A wiki is a collection of web pages designed to enable anyone who accesses it to contribute or modify content, using a simplified markup language. A web page or webpage is a resource of information that is suitable for the World Wide Web and can be accessed through a Web browser. A markup language is an Artificial language using a set of annotations to text that give instructions regarding the structure of text or how it is to be displayed Wikis are often used to create collaborative websites and to power community websites. Collaboration is a recursive process where two or more people or organizations work together toward an intersection of common goals — for example an intellectual A website (alternatively web site or Web site, a back-construction from the Proper noun World Wide Web) is a collection of Web pages For example, the collaborative encyclopedia Wikipedia is one of the best-known wikis. ***************************************************************************************** * *  Wikis are used in businesses to provide affordable and effective intranets and for Knowledge Management. An intranet is a private computer network that uses Internet protocols and network connectivity to securely share any part of an organization's information or operational Knowledge Management (KM Ward Cunningham, developer of the first wiki software, WikiWikiWeb, originally described it as "the simplest online database that could possibly work". Wiki software is a type of Collaborative software that runs a Wiki system WikiWikiWeb (also known as WardsWiki) was the first Wiki application ever written 
"Wiki Wiki" (/wiːkiː wiːkiː/) is a reduplication of "wiki", a Hawaiian word for "fast". Reduplication, in Linguistics, is a morphological Process by which the root or stem of a Word, or part of it is repeated The Hawaiian language (Hawaiian ‘Ōlelo Hawai‘i) is an Austronesian language that takes its name from Hawai'i, the largest island in the tropical It has been suggested that "wiki" means "What I Know Is". However, this is a backronym. A backronym (or bacronym) is a Phrase that is constructed "after the fact" from a previously existing word or Abbreviation, the abbreviation
WikiWikiWeb was the first site to be called a wiki. There were several historical antecedents to the Wikis, which is the name used to refer to a website with pages that can be edited by any visitor The Wiki Wiki Shuttle is a Shuttle bus system at the Honolulu International Airport. Honolulu International Airport is the principal aviation gateway of the City & County of Honolulu and the State of Hawaii and is identified as one of the busiest WikiWikiWeb (also known as WardsWiki) was the first Wiki application ever written  Ward Cunningham started developing WikiWikiWeb in 1994, and installed it on the Internet domain c2.com on March 25, 1995. In Computer networking, a domain name is a name given to a collection of network devices that belong to a domain which is an administrative space managed according Events 1199 - Richard I is wounded by a crossbow bolt while fighting France which leads to his death on April 6. Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 It was named by Cunningham, who remembered a Honolulu International Airport counter employee telling him to take the "Wiki Wiki" shuttle bus that runs between the airport's terminals. The Wiki Wiki Shuttle is a Shuttle bus system at the Honolulu International Airport. According to Cunningham, "I chose wiki-wiki as an alliterative substitute for 'quick' and thereby avoided naming this stuff quick-web. "
Cunningham was in part inspired by Apple's HyperCard. HyperCard was an Application program created by Bill Atkinson for Apple Computer Inc Apple had designed a system allowing users to create virtual "card stacks" supporting links among the various cards. Cunningham developed Vannevar Bush's ideas by allowing users to "comment on and change one another's text". Vannevar Bush ( March 11, 1890 &ndash June 30, 1974; pronounced "VAN-ee-var" ˈvæˌniː  In the early 2000s, wikis were increasingly adopted in enterprise as collaborative software. Common uses included project communication, intranets, and documentation, initially for technical users. Today some companies use wikis as their only collaborative software and as a replacement for static intranets. A corporate wiki is a Wiki used in a corporate (or organisational context especially to enhance internal Knowledge sharing. An intranet is a private computer network that uses Internet protocols and network connectivity to securely share any part of an organization's information or operational There may be greater use of wikis behind firewalls than on the public Internet. A firewall is an integrated collection of security measures designed to prevent unauthorized electronic access to a networked computer system
On March 15, 2007, wiki entered the Oxford English Dictionary Online. Events 44 BC - Julius Caesar, Dictator of the Roman Republic, is stabbed to death by Marcus Junius Brutus, Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The Oxford English Dictionary ( OED) published by the Oxford University Press (OUP is a comprehensive Dictionary of the English 
