 1892 This had a major impact on him and, in maturity, William was seldom to be seen out of uniform. The hyper-masculine military culture of Prussia in this period did much to frame William's political ideals as well as his personal relationships.
William's relationship with the male members of his family was as interesting as that with his mother. Crown Prince Frederick was viewed by his son with a deeply-felt love and respect. His father's status as a hero of the wars of unification was largely responsible for the young William's attitude, as in the circumstances in which he was raised; close emotional contact between father and son was not encouraged. Later, as he came into contact with the Crown Prince's political opponents, William came to adopt more ambivalent feelings toward his father, given the perceived influence of William's mother over a figure who should have been possessed of masculine independence and strength. William also idolised his grandfather, William I, and he was instrumental in later attempts to foster a cult of the first German Emperor as "William the Great".
In many ways, William was a victim of his inheritance and of Otto von Bismarck's machinations. Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck Count of Bismarck-Schönhausen Duke of Lauenburg Prince of Bismarck ( April 1, 1815 July 30, 1898) Both sides of his family had suffered from mental illness, and this may explain his emotional instability. The Emperor's parents, Frederick and Victoria, were great admirers of the Prince Consort of the United Kingdom, their father-in-law and father, respectively. They planned to rule as consorts, like Albert and Queen Victoria, and they planned to reform the fatal flaws in the executive branch that Bismarck had created for himself. The office of Chancellor responsible to the Emperor would be replaced with a British-style cabinet, with ministers responsible to the Reichstag. The Reichstag ( German for "Imperial Diet " was the Parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, Government policy would be based on the consensus of the cabinet.
When William was a teenager, Bismarck separated him from his parents and placed him under his tutelage. Bismarck planned to use William as a weapon against his parents in order to retain his own power. Bismarck drilled William on his perogatives and taught him to be insubordinate to his parents. Consequently, William developed a dysfunctional relationship with his father and especially with his English mother. As it turned out, Bismarck would become the first victim of his own creation.
The German Emperor William I died in Berlin on March 9, 1888, and Prince William's father was proclaimed Emperor as Frederick III. Events 590 - Bahram Chobin is crowned as king Barham VI of Persia. Year 1888 ( MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Frederick III (German Friedrich Wilhelm Nikolaus Karl, English Frederick William Nicholas Charles; October 18 1831 – June 15 1888 (German Friedrich He was already suffering from an incurable throat cancer and spent all 99 days of his reign fighting the disease before dying. Esophageal cancer is malignancy of the Esophagus. There are various subtypes On June 15th of that same year, his 29-year-old son succeeded him as German Emperor and King of Prussia. Events 763 BC - Assyrians record a Solar eclipse that will be used to fix the Chronology of Mesopotamian history
Although in his youth he had been a great admirer of Otto von Bismarck, William's characteristic impatience soon brought him into conflict with the "Iron Chancellor", the dominant figure in the foundation of his empire. Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck Count of Bismarck-Schönhausen Duke of Lauenburg Prince of Bismarck ( April 1, 1815 July 30, 1898) The new Emperor opposed Bismarck's careful foreign policy, preferring vigorous and rapid expansion to protect Germany's "place in the sun. " Furthermore, the young Emperor had come to the throne with the determination that he was going to rule as well as reign, unlike his grandfather, who had largely been content to leave day-to-day administration to Bismarck.
Early conflicts between William II and his chancellor soon poisoned the relationship between the two men. Bismarck believed that William was a lightweight who could be dominated, and he showed scant respect for William's policies in the late 1880s. The final split between monarch and statesman occurred soon after an attempt by Bismarck to implement a far-reaching anti-Socialist law in early 1890.
It was during this time that Bismarck, after gaining a favorable absolute majority toward his policies in the Reichstag, decided to make the anti-Socialist laws permanent. Dropping the Pilot is a political cartoon by Sir John Tenniel, first published in the British magazine Punch, March 1890 His Kartell majority of the amalgamated Conservative Party and the National Liberal Party was favorable to make the laws permanent with one exception: the police power to expel Socialist agitators from their homes, a power used excessively at times against political opponents. The National Liberal Party ( Nationalliberale Partei) was a German political party which flourished between 1867 and 1918 Hence, the Kartell split on this issue, with the National Liberal Party unwilling to make the expulsion clause of the law permanent. The Conservatives supported only the entirety of the bill and threatened to and eventually vetoed the entire bill in session because Bismarck wouldn't give his assent to a modified bill. As the debate continued, William became increasingly interested in social problems, especially the treatment of mine workers who went on strike in 1889, and keeping with his active policy in government, routinely interrupted Bismarck in Council to make clear his social policy. Bismarck sharply disagreed with William's policy and worked to circumvent it. Even though William supported the altered anti-socialist bill, Bismarck pushed for his support to veto the bill in its entirety, but when Bismarck's arguments couldn't convince William, he became excited and agitated until uncharacteristically blurting out his motive to see the bill fail: to have the Socialists agitate until a violent clash occurred that could be used as a pretext to crush them. William replied that he wasn't willing to open his reign with a bloody campaign against his subjects. The next day, after realizing his blunder, Bismarck attempted to reach a compromise with William by agreeing to his social policy towards industrial workers, and even suggested a European council to discuss working conditions, presided over by the German Emperor.
Despite this, a turn of events eventually led to his distance from William. Bismarck, feeling pressured and unappreciated by the Emperor and undermined by ambitious advisors, refused to sign a proclamation regarding the protection of workers along with William, as was required by the German Constitution, to protest William's ever-increasing interference with Bismarck's previously unquestioned authority. Bismarck also worked behind the scenes to break the Continental labor council William held so dear. The final break came as Bismarck searched for a new parliamentary majority, with his Kartell voted from power due to the anti-Socialist bill fiasco. The remaining powers in the Reichstag were the Catholic Centre Party and the Conservative Party. The German Centre Party ( Deutsche Zentrumspartei or merely Zentrum) was a Catholic political party in Germany during the Kaiserreich Bismarck wished to form a new bloc with the Centre Party, and invited Ludwig Windthorst, the party's parliamentary leader, to discuss an alliance. Ludwig Windthorst ( January 17, 1812 &ndash March 14, 1891) was a German Politician. This would be Bismarck's last political maneuver. William was furious to hear about Windthorst's visit. In a parliamentary state, the head of government depends on the confidence of the parliamentary majority, and certainly has the right to form coalitions to ensure his policies a majority, but in Germany, the Chancellor depended on the confidence of the Emperor alone, and William believed that the Emperor had the right to be informed before his minister's meeting. The Head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (Kanzler After a heated argument in Bismarck's estate over Imperial authority, William stormed out, both parting ways permanently. Bismarck, forced for the first time into a situation he could not use to his advantage, wrote a blistering letter of resignation, decrying William's interference in foreign and domestic policy, which was only published after Bismarck's death. When Bismarck realized that his dismissal was imminent:
Bismarck resigned at William II's insistence in 1890, at age 75, to be succeeded as Chancellor of Germany and Minister-President of Prussia by Leo von Caprivi, who in turn was replaced by Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst in 1894. Georg Leo Graf von Caprivi de Caprera de Montecuccoli ( English: Count George Leo of Caprivi Caprera and Montecuccoli, born Georg Leo von Caprivi; Chlodwig Carl Viktor Fürst zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst Fürst von Ratibor und Corvey ( 31 March 1819 6 July 1901 Bismarck resigning may have indirectly caused WWI, due to William getting rid of Bismarck's ingenious foreign policies.
