|Birth||November 19, 1833|
|Death||October 1, 1911|
Siusi allo Sciliar, Italy
|Main interests||Verstehen, literary theory, literary criticism, intellectual history, human sciences, hermeneutic circle, Geistesgeschichte, facticity|
|Influenced by||Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Schleiermacher, romanticism, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, John Stuart Mill|
|Influenced||Max Scheler, Karl Jaspers, Martin Heidegger, Georg Misch, José Ortega y Gasset, Hans-Georg Gadamer, Jürgen Habermas|
Wilhelm Dilthey (IPA: [ˈdɪltaɪ]; November 19, 1833 – October 1, 1911) was a German historian, psychologist, sociologist, student of hermeneutics, and philosopher. Western philosophy is a term that refers to philosophical thinking in the Western or Occidental world, as distinct from Eastern or Oriental philosophies The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar Events 1095 - The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land Year 1833 ( MDCCCXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Biebrich is a borough of the city Wiesbaden, Hesse, Germany, located in the Rhine-Main-Area near Frankfurt, opposite of Mombach Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela. Year 1911 ( MCMXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Siusi allo Sciliar (Seis am Schlern is an Alpine village in the Province of Bolzano-Bozen, in the Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol region of northern Italy Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Hermeneutics may be described as the development and study of Theories of the interpretation and understanding of texts Verstehen is a German word signifying the "understanding" and "interpretation" of meaning and human activities Literary theory in a strict sense is the systematic study of the nature of Literature and of the methods for analyzing literature Literary criticism is the study discussion evaluation and interpretation of Literature. Intellectual history refers to the History of the people who create discuss write about and in other ways propagate Ideas Although the field emerged from Human science (also moral science and human sciences as typical in the UK is a term applied to the investigation of human life and activities by a Rational The hermeneutic circle describes the process of understanding a text hermeneutically. Geistesgeschichte (f German Geist, ‘spirit’ (here connoting the metaphysical realm in contradistinction to the material and Geschichte Facticity ( French: facticité, German: Faktizität) has a multiplicity of meanings from "factuality" and "contingency" to Immanuel Kant (ɪmanuəl kant 22 April 1724 12 February 1804 was an 18th-century German Philosopher from the Prussian city of Königsberg Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (ˈʃlaɪɐmaxɐ ( November 21, 1768 &ndash February 12, 1834) was a German theologian Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 &ndash 8 May 1873 British Philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential Max Scheler ( August 22, 1874, Munich – May 19, 1928, Frankfurt am Main) was a German Philosopher Karl Theodor Jaspers ( February 23, 1883 – February 26, 1969) was a German Psychiatrist and Philosopher who Martin Heidegger ( September 26, 1889 &ndash May 26, 1976) (ˈmaɐ̯tiːn ˈhaɪ̯dɛgɐ was an influential German philosopher Georg Misch (April 5 1878 in Berlin, Germany – June 10 1965 in Göttingen) was a German Philosopher. José Ortega y Gasset ( May 9, 1883 - October 18, 1955) was a Spanish philosopher. Hans-Georg Gadamer (ˈgaːdamɐ February 11, 1900 &ndash March 13, 2002) was a German Philosopher of the continental Jürgen Habermas (ˈjʏʁgən ˈhaːbɐmaːs born June 18, 1929 is a German Philosopher and Sociologist in the tradition of Events 1095 - The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land Year 1833 ( MDCCCXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela. Year 1911 ( MCMXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. See also History An historian is an individual who studies and writes about History, and is regarded as an Authority on it Mental health professional A psychologist is a practitioner of Psychology, the systematic investigation of the mind including