A wiki enables documents to be written collaboratively, in a simple markup language using a Web browser. A markup language is an Artificial language using a set of annotations to text that give instructions regarding the structure of text or how it is to be displayed A web browser is a software application which enables a user to display and interact with text images videos music games and other information typically located on a A single page in a wiki website is referred to as a "wiki page", while the entire collection of pages, which are usually well interconnected by hyperlinks, is "the wiki". In computing a hyperlink is a Reference or Navigation element in a Document to another Section of the same document or to another A wiki is essentially a database for creating, browsing, and searching through information. A Computer Database is a structured collection of records or data that is stored in a computer system
A defining characteristic of wiki technology is the ease with which pages can be created and updated. Generally, there is no review before modifications are accepted. Many wikis are open to alteration by the general public without requiring them to register user accounts. Users in a Computing context refers to one who uses a computer system Sometimes logging in for a session is recommended, to create a "wiki-signature" cookie for signing edits automatically. Many edits, however, can be made in real-time and appear almost instantly online. This can facilitate abuse of the system. Private wiki servers require user authentication to edit pages, and sometimes even to read them. Authentication (from Greek αυθεντικός real or genuine from authentes author is the act of establishing or confirming something (or someone as
Ordinarily, the structure and formatting of wiki pages are specified with a simplified markup language, sometimes known as "wikitext". Wikitext language or wiki markup is a Markup language that offers a simplified alternative to HTML and is used to write pages in For example, starting a line of text with an asterisk ("*") is often used to enter it in a bulleted list. An asterisk ( *) (Latin asteriscum "little star" from Greek ἀστερίσκος) is a Typographical symbol or Glyph In Typography, a bullet is a typographical symbol or Glyph used to introduce Items in a list, like below also known as the point of a bullet The style and syntax of wikitexts can vary greatly among wiki implementations, some of which also allow HTML tags. HTML, an initialism of HyperText Markup Language, is the predominant Markup language for Web pages It provides a means to describe the structure
The reason for taking this approach is that HTML, with its many cryptic tags, is not very legible, making it hard to edit. Human-readable refers to a representation of information that can be naturally read by Humans In most contexts the alternative representation is Data Wikis therefore favour plain text editing, with fewer and simpler conventions than HTML, for indicating style and structure. In Computing, plain text is a term used for an ordinary "unformatted" sequential file readable as textual material without much processing
|MediaWiki syntax||Equivalent HTML||Rendered output|
|"Take some more tea," the March Hare said to Alice, very earnestly. MediaWiki is a web-based Wiki software application used by all projects of the Wikimedia Foundation, all wikis hosted by Wikia, and |
"I've had nothing yet," Alice replied in an offended tone: "so I can't take more. "
"You mean you can't take ''less''," said the Hatter: "it's very easy to take ''more'' than nothing. "
|<p>"Take some more tea," the March Hare said to Alice, very earnestly. </p>|
<p>"I've had nothing yet," Alice replied in an offended tone: "so I can't take more. "</p>
|"Take some more tea," the March Hare said to Alice, very earnestly. |
"I've had nothing yet," Alice replied in an offended tone: "so I can't take more. "
"You mean you can't take less," said the Hatter: "it's very easy to take more than nothing. "
Many implementations (for example MediaWiki) allow users to supply an "edit summary" when they edit a page. MediaWiki is a web-based Wiki software application used by all projects of the Wikimedia Foundation, all wikis hosted by Wikia, and This is a short piece of text (usually one line) summarizing the changes. It is not inserted into the article, but is stored along with that revision of the page, allowing users to explain what has been done and why; this is similar to a log message when committing changes to a revision control system. Revision control (also known as version control (system (VCS, source control or (source code management (SCM) is the management of multiple revisions
Most wikis keep a record of changes made to wiki pages; often every version of the page is stored. This means that authors can revert to an older version of the page, should it be necessary because a mistake has been made or the page has been vandalised.
Within the text of most pages there are usually a large number of hypertext links to other pages. This form of non-linear navigation is more "native" to wiki than structured/formalized navigation schemes. That said, users can also create any number of index or table of contents pages, with hierarchical categorization or whatever form of organization they like. These may be challenging to maintain by hand, as multiple authors create and delete pages in an ad hoc manner. Wikis generally provide one or more ways to categorize or tag pages, to support the maintenance of such index pages.
Most wikis have a backlink feature, an easy way to see what pages link to the page you're currently on. Backlinks (or back-links (UK are incoming links to a Website or Web page.
It is typical in a wiki to create links to pages that do not yet exist, as a way to invite others to share what they know about a subject new to the wiki.