In appointing Caprivi and then Hohenlohe, William was embarking upon what is known to history as "the New Course", in which he hoped to exert decisive influence in the government of the empire. A style of office, or honorific, is a term which by Tradition or Law precedes a reference to a person who holds a post or Title, or to the His/Her Imperial and Royal Majesty was the style used by King-Emperors and their consorts as heads of imperial dynasties that were simultaneously Royal. There is debate amongst historians as to the precise degree to which William succeeded in implementing "personal rule" in this era, but what is clear is the very different dynamic which existed between the Crown and its chief political servant (the Chancellor) in the "Wilhelmine Era". These chancellors were senior civil servants and not seasoned politician-statesmen like Bismarck. William wanted to preclude the emergence of another Iron Chancellor, whom he ultimately detested as being "a boorish old killjoy" who had not permitted any minister to see the Emperor except in his presence, keeping a stranglehold on effective political power. Upon his enforced retirement and until his dying day, Bismarck was to become a bitter critic of William's policies, but without the support of the supreme arbiter of all political appointments (the Emperor) there was little chance of Bismarck exerting a decisive influence on policy.
Something which Bismarck was able to effect was the creation of the "Bismarck myth". This was a view—which some would argue was confirmed by subsequent events—that, with the dismissal of the Iron Chancellor, William II effectively destroyed any chance Germany had of stable and effective government. In this view, William's "New Course" was characterised far more as the German ship of state going out of control, eventually leading through a series of crises to the carnage of the First and Second World Wars.
Following the dismissal of Hohenlohe in 1900, William appointed the man whom he regarded as "his own Bismarck", Bernhard von Bülow. Prince Bernhard Heinrich Karl Martin von Bülow, born Bernhard Heinrich Karl Martin von Bülow ( May 3, 1849 October 28, 1929) William hoped that in Bülow, he had found a man who would combine the ability of the Iron Chancellor with the respect for William's wishes which would allow the empire to be governed as he saw fit. Bülow had already been identified by William as possessing this potential, and many historians regard his appointment as chancellor as being merely the conclusion of a long "grooming" process. Over the succeeding decade however, William became disillusioned with his choice, and following Bülow's opposition to the Emperor over the "Daily Telegraph Affair" of 1908 (see below) and the collapse of the liberal-conservative coalition which had supported Bülow in the Reichstag, William dismissed him in favour of Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg in 1909. Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg (November 29 1856 January 1 1921 was a German politician and statesman who served as Chancellor of the German Empire from 1909 to 1917
Bethmann Hollweg was a career bureaucrat, at whose family home William had stayed as a youth. William especially came to show great respect for him, acknowledging his superior foresight in matters of internal governance, though he disagreed with certain of his policies, such as his attempts at the reform of the Prussian electoral laws. A voting system allows voters to choose between options often in an Election where candidates are selected for public office. However, it was only reluctantly that the Emperor parted ways with Bethmann Hollweg in 1917, after three years of World War I. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All
William's involvement in the domestic sphere was more limited in the early twentieth century than it had been in the first years of his reign. In part, this was due to the appointment of Bülow and Bethmann — arguably both men of greater force of character than William's earlier chancellors — but also because of his increasing interest in foreign affairs.
German foreign affairs policy under William II was faced with a number of significant problems. Perhaps the most apparent was that William was an impatient man, subjective in his reactions and affected strongly by sentiment and impulse. He was personally ill-equipped to steer German foreign policy along a rational course. It is now widely recognized that the various spectacular acts which William undertook in the international sphere were often partially encouraged by the German foreign policy elite. There were a number of key exceptions, such as the famous Kruger telegram of 1896 in which William congratulated President Kruger of the Transvaal on the suppression of the Jameson Raid, thus aggravating British public opinion. The Kruger telegram was a message sent by Germany 's Kaiser Wilhelm II to Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger, president of the Transvaal on Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger ( October 10, 1825 &ndash July 14, 1904) better known as Paul Kruger and fondly known as Oom For the Russian theme park see Transvaal Park. The Transvaal (Afrikaans lit The Jameson Raid ( December 29, 1895 - January 2, 1896) was a raid on Paul Kruger 's Transvaal Republic carried out by a After the murder of the German ambassador during the Boxer Rebellion in 1900, a regiment of German troops was sent to China. The Boxer Rebellion, or Boxer Movement, was an uprising by members of the Chinese Society of Right and Harmonious Fists against foreign influence In a speech of 27 July 1900, the Emperor exhorted these troops:
Though its full impact was not felt until many years later, when Entente and American propagandists shamelessly lifted the term Huns out of context, this is another example of his unfortunate propensity for impolitic public utterances. The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads with a Turkic core of aristocracy This weakness made him vulnerable to manipulation by interests within the German foreign policy elite, as subsequent events were to prove. William had much disdain for his uncle, King Edward VII of the United Kingdom, who was much more popular as a sovereign in Europe.
One of the few times William succeeded in personal "diplomacy" was when with he supported Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria to marry Sophie Chotek in 1900 against the wishes of Emperor Franz Joseph. Franz Ferdinand ( December 18, 1863 &ndash June 28, 1914) was an Archduke of Austria-Este, Prince Imperial of Sophie Duchess of Hohenberg, born Sophie Maria Josephine Albina Chotek Countess of Chotkova and Wognin ( March 1, 1868 - June 28, 1914 Franz Joseph I Karl (- German, in English Francis Joseph I Charles, see the name in other languages) (18 August 1830 &ndash 21 November Deeply in love, Franz Ferdinand refused to consider marrying anyone else. Pope Leo XIII, Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, and William all made representations on Franz Ferdinand's behalf to the Emperor Franz Joseph, arguing that the disagreement between Franz Joseph and Franz Ferdinand was undermining the stability of the monarchy. Pope Leo XIII ( March 2, 1810 – July 20, 1903) born Count Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was the 256th Pope
One "domestic" triumph for William was when his daughter Victoria Louise married the Duke of Brunswick in 1913; this helped heal the rift between the House of Hanover and the House of Hohenzollern after the 1866 annexation of Hanover by Prussia. Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia Duchess of Brunswick (Victoria Louise Adelaide Matilda Charlotte Viktoria Luise Adelheid Mathilde Charlotte 13 September 1892 Ernest Augustus (Ernest Augustus Christian George German: Ernst August Christian Georg; 17 November 1887 – 30 January 1953 The House of Hanover (the Hanoverians) is a Germanic royal Dynasty which has ruled the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg In 1914, William's son Prince Adalbert of Prussia married a Princess of the Ducal House of Saxe-Meiningen. Prince Adalbert of Prussia ( Adalbert Ferdinand Berengar Viktor) ( July 14, 1884 in Potsdam, Germany – September 22, The Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen was one of the Saxon Duchies held by the Ernestine line of the Wettin Dynasty However the rifts between the House of Hohenzollern and the two leading Royal dynasties of Europe — the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and House of Romanov — would only get worse. Saxe-Coburg and Gotha or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha served as the name of the two German duchies of Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha in The House of Romanov (Рома́нов rʌˈmanəf was the second and last imperial Dynasty of Russia, which ruled the country from 1613 to 1917
Following his dismissal of Bismarck, William and his new chancellor Caprivi became aware of the existence of the secret Reinsurance Treaty with the Russian Empire, which Bismarck had concluded in 1887. The Reinsurance Treaty ( June 18 1887) was an attempt by Bismarck to continue to ally with Russia after the League of the Three Emperors William's refusal to renew this agreement which guaranteed Russian neutrality in the event of an attack by France was seen by many historians as the worst offense committed by William in terms of foreign policy. For other uses of Neutral and Neutrality see Neutral A neutral country takes no side in a War between other parties This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. In reality, the decision to allow the lapse of the treaty was largely the responsibility of Caprivi, though William supported his chancellor's actions. It is important not to overestimate the influence of the Emperor in matters of foreign policy after the dismissal of Bismarck, but it is certain that his erratic meddling contributed to the general lack of coherence and consistency in the policy of the German Empire toward other powers.