Behavior, Cognition, Sociology (from Latin: socius "companion" and the suffix -ology "the study of" from Greek λόγος lógos "knowledge" Hermeneutics may be described as the development and study of Theories of the interpretation and understanding of texts Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language He could be considered an empiricist, in contrast to the idealism prevalent in Germany at the time, but his account of what constitutes the empirical and experiential differs from British empiricism and positivism in its central epistemological and ontological assumptions, which are drawn from German literary and philosophical traditions. In Philosophy, empiricism is a theory of Knowledge which asserts that knowledge arises from Experience. In Western civilization, Idealism is the philosophy which maintains that the Ultimate nature of reality is ideal or based upon ideas values essences The so-called In Philosophy, empiricism is a theory of Knowledge which asserts that knowledge arises from Experience. Positivism is the Philosophy that the only authentic knowledge is knowledge that is based on actual sense experience Epistemology (from Greek επιστήμη - episteme, "knowledge" + λόγος, " Logos " or theory of knowledge In Philosophy, ontology (from the Greek, genitive: of being (part
Dilthey was inspired in part by the works of Friedrich Schleiermacher on hermeneutics, which he helped revive. Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (ˈʃlaɪɐmaxɐ ( November 21, 1768 &ndash February 12, 1834) was a German theologian Both figures are linked to German Romanticism. For the general context see Romanticism. In the Philosophy, Art, and Culture of German -speaking countries German Romanticism The school of Romantic hermeneutics stressed that historically embedded interpreters — a "living" rather than a Cartesian or "theoretical" subject — use 'understanding' and 'interpretation', which combine individual-psychological and social-historical description and analysis, to gain a greater knowledge of texts and authors in their contexts.
The process of interpretive inquiry established by Schleiermacher involved what Dilthey called "the Hermeneutic circle," which is the recurring movement between the implicit and the explicit, the particular and the whole. The "general hermeneutics" that Schleiermacher proposed was a combination of the hermeneutics used to interpret Sacred Scriptures (e. g. the Pauline epistles) and the hermeneutics used by Classicists (e. g. Plato's philosophy). Dilthey saw its relevance for the human sciences (Geisteswissenschaften) in contrast with the natural sciences.
Along with Friedrich Nietzsche, Georg Simmel and Henri Bergson, Dilthey's work influenced early twentieth-century "Lebensphilosophie" and "Existenzphilosophie. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15 1844 August 25 1900 ( was a nineteenth-century German philosopher and classical philologist Georg Simmel (March 1 1858 &ndash September 28 1918 was one of the first generation of German sociologists. "
Dilthey informed the early Martin Heidegger's approach to hermeneutics in his early lecture courses, in which he developed a "hermeneutics of factical life", and in Being and Time. Martin Heidegger ( September 26, 1889 &ndash May 26, 1976) (ˈmaɐ̯tiːn ˈhaɪ̯dɛgɐ was an influential German philosopher Being and Time ( German: Sein und Zeit, 1927) is a book by German philosopher Martin Heidegger. Heidegger grew increasingly more critical of Dilthey, arguing for a more radical 'temporalization' of the possibilities of interpretation and human existence.
In Wahrheit und Methode (Truth and Method), Hans-Georg Gadamer, influenced by Heidegger, criticised Dilthey's approach to hermeneutics as both overly aesthetic and subjective as well as method-oriented and "positivistic. Hans-Georg Gadamer (ˈgaːdamɐ February 11, 1900 &ndash March 13, 2002) was a German Philosopher of the continental " According to Gadamer, Dilthey's hermeneutics is insufficiently concerned with the ontological event of truth and inadequately consider the implications of how the interpreter and her interpretations are not outside of tradition but occupy a particular position within it, i. e. , have a temporal horizon.
