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A wildfire, also known as a wildland fire, forest fire, brush fire, vegetation fire, grass fire, peat fire, bushfire (in Australasia), or hill fire, is an uncontrolled fire often occurring in wildland areas, but which can also consume houses or agricultural resources. Peat is an accumulation of partially Decayed Vegetation matter. Ladysmith-RFSJPG|right|thumb| Ladysmith NSW RFS fire fighting tanker]]A Bushfire is a Fire that occurs in the bush (collective term for Australasia is a Region of Oceania: New Zealand, Australia, Papua New Guinea, and neighbouring Islands in the Pacific Fire is the heat and light energy released during a Chemical reaction, in particular a combustion reaction. Wildlands are areas of land where plants and animals exist free of human interference Common causes include lightning, human carelessness, arson, volcano eruption, pyroclastic cloud from active volcano, and underground coal fire. Lightning is an atmospheric discharge of Electricity, which typically occurs during Thunderstorms and sometimes during volcanic eruptions or Plate tectonics and hotspots Divergent plate boundaries At the Pyroclastic rocks or pyroclastics (derived from the Greek πῦρ, meaning fire and κλαστός, meaning broken are Clastic rocks A coal seam fire or mine fire is the underground Smouldering of a Coal deposit often a Coal mine. Heat waves, droughts, and cyclical climate changes such as El Niño can also dramatically increase the risk of wildfires. A heat wave is a prolonged period of excessively hot Weather, which may be accompanied by high Humidity. A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply Climate change is any long-term significant change in the “average weather” that a given region experiences El Niño-Southern Oscillation ( ENSO; commonly referred to as simply El Niño) is a global coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon
The word "wildfire" was once a synonym for Greek fire as well as a word for any furious or destructive conflagration. Greek fire was a burning-liquid weapon used by the Byzantine Empire. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the earliest known usages are specifically for lightning-caused conflagrations. The Oxford English Dictionary ( OED) published by the Oxford University Press (OUP is a comprehensive Dictionary of the English The modern usage may have arisen in part from people misunderstanding the expression "spread like wildfire".
Wildfires are very common in many places around the world, including much of the vegetated areas of Australia as well as the veld in the interior and the fynbos in the Western Cape of South Africa, and of course, California. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The term Veld, or Veldt, refers primarily (but not exclusively to the wide open rural spaces of South Africa or southern Africa and in particular to certain Fynbos (ˈfəinbɒs or anglicised as /ˈfeɪnbɒs/ meaning "fine bush" in Afrikaans) is the natural Shrubland or heathland vegetation occurring The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa The forested areas of the United States and Canada are also susceptible to wildfires. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The climates are sufficiently moist to allow the growth of trees, but feature extended dry, hot periods. Fires are particularly prevalent in the summer and fall, and during droughts when fallen branches, leaves, and other material can dry out and become highly flammable. Autumn (also known as fall in North American English) is one of the four Temperate Seasons Autumn marks the transition from Summer A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply Some suggest that global warming has been increasing the intensity and frequency of droughts in many areas, creating more intense and frequent wildfires. Global warming is the increase in the average measured temperature of the Wildfires are also common in grasslands and scrublands.
Wildfires tend to be most common and severe during years of drought and occur on days of strong winds. With extensive urbanization of wildlands, these fires often involve destruction of suburban homes located in the wildland urban interface, a zone of transition between developed areas and undeveloped wildland.
Today it is generally accepted that wildfires are a natural part of the ecosystem of numerous wildlands, where some plants have evolved to survive fires by a variety of strategies (from possessing reserve shoots that sprout after a fire, to fire-resistant seeds), or even encourage fire (for example eucalypts contain flammable oils in their leaves) as a way to eliminate competition from less fire-tolerant species. An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants animals and micro-organisms( Biotic factors in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical ( A seed (in some plants referred to as a kernel) is a small embryonic Plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat usually with some stored Eucalypts are woody plants belonging to three closely related genera Eucalyptus, Corymbia and Angophora. Smoke, charred wood, and head are common fire cues that stimulate the germination of seeds (Keeley and Fotheringham 1997). In 2004, researchers discovered that exposure to smoke from burning plants actually promotes germination in other types of plants by inducing the production of the orange butenolide. Smoke is the collection of airborne solid and liquid Particulates and Gases ref> ''Smoke Production and Properties'' - SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering Germination is the process whereby growth emerges from a period of dormancy Butenolides are a class of Lactones with a four- Carbon heterocyclic ring structure
However, many ecosystems are suffering from too much fire such as the chaparral in southern California and lower elevation deserts in the American Southwest. Chaparral is a Shrubland or heathland Plant community found primarily in the U The increased fire frequency in these areas has caused the elimination of native plant communities and have replaced them with non-native weeds (Keeley 1995, Zedler 1995). These weeds create a positive feedback loop, increasing fire frequency even more (Brooks, et al. 2004).