In December 1897, William visited Bismarck for the last time. On many occasions, Bismarck had expressed grave concerns about the dangers of improvising government policy based on the intrigues of courtiers and militarists. Bismarck’s last warning to William was:
"Your Majesty, so long as you have this present officer corps, you can do as you please. But when this is no longer the case, it will be very different for you. "
– Alan Palmer, Bismarck, Charles Scribner’s Sons (1976) p. 267]
Subsequently, just before he died, Bismarck made these dire and accurate predictions:
"Jena came twenty years after the death of Frederick the Great; the crash will come twenty years after my departure if things go on like this" ― a prophecy fulfilled almost to the month. The twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt (older name Auerstädt were fought on October 14, 1806 on the plateau west of the river Saale Frederick II (Friedrich II January 24 1712 August 17 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740&ndash1786 from the
– A.J.P. Taylor, Bismarck, Alfred A Knopf, New York (1969) p. Alan John Percival Taylor ( March 25, 1906 – September 7, 1990) was a renowned English Historian of the 20th century 264]
"One day the great European War will come out of some damned foolish thing in the Balkans. "
Ironically Bismarck had warned in February 1888 of a Balkan Crisis turning into a World War-although when the war came about-the Balkan country was Serbia-not Bulgaria and that it was only after World War I that war would turn into the global World War II from Moscow to the Pyrenees:
He warned of the imminent possibility that Germany will have to fight on two fronts; he spoke of the desire for peace; then he set forth the Balkan case for war and demonstrates its futility: Bulgaria, that little country between the Danube and the Balkans, is far from being an object of adequate importance… for which to plunge Europe from Moscow to the Pyrenees, and from the North Sea to Palermo, into a war whose issue no man can foresee. Albert Ballin ( 15 August 1857 - 9 November 1918) was a German businessman Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including At the end of the conflict we should scarcely know why we had fought.
A typical example of this was his "love-hate" relationship with the United Kingdom and in particular with his British cousins. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located He returned to England in January 1901 to be at the bedside of his grandmother, Queen Victoria, and was holding her in his arms at the moment of her death. Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901 was from 20 June 1837 the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland  Open armed conflict with Britain was never what William had in mind—"a most unimaginable thing", as he once quipped—yet he often gave in to the generally anti-British sentiments within the upper echelons of the German government, conforming as they did to his own prejudices toward Britain which arose from his youth. When war came about in 1914, William sincerely believed that he was the victim of a diplomatic conspiracy set up by his late uncle, Edward VII, in which Britain had actively sought to "encircle" Germany through the conclusion of the Entente Cordiale with France in 1904 and a similar arrangement with Russia in 1907. Flag of the United Kingdomsvg|right|70px]] The Entente cordiale is a series of agreements signed on 8 April 1904 between the United Kingdom This is indicative of the fact that William had a highly unrealistic belief in the importance of "personal diplomacy" between European monarchs, and could not comprehend that the very different constitutional position of his British cousins made this largely irrelevant. A reading of the Entente Cordiale shows that it was actually a attempt to put aside the ancient rivalries between France and Great Britain rather than an "encirclement" of Germany. Flag of the United Kingdomsvg|right|70px]] The Entente cordiale is a series of agreements signed on 8 April 1904 between the United Kingdom
Similarly, he believed that his personal relationship with his cousin-in-law Nicholas II of Russia (see The Willy-Nicky Correspondence) was sufficient to prevent war between the two powers. The Willy-Nicky Correspondence is a phrase derived from a book by Herman Bernstein in January of 1918 At a private meeting at Björkö in 1905, William concluded an agreement with his cousin which amounted to a treaty of alliance, without first consulting with Bülow. A similar situation confronted Czar Nicholas on his return to St. Petersburg, and the treaty was, as a result, a dead letter. But William believed that Bülow had betrayed him, and this contributed to the growing sense of dissatisfaction he felt towards the man he hoped would be his foremost servant. In broadly similar terms to the "personal diplomacy" at Björkö, his attempts to avoid war with Russia by an exchange of telegrams with Nicholas II in the last days before the outbreak of the First World War came unstuck due to the reality of European power politics. His attempts to woo Russia were also seriously out of step with existing German commitments to Austria-Hungary. In a chivalrous fidelity to the Austro-Hungarian/German alliance, William informed the Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria in 1889 that "the day of Austro-Hungarian mobilisation, for whatever cause, will be the day of German mobilisation too". Franz Joseph I Karl (- German, in English Francis Joseph I Charles, see the name in other languages) (18 August 1830 &ndash 21 November Given that Austrian mobilisation for war would most likely be against Russia, a policy of alliance with both powers was obviously impossible.
In some cases, William II's diplomatic "blunders" were often part of a wider reaching policy emanating from the German governing élite. One such action sparked the Moroccan Crisis of 1905, when William was persuaded (largely against his wishes) to make a spectacular visit to Tangier, in Morocco. The First Moroccan Crisis (also known as the Tangier Crisis) was the International crisis over the colonial status of Morocco between March 1905 and May Tangier or Tangiers ]] ( Tanja طنجة in Berber and Arabic, Tánger in Spanish William's presence was seen as an assertion of German interests in Morocco and in a speech he even made certain remarks in favour of Moroccan independence. Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa This led to friction with France, which had expanding colonial interests in Morocco, and led to the Algeciras Conference, which served largely to further isolate Germany in Europe. The Algeciras Conference of 1906 took place in Algeciras Spain, and lasted from January 16 to April 7.
Britain and France's alliance fortified as a corollary, namely due to the fact that Britain advocated France's endeavors to colonise Morocco, whereas William supported Moroccan self-determination: and so, the German Emperor became even more resentful.
Perhaps William's most damaging personal blunder in the arena of foreign policy had a far greater impact in Germany than internationally. The Daily Telegraph Affair of 1908 stemmed from the publication of some of William's opinions in edited form in the British daily newspaper of that name. For "The Daily Telegraph" in Australia see The Daily Telegraph (Australia. William saw it as an opportunity to promote his views and ideas on Anglo-German friendship, but instead, due to his emotional outbursts during the course of the interview, William ended up further alienating not only the British people, but also the French, Russians, and Japanese all in one fell swoop by implying, inter alia, that the Germans cared nothing for the British; that the French and Russians had attempted to incite Germany to intervene in the Second Boer War; and that the German naval buildup was targeted against the Japanese, not Britain. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. See also First Boer War,, South African Wars (1879-1915 The Second Boer War ( Dutch: Tweede Boerenoorlog, Afrikaans: (One memorable quote from the interview is "You English are mad, mad, mad as March hares. ") The effect in Germany was quite significant, with serious calls for his abdication being mentioned in the press. Quite understandably, William kept a very low profile for many months after the Daily Telegraph fiasco, and later exacted his revenge by enforcing the resignation of Prince Bülow, who had abandoned the Emperor to public criticism by publicly accepting some responsibility for not having edited the transcript of the interview before its publication.