Jürgen Habermas was also influenced by Dilthey, most notably in the 'Positivismusstreit' <expand/> of the early 1960s and his early work Knowledge and Human Interests (1968). Jürgen Habermas (ˈjʏʁgən ˈhaːbɐmaːs born June 18, 1929 is a German Philosopher and Sociologist in the tradition of
Dilthey was very interested in what we would call sociology today, although he strongly objected to being labelled a sociologist because the sociology of his day was mainly that of Auguste Comte and Herbert Spencer. Sociology (from Latin: socius "companion" and the suffix -ology "the study of" from Greek λόγος lógos "knowledge" Auguste Comte (full name Isidore Marie Auguste François Xavier Comte; 17 January 1798 – 5 September 1857 was a French thinker who is generally credited for having Herbert Spencer ( April 27, 1820 – December 8, 1903) was an English Philosopher; prominent classical liberal He objected to their evolutionist assumptions about the necessary changes that all societal formations must go through, as well as their narrowly natural-scientific methodology. Also, the word tended (and tends) to be used as a kind of umbrella term; since the term sociology covered so much it had little analytical clarity. An umbrella term is a word that provides a Superset or grouping of related concepts also called a Hypernym. Comte's idea of positivism was, according to Dilthey, one-sided and misleading. He did, however, have good things to say about his colleague Georg Simmel's versions of sociology.  (Simmel was a colleague at the University of Berlin and Dilthey admired his work even though many academics were opposed to Simmel altogether, in part owing to anti-Semitism and in part because Simmel did not conform to the academic formalities of the day in some of his published work. Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism; also rarely known as judeophobia) is the Prejudice against or hostility )
J. I. Hans Bakker has argued that Dilthey should be considered one of the classical sociological theorists because of his important role in discussing Verstehen and his influence on interpretive sociology generally. Verstehen is a German word signifying the "understanding" and "interpretation" of meaning and human activities
A life-long concern was to establish a proper theoretical and methodological foundation for the "human sciences" (e. g. history, law, literary criticism), distinct from, but equally "scientific" as, the "natural sciences" (e. g. physics, chemistry). He suggested that all human experience divides naturally into two parts: that of the surrounding natural world, in which "objective necessity" rules, and that of inner experience, characterized by "sovereignty of the will, responsibility for actions, a capacity to subject everything to thinking and to resist everything within the fortress of freedom of his/her own person". 
Dilthey strongly rejected using a model formed exclusively from the natural sciences (Naturwissenschaften), and instead proposed developing a separate model for the human sciences (Geisteswissenschaften). In Science, the term natural science refers to a naturalistic approach to the study of the Universe, which is understood as obeying rules or law of Human science (also moral science and human sciences as typical in the UK is a term applied to the investigation of human life and activities by a Rational His argument centered around the idea that in the natural sciences we seek to explain phenomena in terms of cause and effect, or the general and the particular; in contrast, in the human sciences, we seek to understand in terms of the relations of the part and the whole. In the social sciences we may also combine the two approaches, a point stressed by German sociologist Max Weber. Maximilian Carl Emil Weber (maks 'veːbɐ (21 April 1864 &ndash 14 June 1920 was a German political economist and sociologist who was considered His principles, a general theory of understanding or comprehension (Verstehen) could, he asserted, be applied to all manner of interpretation ranging from ancient texts to art work, religious works, and even law. Verstehen is a German word signifying the "understanding" and "interpretation" of meaning and human activities His interpretation of different theories of aesthetics in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries was preliminary to his speculations concerning the form aesthetic theory would take in the twentieth century. Aesthetics or esthetics ( also spelled æsthetics) is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values sometimes called
Both the natural and human sciences originate in the context or "nexus of life" (Lebenszusammenhang), a concept which influenced the phenomenological account of the lifeworld (Lebenswelt), but are differentiated in how they relate to their life-context. Lifeworld (German Lebenswelt may be conceived as a universe of what is self-evident or given a world that subjects may experience together Whereas the natural sciences abstract away from it, it becomes the primary object of inquiry in the human sciences.
Dilthey defended his use of the term "spiritual science" by pointing out that other terms (e. Anthroposophy is a spiritual philosophy based on the teachings of Rudolf Steiner (25 February 1861 – 30 March 1925 which postulates the existence of an objective intellectually g. "social science" and "cultural sciences") are equally one-sided and that the human spirit is the central phenomenon from which all others are derived and analyzable.  For Dilthey, like Hegel, "spirit" (Geist) has a social rather than an occult meaning. It is not an abstract intellectual principle or a disembodied entity but refers to the individual's life in its concrete social-historical context.