On occasions, wildfires have caused large-scale damage to private or public property, destroying many homes and causing deaths, particularly when they have reached urban-fringe communities. Wildfires are extremely dangerous, but some are purposely caused.
In the U. S. , there are a number of specific terms that are applicable to such fires. A Wildland fire is "any non-structure fire, that occurs in the wildland", and there are three distinct types of wildland fire which are defined:
The evaporation of water in plants is balanced by water absorbed from the soil. Below this threshold, the plants dry out and under stress release the flammable gas ethylene. Structure This Hydrocarbon has four Hydrogen Atoms bound to a pair of Carbon atoms that are connected by a Double bond. A consequence of a long hot and dry period is therefore that the air contains flammable essences and plants are drier and highly flammable.
The propagation of the fire has three mechanisms:
The Nevada Bureau of Land Management identifies several different wildfire behaviors. For example, extreme fire behavior includes wide rates of spread, prolific crowning and/or spotting, the presence of fire whirls, or a strong convection column. A fire whirl, colloquially fire devil or fire tornado, is a phenomenon in which a Fire, under certain conditions (depending on air Temperature Convection in the most general terms refers to the movement of molecules within Fluids (i Extreme wildfires behave erratically and unpredictably.
In southern California, under the influence of Santa Ana winds, wildfires can move at incredible speeds, up to 40 miles (60 km) in a single day, consuming up to 1,000 acres (4 km²) per hour. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. The Santa Ana winds are strong extremely dry offshore Winds that characteristically sweep through in Southern California and northern Baja California in Dense clouds of burning embers push relentlessly ahead of the flames crossing firebreaks without pause.
The powerful updraft caused by a large wildfire will draw in air from surrounding areas. These self-generated winds can lead to a phenomenon known as a firestorm.
French models of wildfires dictate that a fire's front line will take on the characteristic shape of a pear; the major axis being aligned with the wind. In the case of the fires in southeastern France, the speed of the fire is estimated to be 3% to 8% of the speed of the wind, depending on the conditions (density and type of vegetation, slope). This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Wind is the flow of Air or other Gases that compose an Atmosphere (including but not limited to the Earth's) Other models predict an elliptical shape when the ground is flat and the vegetation is homogeneous. In Mathematics, an ellipse (from the Greek ἔλλειψις literally absence) is a Conic section, the locus of points in a
Another type of wildfire is the smouldering fire. Smouldering (or smoldering in American spelling is a Flameless form of Combustion, deriving its heat from oxidations occurring on the surface of a It involves the slow combustion of surface fuels without generating flame, spreading slowly and steadily. A flame is often defined as the visible (light-emitting part of a Fire. It can linger for days or weeks after flaming has ceased, resulting in potential large quantities of fuel consumed and becoming a global source of emissions to the atmosphere. Air pollution is the human introduction into the atmosphere of Chemicals Particulate matter, or Biological materials that cause harm or discomfort It heats the duff and mineral layers, affecting the roots, seeds and plant stems at the ground. A soil horizon is a specific layer in the Soil which measures parallel to the soil surface and possesses physical characteristics which differ from the layers above and ROOT is an object-oriented program and library developed by CERN. A seed (in some plants referred to as a kernel) is a small embryonic Plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat usually with some stored A stem is one of two main structural axes of a Vascular plant.
Since 1997, in Kalimantan and East Sumatra, Indonesia, there is a type of continuous smouldering fire on the peat bogs that burns underground for years without any supply of oxygen. The underground fire ignited new forest fires each year during dry season.