The Daily Telegraph crisis had deeply wounded William's previously unimpaired self-confidence, so much so that he soon suffered a severe bout of depression from which he never really recovered (photographs of William in the post-1908 period show a man with far more haggard features and greying hair), and he in fact lost much of the influence he had previously exercised in terms of both domestic and foreign policy. Major depressive disorder, also known as major depression, unipolar depression, unipolar disorder, clinical depression, or simply depression
Nothing William II did in the international arena was of more influence than his decision to pursue a policy of massive naval construction. In 1895 he opened the Kiel Canal, an event that was captured by British director Birt Acres in his film The Opening of the Kiel Canal. The Kiel Canal (Nord-Ostsee-Kanal until 1948 known as the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Kanal, is a 61 miles (98 kilometres long Canal in the German Bundesland Birt Acres ( July 23, 1854 &ndash1918 born in Richmond, Virginia, USA of English parents was a photographer and film pioneer Opening of the Kiel Canal (also known as Inauguration of the Kiel Canal by Kaiser Wilhelm II) is an 1895 British short Black-and-white 
A powerful navy was William's pet project. He had inherited, from his mother, a love of the British Royal Navy, which was at that time the world's largest. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) He once confided to his uncle, Edward VII, that his dream was to have a "fleet of my own some day". William's frustration over his fleet's poor showing at the Fleet Review at his grandmother Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee celebrations, combined with his inability to exert German influence in South Africa following the dispatch of the Kruger telegram, led to William taking definitive steps toward the construction of a fleet to rival that of his British cousins. Fleet Review Royal Navy redirects here This article is on reviews of the Royal Navy Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901 was from 20 June 1837 the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland A Diamond Jubilee is a celebration held to mark a 60th Anniversary in the case of a person (e The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa William was fortunate to be able to call on the services of the dynamic naval officer Alfred von Tirpitz, whom he appointed to the head of the Reich Naval Office in 1897. Alfred von Tirpitz (March 19 1849 &ndash March 6 1930 was a German Admiral, Secretary of State of the Imperial Naval Office the powerful administrative branch
The new admiral had conceived of what came to be known as the "Risk theory" or the Tirpitz Plan, by which Germany could force Britain to accede to German demands in the international arena through the threat posed by a powerful battlefleet concentrated in the North Sea. The Tirpitz Plan, formulated by Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz, was Germany 's strategic aim to build the second largest Navy in the world after the United The North Sea is a marginal, Epeiric sea of the Atlantic Ocean on the European Continental shelf. Tirpitz enjoyed William's full support in his advocacy of successive naval bills of 1897 and 1900, by which the German navy was built up to contend with that of the United Kingdom. Alfred von Tirpitz (March 19 1849 &ndash March 6 1930 was a German Admiral, Secretary of State of the Imperial Naval Office the powerful administrative branch The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Naval expansion under the Fleet Acts eventually led to severe financial strains in Germany by 1914, as by 1906 William had committed his navy to construction of the much larger, more expensive Dreadnought type of battleship. The Fleet Acts were four separate laws passed by the German Empire, in 1898 1900 1908 and 1912 Genesis Battleships of the era typically carried four large guns mounted fore and aft in twin turrets with a number of smaller-calibre guns ranged along the sides of the A battleship is a large heavily armored Warship with a main battery consisting of the largest Calibre of Guns Battleships were
William was a friend of Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria-Este, and he was deeply shocked by his assassination on 28 June 1914. Franz Ferdinand ( December 18, 1863 &ndash June 28, 1914) was an Archduke of Austria-Este, Prince Imperial of Events 1098 - Fighters of the First Crusade defeat Kerbogha of Mosul. Year 1914 ( MCMXIV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year William offered to support Austria-Hungary in crushing the Black Hand, the secret organization that had plotted the killing, and even sanctioned the use of force by Austria against the perceived source of the movement—Serbia (this is often called "the blank cheque"). Black Hand ( Serbian: Црна рука / Crna Ruka) officially Unification or Death ( Serbian: Уједињење или смрт Ujedinjenje Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country He wanted to remain in Berlin until the crisis was resolved, but his courtiers persuaded him instead to go on his annual cruise of the North Sea on 6 July 1914. Events 1044 - The Battle of Ménfő takes place 1189 - Richard the Lionheart is crowned King of England Year 1914 ( MCMXIV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year It was perhaps realised that William's presence would be more of a hindrance to those elements in the government who wished to use the crisis to increase German prestige, even at the risk of general war — something of which William, for all his bluster, was extremely apprehensive.
William made erratic attempts to stay on top of the crisis via telegram, and when the Austro-Hungarian ultimatum was delivered to Serbia, he hurried back to Berlin. The July Ultimatum was a Demarche issued by Austria-Hungary to Serbia at 6 pm on July 23 1914. He reached Berlin on 28 July, read a copy of the Serbian reply, and wrote on it:
"A brilliant solution — and in barely 48 hours! This is more than could have been expected. Events 1540 - Thomas Cromwell is executed at the order of Henry VIII of England on charges of Treason. A great moral victory for Vienna; but with it every pretext for war falls to the ground, and [the Ambassador] Giesl had better have stayed quietly at Belgrade. On this document, I should never have given orders for mobilisation. "
Unknown to the Emperor, Austro-Hungarian ministers and generals had already convinced the 84-year-old Francis Joseph I of Austria to sign a declaration of war against Serbia. Franz Joseph I Karl (- German, in English Francis Joseph I Charles, see the name in other languages) (18 August 1830 &ndash 21 November
On the night of July 30–31, when handed a document stating that Russia would not cancel its mobilisation, William wrote a lengthy commentary containing the startling observations:
When it had become clear that the United Kingdom would enter the war if Germany attacked France through neutral Belgium, the panic-stricken William attempted to redirect the main attack against Russia. When Helmuth von Moltke (the younger) told him that this was impossible, William said: "Your uncle would have given me a different answer!!. Helmuth Johann Ludwig von Moltke ( May 25 1848 &ndash June 18 1916) also known as Moltke the Younger, was a nephew of Helmuth Karl Bernhard Graf After the Franco-Prussian War Moltke superintended the preparation of its history which was published between 1874 and 1881 by the great general staff "
William is a controversial issue in historical scholarship and this period of German history. A scholarship is an award of access to an institution or a financial aid award for an individual student scholar for the purpose of furthering their Education Despite the lack of a German nation state prior to 1871 the History of Germany dates back to the era of the Germanic tribes. Until the late 1950s he was seen as an important figure in German history during this period. For many years after that, the dominant view was that he had little or no influence on German policy. Politics of Germany takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary representative democratic Republic, whereby the Federal Chancellor This has been challenged since the late 1970s, particularly by Professor John C. G. Röhl, who saw William II as the key figure in understanding the recklessness and subsequent downfall of Imperial Germany. John C G Röhl (born 1938 is a British Historian. Originally from London, England, Röhl taught in Germany. The German Empire is the name commonly used in English to describe Germany from 1871 to 1918 when it was a semi- Constitutional monarchy: beginning with the Unification 
It is difficult to argue that William actively sought to unleash the First World War. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Though he had ambitions for the German Empire to be a world power, it was never William's intention to conjure a large-scale conflict to achieve such ends. As soon as his better judgment dictated that a world war was imminent, he made strenuous efforts to preserve the peace—such as The Willy-Nicky Correspondence mentioned earlier, and his optimistic interpretation of the Austro-Hungarian ultimatum that Austro-Hungarian troops should go no further than Belgrade, thus limiting the conflict. The Willy-Nicky Correspondence is a phrase derived from a book by Herman Bernstein in January of 1918 Belgrade (Београд Beograd is the Capital and largest city of Serbia. But by then it was far too late, for the eager military officials of Germany and the German Foreign Office were successful in persuading him to sign the mobilisation order and initiate the Schlieffen Plan. For the French counter-plan see Plan XVII The Schlieffen Plan was the German General Staff 's early 20th century overall strategic The contemporary British reference to the First World War as "the Kaiser's War" in the same way that the Second was "Hitler's War" is not wholly accurate in its suggestion that William was deliberately responsible for unleashing the conflict. "He may not have been 'the father of war' but he was certainly its godfather' (A. Woodcock-Clarke). His own love of the culture and trappings of militarism and push to endorse the German military establishment and industry (most notably the Krupp corporation), which were the key support which enabled his dynasty to rule helped push his empire into an armaments race with competing European powers. Militarism is the belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or The Krupp family, a prominent 400-year-old German dynasty from Essen, have become famous for their Steel production and for their manufacture of Similarly, though on signing the mobilisation order, William is reported as having said "You will regret this, gentlemen", he had encouraged Austria to pursue a hard line with Serbia, was an enthusiastic supporter of the subsequent German actions during the war and revelled in the title of "Supreme War Lord".