Dilthey developed a typology of the three basic Weltanschauungen, or World-Views, which he considered to be "typical" (comparable to Max Weber's notion of "ideal types") and conflicting ways of conceiving of man's relation to Nature. A comprehensive world view (or worldview) is a term Calqued from the German word Weltanschauung ( Welt is the German Nature, in the broadest sense is equivalent to the natural world, physical universe, material world or material universe. In Naturalism, represented by Epicureans of all times and places, man sees himself as determined by nature; in the Idealism of Freedom, represented by Friedrich Schiller and Immanuel Kant, man is conscious of his separation from nature by his free will; in Objective idealism, represented by G. W. F. Hegel, Baruch Spinoza, and Giordano Bruno, man is conscious of his harmony with nature. Philosophical naturalism has been described in various ways In its broadest and strongest sense naturalism is the metaphysical position that "nature is all there is Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller krɪstɔf friːtʁɪç fɔn ʃɪləʁ/ʃɪlɐ (10 November 1759 9 May 1805 was a German Poet, Philosopher Immanuel Kant (ɪmanuəl kant 22 April 1724 12 February 1804 was an 18th-century German Philosopher from the Prussian city of Königsberg Objective idealism is an idealistic Metaphysics that postulates that there is in an important sense only one perceiver and that this perceiver is one with that Baruch or Benedict de Spinoza (ברוך שפינוזה Bento de Espinosa Benedictus de Spinoza ( November 24, 1632 – February 21, Giordano Bruno (1548 – February 17, 1600) was an Italian Philosopher best-known as an early proponent of Heliocentrism and This approach influenced Karl Jaspers' Psychology of Worldviews as well as Rudolf Steiner. Karl Theodor Jaspers ( February 23, 1883 – February 26, 1969) was a German Psychiatrist and Philosopher who Rudolf Steiner ( 25 February 1861 – 30 March 1925) was an Austrian philosopher literary scholar educator artist playwright 
Dilthey's ideas should be examined in terms of his similarities and differences with Wilhelm Windelband and Heinrich Rickert, members of the Baden School of Neo-Kantianism. Wilhelm Windelband ( W Windelband) ( May 11, 1848 – October 22, 1915) was a German Philosopher of the Heinrich John Rickert ( 25 May 1863 – 25 July 1936) was a German philosopher one of the leading Neo-Kantians He was born Neo-Kantianism means a revived or modified type of Philosophy along the lines of that laid down by Immanuel Kant in the Eighteenth century or (sometimes Neo-Kantianism means a revived or modified type of Philosophy along the lines of that laid down by Immanuel Kant in the Eighteenth century or (sometimes Dilthey was not a Neo-Kantian, but had a profound knowledge of Immanuel Kant's philosophy, which deeply influenced his thinking. But whereas Neo-Kantianism was primarily interested in epistemology on the basis of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason, Dilthey took Kant's Critique of Judgment as his point of departure. An important debate between Dilthey and the Neo-Kantians concerned the "human" as opposed to "cultural" sciences, with the Neo-Kantians arguing for the exclusion of psychology from the cultural sciences and Dilthey for its inclusion as a human science.
Wilhelm Dilthey: Selected Works are being published by Princeton University Press under the editorship of the noted Dilthey scholars Rudolf A. Makkreel and Frithjof Rodi. Rudolf A Makkreel is Charles Howard Candler Professor of Philosophy at Emory University. Published volumes include:
Wilhelm Dilthey, Gesammelte Schriften are currently published by Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht:
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||German historian, psychologist, sociologist, student of hermeneutics, and philosopher|
|DATE OF BIRTH||November 19, 1833|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Biebrich, Hesse|
|DATE OF DEATH||October 1, 1911|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Siusi allo Sciliar near Bolzano, Italy|