For many decades the policy of the United States Forest Service was to suppress all fires. This policy was epitomized by the mascot Smokey Bear and was also the basis of parts of the movie Bambi. Smokey Bear (often wrongly referred to as Smokey The Bear is a character in the longest running public service campaign in United States history BMP and Activin membrane bound inhibitor (BAMBI has a similar extracellular domain as type I receptors in the TGF beta signaling pathway. The policy began to be questioned in the 1960s, when it was realized that no new Giant Sequoia had been grown in the forests of California, because fire is an essential part of their life cycle. Sequoiadendron giganteum ( Giant Sequoia, Sierra Redwood, or Wellingtonia) is the sole species in the genus Sequoiadendron This produced the policy of controlled burns to reduce underbrush. This clears much of the undergrowth through forest and woodland areas, making travel and hunting much easier while reducing the risk of dangerous high-intensity fires caused by many years of fuel buildup. Hunting is the practice of pursuing Animals for Food, Recreation, or Trade.
The previous policy of absolute fire suppression in the United States has resulted in the buildup of fuel in some ecosystems such as dry ponderosa pine forests. Ponderosa Pine ( Pinus ponderosa) sometimes called Bull Pine or Western Yellow Pine is a widespread and variable Pine native to western North However, this concept has been misapplied in a "one-size-fits-all" application to other ecosystems such as California chaparral. Fire suppression in southern California has had very little impact over the past century. The amount of land burned in 6 southern California counties has been relatively unchanged. In fact, fire frequency has been increasing dramatically over the past century in lock step with population growth. Urbanization can also result in fuel buildup and devastating fires, such as those in Los Alamos, New Mexico, East Bay Hills, within the California cities of Oakland and Berkeley between October 19 and 22, 1991, all over Colorado in 2002, and throughout southern California in October 2003. Urbanizationn (also spelled urbanisation) is the physical growth of Urban areas into rural or natural land as a result of population in-migration to an existing Los Alamos (Los Álamos meaning "The Cottonwoods quot is a Townsite and Census-designated place (CDP in Los Alamos County, The Oakland Firestorm of 1991 was a large urban fire that occurred on the hillsides of northern Oakland California and southeastern Berkeley on Sunday October Oakland (ˈoʊklənd founded in 1852 is the eighth-largest city in the U Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in Northern California, in the United States. Events 202 BCE - The Battle of Zama results in the defeat of Carthage and Hannibal. Homes designed without considering the fire prone environment in which they are built have been the primary reason for the catastrophic losses experienced in wildfires.
On average, wildfires burn 4. 3 million acres (17,000 km²) in the United States annually. In recent years the federal government has spent $1 billion a year on fire suppression. 2002 was a record year for fires with major fires in Arizona, California, Colorado, and Oregon. The State of Arizona ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. The State of Colorado ( or chiefly by nonresidents) is a state located in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States of America. Oregon ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
The risk of major wildfires can be reduced partly by a reduction or alteration of fuel present. In wild land, reduction can be accomplished by either conducting controlled burns, deliberately setting areas ablaze under less dangerous weather when conditions are less volatile or physical fuel removal by removing some trees as is conducted in many American forests. Alteration of fuels, which involves reducing the structure of fuel ladders, can be accomplished by hand crews with chain saws or by large mastication equipment that shreds trees and vegetation to a mulch. Such techniques are best used within the wild land/urban interface where communities connect with wild open space. Prescribed burns in the back country, away from human habitations, are not particularly effective in preventing large fires. All the large catastrophic fires in the United States have been wind driven events where the amount of fuel (trees, shrubs, etc. ) has not been the most important factor in fire spread.
People living in fire-prone areas typically take a variety of precautions, including building their homes out of flame-resistant materials, reducing the amount of fuel near the home or property (including firebreaks, their own miniature control lines, in effect), and investing in their own firefighting equipment.