The role of ultimate arbiter of wartime national affairs proved too heavy a burden for William to sustain. Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg ( known universally as Paul von Hindenburg ( ( October 2, 1847 &ndash August 2 Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as von Ludendorff) (9 April 1865–20 December 1937 was a German Army officer, Generalquartiermeister As the war progressed, his influence receded and inevitably his lack of ability in military matters led to an ever-increasing reliance upon his generals, so much that after 1916 the Empire had effectively become a military dictatorship under the control of Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff. Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg ( known universally as Paul von Hindenburg ( ( October 2, 1847 &ndash August 2 Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as von Ludendorff) (9 April 1865–20 December 1937 was a German Army officer, Generalquartiermeister Increasingly cut-off from reality and the political decision-making process, William vacillated between defeatism and dreams of victory, depending upon the fortunes of "his" armies. He remained a useful figurehead, and he toured the lines and munitions plants, awarded medals and gave encouraging speeches.
Nevertheless, William still retained the ultimate authority in matters of political appointment, and it was only after his consent had been gained that major changes to the high command could be effected. William was in favour of the dismissal of Helmuth von Moltke the Younger in September 1914 and his replacement by Erich von Falkenhayn. Helmuth Johann Ludwig von Moltke ( May 25 1848 &ndash June 18 1916) also known as Moltke the Younger, was a nephew of Erich von Falkenhayn ( 11 September 1861 &ndash 8 April 1922) was a German Soldier and Chief of the General Staff Similarly, William was instrumental in the policy of inactivity adopted by the High Seas Fleet after the Battle of Jutland in 1916. The High Seas Fleet (Hochseeflotte was the main battle fleet of the Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial German Navy during World War I. fix various bugs per WikipediaHow to fix bunched-up edit links --> Likewise, it was largely owing to his sense of grievance at having been pushed into the shadows that William attempted to take a leading role in the crisis of 1918. At least in the end he realised the necessity of capitulation and did not insist that the German nation should bleed to death for a dying cause. The armistice treaty between the Allies and Germany was signed in a railway carriage in Compiègne Forest on November 11, 1918 Upon hearing that his cousin George V had changed the name of the British royal house to Windsor, William remarked that he planned to see Shakespeare's play The Merry Wives of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. William Shakespeare ( baptised The Merry Wives of Windsor is a Comedy by William Shakespeare, first published in 1602, though believed to have been written prior to 1597
William was at the Imperial Army headquarters in Spa, Belgium, when the uprisings in Berlin and other centres took him by surprise in late 1918. Spa is a Municipality of Belgium. It lies in the country's Walloon Region and Province of Liège. Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. Mutiny among the ranks of his beloved Kaiserliche Marine, the imperial navy, profoundly shocked him. The Wilhelmshaven mutiny was a major Mutiny by sailors of the German High Seas Fleet in 29 October 1918. The Kaiserliche Marine or Imperial Navy was the German Navy created by the formation of the German Empire. After the outbreak of the German Revolution, William could not make up his mind whether or not to abdicate. Up to that point, he was confident that even if he were obliged to vacate the German throne, he would still retain the Prussian kingship. The unreality of this claim was revealed when, for the sake of preserving some form of government in the face of anarchy, William's abdication both as German Emperor and King of Prussia was abruptly announced by the Chancellor, Prince Max of Baden, on November 9, 1918. Prince Maximilian Alexander Friedrich Wilhelm of Baden ( Max von Baden) ( 10 July 1867 6 November 1929) was the cousin and Events 694 - Egica, a king of the Visigoths of Hispania, accuses Jews of aiding Muslims sentencing all Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common (Prince Max himself was forced to resign later the same day, when it became clear that only Friedrich Ebert, leader of the SPD could effectively exert control). Friedrich Ebert ( February 4, 1871 February 28, 1925) was a German Politician ( SPD) who served as William consented to the abdication only after Ludendorff's replacement, General Wilhelm Groener, had informed him that the officers and men of the army would march back in good order under Paul von Hindenburg's command, but would certainly not fight for William's throne on the home front. Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as von Ludendorff) (9 April 1865–20 December 1937 was a German Army officer, Generalquartiermeister Karl Eduard Wilhelm Groener ( November 22 1867 - May 3 1939) was a German soldier and politician Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg ( known universally as Paul von Hindenburg ( ( October 2, 1847 &ndash August 2 The monarchy's last and strongest support had been broken, and finally even Hindenburg, himself a lifelong royalist, was obliged, with some embarrassment, to advise the Emperor to give up the crown. Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment preservation or restoration of a Monarchy as a Form of government in a nation
The following day, the now-former German Emperor William II crossed the border by train and went into exile in the Netherlands, which had remained neutral throughout the war. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Upon the conclusion of the Treaty of Versailles in early 1919, Article 227 expressly provided for the prosecution of William "for a supreme offence against international morality and the sanctity of treaties", but Queen Wilhelmina refused to extradite him, despite appeals from the Allies. The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. Wilhelmina (Wilhelmina Helena Pauline Marie 31 August 1880 &ndash 28 November 1962) was Queen regnant of the Kingdom of the The erstwhile Emperor first settled in Amerongen, and then subsequently purchased a small castle in the municipality of Doorn on 16 August 1919 and moved in 15 May 1920,  which was to be his home for the remainder of his life. Amerongen ( is a village in the central Netherlands in the recently formed national park of the Utrechtse Heuvelrug. Doorn is a Town in the municipality of Utrechtse Heuvelrug in the central Netherlands, in the province of Utrecht. Events 1384 - The Hongwu Emperor of Ming China, Emperor Dong hears a case of a couple who tore paper money bills while fighting Year 1919 ( MCMXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 1252 - Pope Innocent IV issues the Papal bull Ad exstirpanda, which authorizes but also limits the Year 1920 ( MCMXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920 of the Gregorian calendar From this residence, Huis Doorn, William absolved his officers and servants of their oath of loyalty to him; however he himself never formally relinquished his titles, and hoped to return to Germany in the future. Huis Doorn (Doorn Manor is a small Manor house that lies outside Doorn, a small town near Utrecht, the Netherlands. The Weimar Republic allowed William to remove twenty-three railway wagons of furniture, twenty-seven containing packages of all sorts, one bearing a car and another a boat, from the New Palace at Potsdam. -->The 
The telegrams that were exchanged between the General Headquarters of the Imperial High Command, Berlin, and President Woodrow Wilson are discussed in Ferdinand Czernin's Versailles, 1919 (New York: G. P. Putnam's & Sons, 1964). Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28 1856—February 3 1924 was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. George Putnam may refer to George Putnam (newsman (1914&ndash2008 Los Angeles California television newsman George D
The following telegram was sent through the Swiss government and arrived in Washington, D. C. , on October 5, 1918 [p. Events 869 - The Fourth Council of Constantinople is convened to decide about what to do about Patriarch Photius of Constantinople Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common 6]:
In the subsequent two exchanges, Wilson's allusions "failed to convey the idea that the Kaiser's abdication was an essential condition for peace. The leading statesmen of the Reich were not yet ready to contemplate such a monstrous possibility. " [p. 7]
According to Czernin [p. 9]:
The abdication of William was necessitated by the popular perceptions that had been created by the Entente propaganda against him, which had been picked and further refined when the U. S. declared war in April 1917.
A much bigger obstacle, which contributed to the five-week delay in the signing of the armistice and to the resulting social deterioration in Europe, was the fact that the Entente Powers had no desire to accept the Fourteen Points and Wilson's subsequent promises. As Czernin points out [p. 23]:
On 2 December, 1919 William wrote to General August von Mackensen denouncing his abdication as the "deepest, most disgusting shame ever perpetrated by a people in history, the Germans have done to themselves", "egged on and misled by the tribe of Juda. Anton Ludwig August von Mackensen (December 6 1849 &ndash November 8 1945 born August Mackensen, was a German soldier and field marshal. . . Let no German ever forget this, nor rest until these parasites have been destroyed and exterminated from German soil!" He advocated a "regular international all-worlds pogrom à la Russe" as "the best cure" and further believed that Jews were a "nuisance that humanity must get rid of some way or other. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ I believe the best would be gas!"
In 1922 William published the first volume of his memoirs — a disappointingly slim volume which nevertheless revealed the possession of a remarkable memory (William had no archive on which to draw). In them, he asserted his claim that he was not guilty of initiating the Great War, and defended his conduct throughout his reign, especially in matters of foreign policy. For the remaining twenty years of his life, the aging Emperor regularly entertained guests (often of some standing) and kept himself updated on events in Europe. Much of his time was spent chopping wood (a hobby he discovered upon his arrival at Doorn) and observing the life of a country gentleman.  It would seem that his attitude towards Britain and the British finally coalesced in this period into a warm desire to ape British custom. On his arrival from Germany at Amerongen Castle in the Netherlands in 1918, the first thing William said to his host was, "So what do you say, now give me a nice cup of hot, good, real English tea. Amerongen ( is a village in the central Netherlands in the recently formed national park of the Utrechtse Heuvelrug. " No longer able to call upon the services of a court barber, and partly out of a desire to disguise his features, William grew a beard and allowed his famous moustache to droop. William even learnt the Dutch language. 
William developed a penchant for archaeology during his vacations on Corfu, a passion he harboured into his exile. Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek grc ἀρχαιολογία archaiologia – grc ἀρχαῖος archaīos Corfu (Κέρκυρα Kérkyra, ˈkʲe̞ɾkʲiɾa Κέρκυρα or Κόρκυρα Corcyra Corfù is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea He had bought the former Greek residence of Austrian Empress Elisabeth after her murder in 1898. Elisabeth Amalie Eugenie ( 24 December, 1837 &ndash 10 September, 1898) of the House of Wittelsbach, was the Empress He also sketched plans for grand buildings and battleships when he was bored, although experts in construction saw his ideas as grandiose and unworkable. One of William's greatest passions was hunting, and he bagged thousands of animals, both beast and bird. During his years in Doorn, he largely deforested his estate, the land only now beginning to recover.
In the early 1930s, William apparently hoped that the successes of the German Nazi Party would stimulate interest in the revival of the monarchy. Huis Doorn (Doorn Manor is a small Manor house that lies outside Doorn, a small town near Utrecht, the Netherlands. The, officially National Socialist German Workers' Party, ( abbreviated NSDAP) was a Political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945 His second wife, Hermine (see below), actively petitioned the Nazi government on her husband's behalf, but the scorn which Adolf Hitler felt for the man whom he believed contributed to Germany's greatest defeat, and his own desire for power would prevent William's restoration. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately Though he hosted Hermann Göring at Doorn on at least one occasion, William grew to mistrust Hitler. Hermann Wilhelm Göring (also spelled Goering) (12 January 1893 15 October 1946 was a German Politician, Military leader and a leading member Doorn is a Town in the municipality of Utrechtse Heuvelrug in the central Netherlands, in the province of Utrecht. He heard about the Night of the Long Knives of 30 June 1934 by wireless and said of it, "What would people have said if I had done such a thing?" and hearing of the murder of the wife of former Chancellor Schleicher, "We have ceased to live under the rule of law and everyone must be prepared for the possibility that the Nazis will push their way in and put them up against the wall!" William was also appalled at the Kristallnacht of 9-10 November, 1938 saying, "I have just made my views clear to Auwi in the presence of his brothers. The Night of the Long Knives (German) or " Operation Hummingbird " was a Purge that took place in Nazi Germany between June 30 and July Events 350 - Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, is defeated and killed by troops of the Usurper Year 1934 ( MCMXXXIV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Kristallnacht ( literally "Crystal night" or the Night of Broken Glass was a Pogrom in Nazi Germany on November 9–10 1938 For the brother of King Frederick II of Prussia see Prince Augustus William of Prussia (1722-1758 He had the nerve to say that he agreed with the Jewish pogroms and understood why they had come about. When I told him that any decent man would describe these actions as gangsterisms, he appeared totally indifferent. He is completely lost to our family . . . "
In the wake of the German victory over Poland in September 1939, William's adjutant, General von Dommes, wrote on his behalf to Hitler, stating that the House of Hohenzollern "remained loyal" and noted that nine Prussian Princes (one son and eight grandchildren) were stationed at the front, concluding "because of the special circumstances that require residence in a neutral foreign country, His Majesty must personally decline to make the aforementioned comment. The Emperor has therefore charged me with making a communication. " William stayed in regular contact with Hitler through General von Dommes, who represented the family in Germany.  William greatly admired the success which Hitler was able to achieve in the opening months of the Second World War, and personally sent a congratulatory telegram on the fall of Paris stating "Congratulations, you have won using my troops. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city " Nevertheless, after the Nazi conquest of the Netherlands in 1940, the aging William retired completely from public life. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands
During his last year at Doorn, William believed that Germany was the land of monarchy and therefore of Christ and that England was the land of Liberalism and therefore of Satan and the Anti-Christ. Liberalism is a broad array of related ideas and theories of Government that consider individual Liberty to be the most important political goal Satan, ( Standard Hebrew Satan'el, English accuser) is a term that originates from the Abrahamic faiths, being traditionally For other uses see Antichrist (disambiguation In Christian eschatology, the Antichrist or anti-Christ means a person office He argued that the English ruling classes were "Freemasons thoroughly infected by Juda". William asserted that the "British people must be liberated from Antichrist Juda. We must drive Juda out of England just as he has been chased out of the Continent. " He believed the Freemasons and Jews had caused the two world wars, aiming at a world Jewish empire with British and American gold, but that "Juda's plan has been smashed to pieces and they themselves swept out of the European Continent!" Continental Europe was now, William wrote, "consolidating and closing itself off from British influences after the elimination of the British and the Jews!" The end result would be a "U.S. of Europe!" In a letter to his sister Princess Margaret in 1940, William wrote: "The hand of God is creating a new world & working miracles. A federal Europe is a proposal that much of Europe be unified in the manner of a Federation. Princess Margaret of Prussia ( Margarete Beatrice Feodora) ( April 22, 1872 - January 22, 1954) was a daughter of Frederick III . . . We are becoming the U. S. of Europe under German leadership, a united European Continent. " He added: "The Jews [are] being thrust out of their nefarious positions in all countries, whom they have driven to hostility for centuries. " Also in 1940 came what would have been his mother's 100th birthday, of which he ironically wrote to a friend "Today the 100th birthday of my mother! No notice is taken of it at home! No 'Memorial Service' or. . . committee to remember her marvellous work for the. . . welfare of our German people. . . Nobody of the new generation knows anything about her. " 
The entry of the German army into Paris stirred painful, deep-seated emotions within him. In a letter to his daughter Victoria Louise, the Duchess of Brunswick, he wrote:
Concerning Hitler's persecutions of the Jews:
William II died of a pulmonary embolus in Doorn, the Netherlands on June 4, 1941, with German soldiers at the gates of his estate. Pulmonary embolism (PE is a blockage of the Pulmonary artery or one of its branches usually occurring when a venous Thrombus (blood clot from a vein Doorn is a Town in the municipality of Utrechtse Heuvelrug in the central Netherlands, in the province of Utrecht. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Events 781 BC - The first historic Solar eclipse is recorded in China. Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Hitler, however, was reportedly angry that the former monarch had an honour guard of German troops and nearly fired the general who ordered them there when he found out. Despite his personal animosity toward William, Hitler, nonetheless hoped to bring William's body back to Berlin for a State funeral for propaganda purposes, as William was a symbol of Germany and Germans during World War I. Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All (Hitler felt this would demonstrate to Germans the direct succession of the Third Reich from the old Kaiserreich. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers ) However, William's wishes of never returning to Germany until the restoration of the monarchy were nevertheless respected, and the Nazi occupation authorities granted a small military funeral with a few hundred people present, the mourners at which included the hero of the First World War August von Mackensen, along with a few other military advisors. Anton Ludwig August von Mackensen (December 6 1849 &ndash November 8 1945 born August Mackensen, was a German soldier and field marshal. William's request that the swastika and other Nazi regalia not be displayed at the final rites was ignored, however, and they feature in the photos of the funeral that were taken by a Dutch photographer. The swastika (from Sanskrit: svástika sa स्वस्तिक Hindu IS CORRECT if 'ि' is positioned incorrectly see -->) is 
He was buried in a mausoleum in the grounds of Huis Doorn, which has since become a place of pilgrimage for German monarchists. Huis Doorn (Doorn Manor is a small Manor house that lies outside Doorn, a small town near Utrecht, the Netherlands. To this day, small but enthusiastic numbers of German monarchists gather at Huis Doorn every year on the anniversary of his death to pay their homage to the last German Emperor.
William and his first wife, Princess Augusta Viktoria of Schleswig-Holstein, were married on February 27, 1881. Princess Auguste Viktoria Friederike Luise Feodora Jenny of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg ( October 22 1858 - April 11 1921) Events 1560 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation Year 1881 ( MDCCCLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common They had seven children:
Augusta, known affectionately as "Dona", was a close and constant companion to William throughout his life, and her death on April 11, 1921 was a devastating blow. Events 491 - Flavius Anastasius becomes Byzantine Emperor, with the name of Anastasius I. Year 1921 ( MCMXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1921 calendar of the Gregorian calendar It also came less than a year after their son, Joachim, had committed suicide, unable to accept his lot after the abdication of his father, the failure of his own marriage to Princess Marie-Auguste of Anhalt, and the heavy depression felt after his service in the Great War. Anhalt is a historical County (after 1806 Duchy) in central Germany, located between the Harz Mountains and the river Elbe World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All
The following January, William received a birthday greeting from a son of the deceased Prince Johann George Ludwig Ferdinand August Wilhelm of Schönaich-Carolath (11 September 1873 – 7 April 1920). Events 9 - The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest ends 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul Year 1873 ( MDCCCLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 529 - First draft of Corpus Juris Civilis (a fundamental work in Jurisprudence) is issued by Eastern Roman Emperor Year 1920 ( MCMXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920 of the Gregorian calendar 63-year-old William invited the boy and his widowed mother, Princess Hermine Reuss (17 December 1887 – 7 August 1947), to Doorn. Princess Hermine Reuss of Greiz ( 17 December 1887 Greiz, Germany - 7 August 1947 Brandenburg, Germany Events 546 - Gothic War (535–554: The Ostrogoths of King Totila Year 1887 ( MDCCCLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 322 BC - Battle of Crannon between Athens and Macedon following the death of Alexander the Great. Year 1947 ( MCMXLVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Princess Hermine was the daughter of Prince Henry XXII Reuss. Reuss (Reuß was the name of several historical states located in present-day Thuringia, Germany. William found her very attractive, and greatly enjoyed her company. By early 1922, he was determined to marry the 34-year-old mother of five, and the couple was eventually wed on November 9, 1922, despite grumblings from William's monarchist supporters and the objections of his children. Events 694 - Egica, a king of the Visigoths of Hispania, accuses Jews of aiding Muslims sentencing all Year 1922 ( MCMXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Hermine's daughter, Henriette, eventually married William's grandson, Prince Joachim's son, Karl Franz Josef, (William's stepdaughter and grandson respectively). Hermine remained a constant companion to the aging Emperor until his death.
William was implicated in some degree in the scandal over his aide and great friend, Philipp, Prince of Eulenburg-Hertefeld, which revealed homosexual activities (then illegal under German law) within William's inner circle (the Harden-Eulenburg Affair). Philip Frederick Alexander Prince of Eulenburg and Hertefeld Count of Sandels, in German: Philipp Friedrich Alexander Fürst zu Eulenburg und Hertefeld Graf von Sandels The Harden-Eulenburg affair, often simply Eulenburg affair, was the controversy surrounding a series of courts-martial and five regular trials regarding accusations of Homosexual Bismarck, among others, suggested that there was an inappropriate relationship between William and Eulenburg. There is no conclusive evidence to prove that the Emperor and Eulenburg's relationship went beyond friendship, but there was suspicion that he was homosexual.
William's patriline is the line from which he is descended father to son.
Patrilineal descent is the principle behind membership in royal houses, as it can be traced back through the generations—which means that if William II were to have chosen an historically accurate house name it would have been House of Hohenzollern, as all his male-line ancestors were of that house. Patrilineality (aka agnatic kinship) is a system in which one belongs to one's father's lineage it generally involves the Inheritance of property names or titles
House of Hohenzollern
His Imperial and Royal Majesty William the Second, by the Grace of God, German Emperor and King of Prussia, Margrave of Brandenburg, Burgrave of Nuremberg, Count of Hohenzollern, Duke of Silesia and of the County of Glatz, Grand Duke of the Lower Rhine and of Posen, Duke in Saxony, of Angria, of Westphalia, of Pomerania and of Lunenburg, Duke of Schleswig, of Holstein and of Crossen, Duke of Magdeburg, of Bremen, of Guelderland and of Jülich, Cleves and Berg, Duke of the Wends and the Kashubians, of Lauenburg and of Mecklenburg, Landgrave of Hesse and in Thuringia, Margrave of Upper and Lower Lusatia, Prince of Orange, of Rugen, of East Friesland, of Paderborn and of Pyrmont, Prince of Halberstadt, of Münster, of Minden, of Osnabrück, of Hildesheim, of Verden, of Kammin, of Fulda, of Nassau and of Moers, Princely Count of Henneberg, Count of the Mark, of Ravensberg, of Hohenstein, of Tecklenburg and of Lingen, Count of Mansfeld, of Sigmaringen and of Veringen, Lord of Frankfurt. Frederick I of Nuremberg (before 1139&ndashafter 1 October 1200) the first Burgrave of Nuremberg from the House of Hohenzollern. Conrad I of Nuremberg (c 1186 &ndash 1261 was a Burgrave of Nuremberg of the House of Hohenzollern. Frederick III of Nuremberg (c 1220&ndash 14 August 1297, Cadolzburg) Burgrave of Nuremberg from the House of Hohenzollern Frederick IV of Nuremberg (1287&ndash1332 Burgrave of Nuremberg from House of Hohenzollern. John II of Nuremberg (c 1309 &ndash 1357 Burgrave of Nuremberg from House of Hohenzollern. Frederick V of Nuremberg (b before 3 March 1333 died 21 January 1398 was a Burgrave ( Burggraf) of Nuremberg, of the House of Hohenzollern. Frederick (Friedrich September 21, 1371 &ndash September 20, 1440) was Burgrave of Nuremberg as Frederick VI and John Cicero (Johann Cicero 2 August 1455 &ndash 9 January 1499) was a Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg Joachim I Nestor ( 21 February 1484 – 11 July 1535) was a Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg (1499-1535 Joachim II Hector (Joachim II Hector or Hektor; 13 January 1505 &ndash 3 January 1571) was a Prince-elector of the John George (Johann Georg 11 September 1525 &ndash 8 January 1598) was a Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg Joachim Frederick (Joachim Friedrich 27 January 1546 &ndash 18 July 1608) was a Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg John Sigismund (Johann Sigismund 8 November, 1572 &ndash 23 December, 1619) was a Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg George William (Georg Wilhelm ( 13 November 1595 &ndash December 1 1640) of the Hohenzollern dynasty was Margrave and Frederick William (Friedrich Wilhelm February 16 1620 &ndash April 29 1688) was the Elector of Brandenburg and the Biography Born in Königsberg, he was the third son of Frederick William Elector of Brandenburg by his father's first marriage to Louise Henriette Frederick William I (Friedrich Wilhelm I ( August 14, 1688 &ndash May 31, 1740) of the House of Hohenzollern, was the King For the son of Emperor William II see Prince August Wilhelm of Prussia (1887-1949 Frederick William II (Friedrich Wilhelm II September 25 1744 &ndash November 16 1797) was the fourth King of Prussia, reigning from Early life The son of King Frederick William II of Prussia, Frederick William was born in Potsdam and became Crown Prince in 1786 when his father ascended Frederick III (German Friedrich Wilhelm Nikolaus Karl, English Frederick William Nicholas Charles; October 18 1831 – June 15 1888 (German Friedrich Imperial and Royal Highness (in German: Kaiserliche und königliche Hoheit) is a style possessed by someone who either through birth or marriage holds two His/Her Imperial and Royal Majesty was the style used by King-Emperors and their consorts as heads of imperial dynasties that were simultaneously Royal. His/Her Imperial and Royal Majesty was the style used by King-Emperors and their consorts as heads of imperial dynasties that were simultaneously Royal. By the Grace of God, as well as the various equivalent phrases in other languages thus rendered in English, is not a title in its own right but a common introductory part This article lists the German monarchs, ruling over the territory of Germany from the creation of a separate Eastern Frankish Kingdom in 843 until the end of monarchy Margrave (marchio is the English and French form (recorded since 1551 of the German Title Markgraf (from Mark " Brandenburg ( Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of the sixteen states of Germany. A burgrave is a Count of a castle or fortified town The English form is derived through the French from the German Burg Graf A count is a Nobleman in European countries The word count comes from French comte, itself from Latin A duke is a member of the Nobility, historically of highest rank below the Sovereign, and historically controlled a Duchy or a Dukedom Etymology One theory claims that the name Silesia is derived from the Silingi, who were most likely a Vandalic (East Germanic people Kłodzko (Kladsko Glatz Glacio is a Town in south-western Poland, in the region of Lower Silesia. The Title grand duke (in Latin, magnus dux; in Spanish, gran duque; in Russian, Великий Герцог }The Grand Duchy of the Lower Rhine (Großherzogtum Niederrhein or simply known as the Lower Rhine Province (Provinz Niederrhein was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia The Grand Duchy of Posen (Großherzogtum Posen Wielkie Księstwo Poznańskie was an autonomous province of the Kingdom of Prussia in the Polish lands commonly known as " The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen ˈzaksən Swobodny Stat Sakska is the easternmost federal state of Germany. For the sunken atoll in India see Angria Bank. Angria is also the name of a Paracosm (fictional world created and written about by English novelist Westphalia (Westfalen) is a region in Germany, centred on the cities of Bielefeld, Bochum, Dortmund, Gelsenkirchen, Münster Lüneburg, also known as Lueneburg and Lunenburg in English, is a City in Lower Saxony, Germany. Holstein (ˈhɔlʃtain ( Low German: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin and historical English: Holsatia) Not to be confused with Krosno in the Subcarpathian Voivodeship Krosno Odrzańskie (Crossen an der Oder is a city on the east Magdeburg ( Low Saxon: Meideborg ˈmaˑɪdebɔɐx the Capital city of the Bundesland of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany Bremen (ˈbʁeːmən is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany (official name Stadtgemeinde Bremen / City Municipality of Bremen Geldern ( Dutch: Gelderen, archaic English: Guelder(s) is a City in the northwest of the federal state North Jülich (in old spellings also known as Guelich or Gülich, cf Cleves redirects here for the Duchy of Cleves and the conjoined states of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, see those articles Berg was a medieval territory in today's North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Kashubians/Kashubs/Kaszubians (Kaszëbi Kaszubi also called Kassubians or Cassubians, are a West Slavic Ethnic group of north-central Mecklenburg ( Low German: Mekelnborg) is a region in northern Germany comprising the western and larger part of the federal state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Landgrave ( Dutch landgraaf, German Landgraf; French landgrave; Latin comes magnus, comes patriae Hesse (Hessen is a state of Germany with an area The Free State of Thuringia (Freistaat Thüringen is located in central Germany. Upper and Lower Lusatia Upper Lusatia ( Oberlausitz or Hornja Łužica) is today part of the German state of Saxony except for a small part east of Upper and Lower Lusatia Upper Lusatia ( Oberlausitz or Hornja Łužica) is today part of the German state of Saxony except for a small part east of Prince of Orange is a Title of Nobility, originally associated with the Principality of Orange, now in southern France. Rügen (ˈʁyːgən or Rugia is Germany 's largest Island. It is located in the Baltic Sea off the coast of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern East Frisia or Eastern Friesland ( Low Saxon: Oostfreesland, German Ostfriesland) is a coastal region in the northwest of the Paderborn (paːdɐˈbɔʁn is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, capital of the Paderborn district. Bad Pyrmont is a city in the district of Hamelin-Pyrmont, in Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen Germany, with a population of 22000 (2003 Halberstadt is a City in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt and the capital of the district of Harz. Münster ( is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located in the northern part of the state and is considered to be the cultural centre of the Minden is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is the capital of the district of Minden-Lübbecke. Osnabrück (ɔsnaˈbʁʏk is a City in Lower Saxony, Germany, some 80 km NNE of Dortmund, 45 km NE of Münster, and some 100 km due is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is located in the district of Hildesheim, about 30 km southeast of Hanover on the banks of the Innerste Kamień Pomorski (Cammin or Kammin; Kamién is a Town in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship of northwestern Poland. Fulda (ˈfʊlda is a city in Hesse, Germany; it is located on the Fulda River and is the administrative seat of the Fulda district ( Kreis Nassau was a German state within the Holy Roman Empire and later in the German Confederation. Moers (also known as Mors or Mörs, in older texts also Murse or Meurs) is a town in the Wesel district in North Rhine-Westphalia Graf is a historical German noble title equal in rank to a Count (derived from the Latin Comes, with a history of its own or a British House of Henneberg: a branch of the Franconian Babenbergs which was very powerful inFranconia and Thuringia particularly in the 11th, 12th and A count is a Nobleman in European countries The word count comes from French comte, itself from Latin The County of Mark (Grafschaft Mark colloquially known as Die Mark) was a County of the Holy Roman Empire in the Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle The County of Ravensberg (Grafschaft Ravensberg was a historical County of the Holy Roman Empire. Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein was a county between Hesse-Darmstadt and Westphalia. Tecklenburg is a town in the district of Steinfurt, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Lingen is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. In 2008 the population was 52 Mansfeld is a town in the Mansfeld-Südharz district in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Sigmaringen is a Town in southern Germany, in the state of Baden-Württemberg. 
Despite the continuing debate over the precise nature of his impact upon history, William has been the focus of many biographies, of which the first (by Emil Ludwig) is still one of the most accessible.
William II, German EmperorBorn: 27 January 1859 Died: 4 June 1941
King of Prussia
June 15, 1888 – November 9, 1918
as German Emperor
and King of Prussia
|German Head of State|
Prussian Head of State
June 15, 1888 – November 9, 1918
as President of Germany
and Prime Minister of Prussia
|Titles in pretence|
|Loss of title|
|— TITULAR —|
King of Prussia
November 9, 1918 – June 4, 1941
Reason for succession failure:
Crown Prince William
18 January 1871 – 9 November 1918
|See also Line of succession to the German throne|
|NAME||William II, German Emperor|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Frederick Wilhelm Albert Victor, William II|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||German Emperor and King of Prussia|
|DATE OF BIRTH||27 January 1859|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Berlin, Germany|
|DATE OF DEATH||4 June 1941|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Doorn, Netherlands|