Links are created using a specific syntax, the so-called "link pattern" (also see CURIE). A CURIE (short for Compact URI) is an abbreviated URI expressed in CURIE syntax and may be found in both XML and non-XML grammars
Originally, most wikis used CamelCase to name pages and create links. CamelCase (also spelled " camel case " and sometimes known as medial capitals) is the practice of writing compound words or phrases in which the These are produced by capitalizing words in a phrase and removing the spaces between them (the word "CamelCase" is itself an example). While CamelCase makes linking very easy, it also leads to links which are written in a form that deviates from the standard spelling. CamelCase-based wikis are instantly recognizable because they have many links with names such as "TableOfContents" and "BeginnerQuestions". It is possible for a wiki to render the visible anchor for such links "pretty" by reinserting spaces, and possibly also reverting to lower case. However, this reprocessing of the link to improve the readability of the anchor is limited by the loss of capitalization information caused by CamelCase reversal. For example, "RichardWagner" should be rendered as "Richard Wagner", whereas "PopularMusic" should be rendered as "popular music". There is no easy way to determine which capital letters should remain capitalized. Capital letters or majuscules pronunciation /məˈdʒʌskyuls ˈmædʒəˌskyuls/ in the Roman alphabet A, B, C, D, As a result, many wikis now have "free linking" using brackets, and some disable CamelCase by default.
Most wikis offer at least a title search, and sometimes a full-text search. In Text retrieval, full text search refers to a technique for searching a Computer -stored Document or Database. The scalability of the search depends on whether the wiki engine uses a database. Indexed database access is necessary for high speed searches on large wikis. Alternatively, external search engines such as Google can sometimes be used on wikis with limited searching functions in order to obtain more precise results. Google search is a Web search engine owned by Google Inc, and it is the most used search engine on the Web. However, a search engine's indexes can be very out of date (days, weeks or months) for many websites.
Wiki software is a type of collaborative software that runs a wiki system, allowing web pages to be created and edited using a common web browser. Wiki software is a type of Collaborative software that runs a Wiki system Collaborative software (also referred to as groupware or workgroup support systems) is software designed to help people involved in a common task achieve their A web browser is a software application which enables a user to display and interact with text images videos music games and other information typically located on a It is usually implemented as a software engine that runs on one or more web servers. In computer science a software engine refers to the core of a Computer program. The term web server can mean one of two things A Computer program that is responsible for accepting HTTP requests from web clients which are The content is stored in a file system, and changes to the content are stored in a relational database management system. In Computing, a file system (often also written as filesystem) is a method for storing and organizing Computer files and the data they contain to make A Relational database management system (RDBMS is a Database management system (DBMS that is based on the Relational model as introduced by E Alternatively, Personal wikis run as a standalone application on a single computer. A personal wiki is a Wiki maintained primarily for personal use For example: WikidPad. WikidPad is an Open source, Python -based Wiki -like Outliner for storing thoughts ideas todo lists contacts and other notes with Wiki-like
Wikis are generally designed with the philosophy of making it easy to correct mistakes, rather than making it difficult to make them. Thus, while wikis are very open, they provide a means to verify the validity of recent additions to the body of pages. The most prominent, on almost every wiki, is the "Recent Changes" page—a specific list numbering recent edits, or a list of edits made within a given time frame.  Some wikis can filter the list to remove minor edits and edits made by automatic importing scripts ("bots"). Internet bots, also known as web robots, WWW robots or simply bots, are software applications that run automated tasks over the Internet 
From the change log, other functions are accessible in most wikis: the Revision History showing previous page versions; and the diff feature, highlighting the changes between two revisions. In Computing, diff is a File comparison utility that outputs the differences between two files or the changes made to a current file by comparing it to a Using the Revision History, an editor can view and restore a previous version of the article. A changelog is a log or record of changes made to a project such as a Website or software project usually including such records as bug fixes new features etc The diff feature can be used to decide whether or not this is necessary. A regular wiki user can view the diff of an edit listed on the "Recent Changes" page and, if it is an unacceptable edit, consult the history, restoring a previous revision; this process is more or less streamlined, depending on the wiki software used. 
In case unacceptable edits are missed on the "Recent Changes" page, some wiki engines provide additional content control. It can be monitored to ensure that a page, or a set of pages, keeps its quality. A person willing to maintain pages will be warned of modifications to the pages, allowing him or her to verify the validity of new editions quickly. 