Rural farming communities are rarely threatened directly by wildfire. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture These types of communities are usually located in large areas of cleared, usually grazed, land, and in the drought conditions present in wildfire years there is often very little grass left on such grazed areas. Grazing generally describes a type of Predation in which an Herbivore feeds on Plants (such as Grasses, or more broadly on a multicellular Hence the risk is minimized. However, urban fringes have spread into forested areas, for example in Sydney and Melbourne, and communities have literally built themselves in the middle of highly flammable forests. Sydney (ˈsɪdniː is the most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 4 Melbourne ( is the second most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 3 In Cape Town, the city lies on the fringe of the Table Mountain National Park. Cape Town (Kaapstad Xhosa: Ikapa) is the second most populous city in South Africa, forming part of the metropolitan municipality of the These communities are at high risk of destruction in bush fires, and should take extra precautions.
There are quite a few US states, Canadian provinces and many countries around the world that still use Fire lookouts as a means of early detection of forest fires. A fire lookout is a person assigned the duty to look for fire from atop a building known as a Fire lookout tower. Some nations still using this system besides the US and Canada include: Australia, Israel, Latvia, Poland, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Brazil, Uruguay.
Fast and effective detection is a key factor in wildfire fighting. Recently, there have been significant efforts to create automatic solutions for early wildfire detection. An integrated approach is best, based on a practical combination of different detection systems depending on wildfire risk and the size of the area.
|SOLUTIONS||SIZE AREA||RISK LEVEL||DETECTION WITHIN|
|Aero/satellite||Very large (>250,000 acres)||Low||30 acres (12 ha)|
|Infrared/smoke scanners||Medium (10,000-250,000 acres)||Medium||3 acres (2. 4 ha)|
|Local sensor network||Small (<10,000 acres)||High||150 sq feet (15 sq m)|
A careful GIS data analysis will suggest how to divide the area in sub-categories based on different risk level and human presence (which imply a higher wildfire risk and a need for earlier intervention).
Although it is a relatively new approach, it seems to be the only solution able to penetrate thick vegetation and guarantee early detection without false alarms, as well as detecting crawling wildfires. The main limitation of this technology is its high cost which at this time limit its application to small areas.
These have a disadvantage in that they are "blind" to obstacles like thick vegetation, therefore they can miss crawling wildfires for a long time and have still frequent false alarms, but are the best approach to wider areas. Smoke and hot-air-column scanners have the advantage of "looking higher", making them able to locate a wildfire of any size, but do not perform well during strong wind (which is, ironically, the riskiest situation).
Many studies have been done in this field, some producing interesting results. Limitations include the long distance to satellites in geostationary orbits and the short window of observation time for satellites in polar orbits.
The vast majority of wildfires are suppressed before they grow out of control. Wildland fire suppression refers to the firefighting tactics used to suppress wildfires The Modular Airborne FireFighting System or MAFFS is a self-contained unit used for Aerial firefighting that can be loaded onto a military cargo transport typically The Air National Guard ( ANG), often referred to as the Air Guard, is the air force militia organized by each of the several states and WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout A fire retardant is a substance that helps to delay or prevent Combustion. In 2004, firefighters contained more than 99% of all new wildfires during initial action. That record was achieved despite the volatile conditions that prevailed in much of that year's fire season. However, the wildfires that escaped initial actions and grew above 300 acres (1. 2 km²) accounted for the bulk of acres burned, and nearly 75% of all suppression expenditures. 
Wildland fire suppression is a unique aspect of firefighting. Wildland fire suppression refers to the firefighting tactics used to suppress wildfires Most fire-prone areas have large firefighter services to help control bushfires. Distinguish from a Firefight, which means a battle with firearms As well as the water-spraying fire apparatus most commonly used in urban firefighting, bushfire services use a variety of alternative techniques. A fire apparatus, fire engine, fire truck, or fire appliance is a vehicle designed to assist in fighting Fires by transporting Firefighters Typically, forest fire fighting organizations will use large crews of 20 or more people who travel in trucks to the fire. These crews use heavier equipment to construct firebreaks, and are the mainstay of most firefighting efforts. Other personnel are organized into fast attack teams typically consisting of 5–8 people. These fast attack teams are helicoptered into smaller fires or hard to reach areas as a preemptive strike force. History Since 400 AD Chinese children have played with bamboo flying toys. They use portable pumps to douse small fires and chainsaws to construct firebreaks or helicopter landing pads if more resources are required. For information on Wikipedia project-related discussions see WikipediaVillage pump. A chainsaw (or chain saw) is a portable mechanical motorized Saw. Hand tools are commonly used to construct firebreaks and remove fuels around the perimeter of the fire to halt its spread, including shovels, rakes, and the pulaski, a tool unique to wildland firefighting. The pulaski is a special hand tool used in wildland firefighting. In the eastern United States, portable leaf blowers are sometimes used. In the western United States, large fires often become extended campaigns, and temporary fire camps are constructed to provide food, showers, and rest to fire crews. These large fires are often handled by 20 person hand crews, sometimes known as hotshot crews, specially organized to travel to large fires. A Hotshot Crew, or Hotshots as they are more sometimes known is a group of wildland firefighters.
Fast attack teams, such as the Boise District BLM Helitack crew, are often considered the elite of firefighting forces, as they sometimes deploy in unusual ways. If the fire is on a particularly steep hill or in a densely wooded area, they may rappel or fast-rope down from helicopters. Abseiling (German abseilen, "to rope down" rappelling in American and British English is the controlled descent down a rope in Rock climbing Fast-roping is a technique for descending a thick Rope. It is useful for deploying troops from a Helicopter in places where the helicopter itself is unable or If the fire is extremely remote, firefighters known as smokejumpers may parachute into site from fixed-wing aircraft. A smokejumper is a Wildland firefighter that Parachutes into a remote area to combat Wildfires Smokejumpers are most often deployed to fires A parachute is a device used to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere by creating drag. In addition to the aircraft used for deploying ground personnel, firefighting outfits often possess helicopters and water bombers specially equipped for use in aerial firefighting. Aerial firefighting is a method to combat Wildfires using aircraft Aerial firefighting is a method to combat Wildfires using aircraft These aircraft can douse areas that are inaccessible to ground crews and deliver greater quantities of water and/or flame retardant chemicals. Managing all of these various resources over such a large area in often very rugged terrain is extremely challenging, and often the Incident Command System is used. The Incident Command System (ICS is a standardized on-scene all-hazard incident management concept in the United States. As such, each fire will have a designated Incident Commander who oversees and coordinates all the operations on the fire. The Incident Commander is the person responsible for all aspects of an emergency response including quickly developing incident objectives managing all incident operations application This Incident Commander is ultimately responsible for the safety of the firefighters and for the success of firefighting efforts.
Large fires are of such a size that no conceivable firefighting service could attempt to douse the whole fire directly, and so alternative techniques are used. In alternative approaches, firefighters attempt to control the fire by controlling the area that it can spread to, by creating "control lines", which are areas that contain no combustible material. These control lines can be produced by physically removing fuel (for instance, with a bulldozer), or by "backfiring", in which small, low-intensity fires are started, using a device such as the driptorch, or pyrotechnic flares known as "fusees", to burn the flammable material in a (hopefully) controlled way. ----A bulldozer is a crawler ( Caterpillar tracked Tractor) equipped with a substantial metal plate (known as a blade) used to push large quantities A driptorch is a tool used in wildland firefighting, controlled burning, and other Forestry applications to intentionally ignite fires A flare, also sometimes called a fusee, is a type of Pyrotechnic that produces a brilliant light or intense heat without an Explosion. These may then be extinguished by firefighters or, ideally, directed in such a way that they meet the main fire front, at which point both fires run out of flammable material and are thus extinguished.
Unfortunately, such methods can fail in the face of wind shifts causing fires to miss control lines or to jump straight over them (for instance, because a burning tree falls across a line, burning embers are carried by the wind over the line, or burning tumbleweeds cross the line). The San Bernardino Mountains ( Huwaaly Kwasakyav in Mojave) are a short transverse Mountain range northeast of Los Angeles in Georgetown is the third oldest city in the US state of South Carolina and the County seat of Georgetown County.