Critics of publicly-editable wiki systems argue that these systems could be easily tampered with, while proponents argue that the community of users can catch malicious content and correct it.  Lars Aronsson, a data systems specialist, summarizes the controversy as follows:
|“||Most people, when they first learn about the wiki concept, assume that a Web site that can be edited by anybody would soon be rendered useless by destructive input. It sounds like offering free spray cans next to a grey concrete wall. The only likely outcome would be ugly graffiti and simple tagging, and many artistic efforts would not be long lived. Still, it seems to work very well. ||”|
The amount of vandalism a wiki receives depends on how open the wiki is. For instance, some wikis allow unregistered users, identified by their IP addresses, to edit content, whilst others limit this function to just registered users. An Internet Protocol ( IP) address is a numerical identification ( Logical address) that is assigned to devices participating in a Computer network Most wikis allow anonymous editing without an account, but give registered users additional editing functions; on most wikis, becoming a registered user is a short and simple process. Some wikis require an additional waiting period before gaining access to certain tools. For example, on the English Wikipedia, registered users can only rename pages if their account is at least four days old. The English Wikipedia is the English language edition of Wikipedia. Other wikis such as the Portuguese Wikipedia use an editing requirement instead of a time requirement, granting extra tools after the user has made a certain number of edits to prove their trustworthiness and usefulness as an editor. The Portuguese Wikipedia (Wikipédia em português is a Portuguese language edition of Wikipedia (written Wikipédia in Portuguese the free encyclopedia Basically, "closed up" wikis are more secure and reliable but grow slowly, whilst more open wikis grow at a steady rate but result in being an easy target for vandalism. A clear example of this would be that of Wikipedia and Citizendium. Citizendium (ˌsɪtɪˈzɛndiəm "the Citizens Compendium of everything" is an English-language Wiki -based free The first is extremely open, allowing anyone with a computer and internet access to edit it, making it grow rapidly, whilst the latter requires the users' real name and a biography of themselves, affecting the growth of the wiki but creating an almost "vandalism-free" ambiance.
Many wiki communities are private, particularly within enterprises. Generally a company is a form of Business organization. The precise definition varies They are often used as internal documentation for in-house systems and applications. Computer Software is said to have Internal Documentation if the notes on how and why various parts of code operate is included within the Source code as comments The "open to everyone", all-encompassing nature of Wikipedia is a significant factor in its growth, while there are other wikis which are highly specialized. ***************************************************************************************** * *
There also exist WikiNodes which are pages on wikis that describe related wikis. They are usually organized as neighbors and delegates. A neighbor wiki is simply a wiki that may discuss similar content or may otherwise be of interest. A delegate wiki is a wiki that agrees to have certain content delegated to that wiki.
One way of finding a wiki on a specific subject is to follow the wiki-node network from wiki to wiki; another is to take a Wiki "bus tour", for example: Wikipedia's Tour Bus Stop. Domain names containing "wiki" are growing in popularity to support specific niches. The Domain Name System (DNS is a hierarchical naming system for computers services or any resource participating in the Internet.
For those interested in creating their own wiki, there are publicly-available "wiki farms", some of which can also make private, password-protected wikis. A wiki farm is a server or an array of servers that provides hosting for multiple Wikis Wiki farms are also known as "hosted wiki service PeanutButterWiki, Socialtext, Wetpaint, and Wikia are popular examples of such services. Socialtext Incorporated is a company based in Palo Alto, California that produces Enterprise social software, including a Wiki -centric software Wetpaint is a free Wiki hosting service (or Wiki farm) founded in October 2005. Wikia (originally Wikicities) is a selective Free web hosting service for Wikis (or Wiki farm) operated by Wikia Inc For more information, see List of wiki farms. A wiki farm is a server or an array of servers that provides hosting for multiple Wikis Wiki farms are also known as "hosted wiki service Note that free wiki farms generally contain advertising on every page.
The English-language Wikipedia has the largest user base among wikis on the World Wide Web and ranks in the top 10 among all Web sites in terms of traffic. The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked Hypertext documents accessed via the Internet.  Other large wikis include the WikiWikiWeb, Memory Alpha, Wikitravel, World66 and Susning.nu, a Swedish-language knowledge base. WikiWikiWeb (also known as WardsWiki) was the first Wiki application ever written Memory Alpha (often abbreviated to MA) is a Wiki that is an encyclopedic reference for topics related to the Star Trek fictional universe Wikitravel is a Web -based project "to create a free, complete up-to-date and reliable worldwide travel guide. World66 was a Dutch company which embraced the Open content idea and tried to transform it into a profitable business Susningnu was/is a Swedish language Wiki, started in October 2001 by Lars Aronsson (also the founder of Project Runeberg) and it ran for three A knowledge base (or knowledgebase; abbreviated KB, kb or Δ is a special kind of Database for Knowledge management.
Wikis are an active topic of research. Two well-known wiki conferences are
WikiSym is a conference dedicated to wiki research and practice in general, while Wikimania is a conference dedicated to research and practice of Wikimedia Foundation projects like Wikipedia. WikiSym is a short hand for International Symposium on Wikis, or the Wiki Symposium, a conference dedicated to Wiki Research and practice Wikimania is a conference for users of the Wiki projects operated by the Wikimedia Foundation.