The actual goals of firefighters vary. Protection of life (those of both the firefighters and "civilians") is given top priority, then private property according to economic and social value and also to its "defendibility" (for example, more effort will be expended on saving a house with a tile roof than one with a wooden-shake roof). In very severe, large fires, this is sometimes the only possible action. Protecting houses is regarded as more important than, say, farming machinery sheds, although firefighters, if possible, try to keep fires off farmland to protect stock and fences (steel fences are destroyed by the passage of fire, as the wire is irreversibly stretched and weakened by it). Preventing the burning of publicly owned forested areas is generally of least priority, and, indeed, it is quite common (in Australia, at least) for firefighters to simply observe a fire burn towards control lines through forest rather than attempt to put it out more quickly; it is, after all, a natural process. On any incident, ensuring the safety of firefighters takes priority over fire suppression. When arriving on a scene a fire crew will establish a safety zone(s), escape routes, and designate lookouts (known by the acronym LCES, for lookouts, communications, escape routes, safety zones). This allows the firefighters to engage a fire with options for a retreat should their current situation become unsafe. In addition all fire suppression activities are based from an "anchor point" (such as lake, rock slide or road). From an anchor point firefighters can work to contain a wild land fire without the fire outflanking them. As a last resort, all wild land firefighters carry a fire shelter. A modern fire shelter is a safety device carried by every wildland firefighter that is employed by a state or federal agency In an unescapable burnover situation the shelter will provide limited protection from radiant and convective heat, as well as superheated air. As such a greater emphasis is placed on safety and preventing entrapment, and is reinforced with a list of 10 fire orders and 18 "watch out situations" for firefighters to be aware of, which warn of potentially dangerous conditions.
In North America, the belief that fire suppression has substantially reduced the average annual area burned is widely held by resource managers and is often thought to be self-evident. However, this belief has been the focus of vocal debate in the scientific literature. In North America the belief that fire suppression has substantially reduced the average annual area burned is widely held by resource managers and is often thought to be self-evident
A new material called "gel" (made from super-absorbent polymer) is used in California, USA for fighting forest fire. Water is soaked up by the gel and stored in layers of tiny bubbles. The gel can protect tree/house for longer time than ordinary water, because it gets boiled by the fire one layer at a time.
Most of the Earth's weather and air pollution reside in the troposphere, the part of the atmosphere that extends from the surface of the planet to a height of between 8 and 13 kilometers. The weather is a set of all the phenomena occurring in a given Atmosphere at a given Time. Air pollution is the human introduction into the atmosphere of Chemicals Particulate matter, or Biological materials that cause harm or discomfort The troposphere is the lowest portion of Earth's atmosphere. It contains approximately 75% of the atmosphere's mass and almost all of its Water vapor and A severe thunderstorm or pyrocumulonimbus in the area of a large wildfire can have its vertical lift enhanced to boost smoke, soot and other particles as high as the lower stratosphere (Wang, 2003). The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the Troposphere, and below the Mesosphere.
Previously, it was thought that most particles in the stratosphere came from volcanoes or were generated by high-flying aircraft. Plate tectonics and hotspots Divergent plate boundaries At the Collection of air samples from the stratosphere in 2003 led to detection of carbon monoxide and other gases related to combustion at a level 30 times higher than can be accounted for by commercial aircraft. Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO is a colorless odorless tasteless yet highly toxic Gas.
Satellite observation of smoke plumes from wildfires revealed that the plumes could be traced intact for distances exceeding 5,000 kilometers. This observation suggests that the plumes were in the stratosphere above weather conditions that would have brought the plume back to earth.
Atmospheric models suggest that these concentrations of sooty particles could increase absorption of incoming solar radiation during winter months by as much as 15% (Baumgardner, et al. , 2003).
The massive forest fire in Indonesia (1997/1998) released approx. 2. 57 gigatonnes of Carbon Dioxide into the atmosphere (source: Nature magazine, November 2002). During 1997-1998, the total amount of Carbon Dioxide released to the atmosphere was 6 gigatonnes. Most of the Carbon Dioxide gas is released by the continuous underground smouldering fire on the peat bogs.
After the end of a wildfire, houses sometimes experience an ember attack - an onslaught of burning twigs or branches that can ignite a fire in the house. An ember attack is a naturally occurring event. During a Bushfire, burning parts of trees such as twigs branches or leaves become temporarily airborne
Fire is sometimes essential for forest regeneration, or provides tangible benefits for local communities. In other cases it destroys forests and has dire social and economic consequences.
Forest fires are a natural part of ecosystems in many, but not all, forest types: in boreal and dry tropical forests for example they are a frequent and expected feature, while in tropical moist forests they would naturally be absent or at least rare enough to play a negligible role in ecology.
Every year, the burnt surface represents about: