Whitby shown within North Yorkshire
|OS grid reference|
|Shire county||North Yorkshire|
|Region||Yorkshire and the Humber|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Postcode district||YO21, YO22|
|European Parliament||Yorkshire and the Humber|
|UK Parliament||Scarborough and Whitby|
|List of places: UK • England • Yorkshire|
Whitby is an historic town in North Yorkshire on the north-east coast of England. The River Esk is a River in North Yorkshire, England that empties into the North Sea at Whitby after a course of around through North Yorkshire is a non-metropolitan or shire county located in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England, and a ceremonial county in In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology The British national grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references commonly used in Great Britain, different from using Latitude and Longitude The districts of England are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties are one of the four levels of Subdivisions of England used for the purposes of Local government outside Greater London North Yorkshire is a non-metropolitan or shire county located in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England, and a ceremonial county in The region, also known as the government office region, is currently the highest tier of local government sub-national entity of England, with only one Yorkshire and the Humber is one of the nine government office Regions of England. Constituent country is a phrase used often by official institutions in contexts in which a country makes up a part of a larger entity or grouping England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland This list of sovereign states, alphabetically arranged gives an overview of States around the world with information on the extent of their Sovereignty. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located A post town is a required part of all postal addresses in the United Kingdom, and a basic unit of the postal delivery system UK Postal codes are known as postcodes. UK postcodes are Alphanumeric. The, also known as the York postcode area, is a group of postal districts around Bridlington, Driffield, Filey, Malton, Pickering The UK Telephone numbering plan, also known as the National Telephone Numbering Plan, is the system used for assigning Telephone numbers in the United There are a number of law enforcement agencies in the United Kingdom. North Yorkshire Police is the Home Office police force covering the Non-metropolitan county of North Yorkshire and the Unitary authority The fire service in the United Kingdom operates under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and North Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Service is the Statutory fire and rescue service covering the seven districts of administrative county of North The Yorkshire Ambulance Service is the NHS Ambulance service covering most of Yorkshire in England. Yorkshire and the Humber is a Constituency of the European Parliament. This is a list of the 646 constituencies currently represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, as at the 2005 general election Scarborough and Whitby is a Constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. A Gazetteer of place names in the United Kingdom showing each place's County, Unitary authority or council area and its geographical coordinates List of places --> List of cities in the United Kingdom List of towns in England Lists of places This is a list of cities, Towns and Villages in the historic English county of Yorkshire. A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. North Yorkshire is a non-metropolitan or shire county located in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England, and a ceremonial county in England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Nowadays it is a fishing port and tourist destination. ||-||-|-||-||-||-||-||-||-|} A port is a facility for receiving Ships and transferring cargo It is situated 47 miles from York, at the mouth of the River Esk and spreads up the steep sides of the narrow valley carved out by the river's course. York ( is an historic Walled city sited at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England. The River Esk is a River in North Yorkshire, England that empties into the North Sea at Whitby after a course of around through At this point the coast curves round, so the town faces more north than east.
Many interesting fossils have been found in the Whitby area including entire skeletons of pterodactyls. For other meanings see Pterodactyl (disambiguation. Pterosaurs (ˈtɛrəsɔr from the Greek πτερόσαυρος pterosauros Whitby is known for its well preserved ammonite fossils, which can sometimes be found on the seashore, or purchased from any number of stalls or shops in the town. Ammonites are an extinct group of marine animals of the subclass Ammonoidea in the class Cephalopoda phylum FOSSIL is a standard protocol for allowing serial communication for Telecommunications programs under the DOS Operating system.
Faced in 655 with the mighty army of Penda, the pagan king of Mercia, which greatly outnumbered his own, Oswiu asked God to grant him victory, promising to consecrate his infant daughter Ælflæda to the service of God and to give land to found monasteries. Penda (died November 15 655 was a 7th-century King of Mercia, a kingdom in what is today the English Midlands. Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning "country dweller rustic" is a word used to refer to various religions and religious beliefs from across the world Mercia (ˈmɝsiə was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy. Penda and most of his nobles were killed in the battle. Oswiu honoured his pledges by granting 12 small estates of 10 hides each in various places for monasteries to be built. One of them was at Streanæshealh, later known as Whitby Abbey. Whitby Abbey is a ruined Benedictine Abbey sited on Whitby 's East Cliff in North Yorkshire on the north-east coast of England This was the house that Ælflæda herself entered as a pupil and of which she later became abbess. 
The first abbess was Hilda, a remarkable figure, later venerated as a saint. Hilda of Whitby (c 614&ndash680 is a Christian Saint. The source of information about Hilda is The Ecclesiastical History of the English Under her influence, Whitby became a centre of learning, and the poetry of Cædmon is amongst the earliest examples of Anglo-Saxon literature. Cædmon (ˈkædmɒn is the earliest English poet whose name is known Anglo-Saxon literature (or Old English literature) encompasses Literature written in Anglo-Saxon (Old English during the 600-year Anglo-Saxon It was the leading royal nunnery of Deira, and the burial-place of its royal family. Deira was a kingdom in Northern England during the 6th century AD The Synod of Whitby, in 664, established the Roman date of Easter in Northumbria at the expense of the Celtic one, an important and influential decision. The Synod of Whitby was a seventh century Northumbrian Synod where King Oswiu of Northumbria ruled that his kingdom would calculate Easter and Easter ( Greek: Πάσχα Pascha or Pasxa) is the most important religious feast in the Christian Liturgical year. Celtic Christianity, or Insular Christianity (sometimes called the Celtic Church or the British Church) broadly refers to the Early Medieval 
In 867, Danish Vikings landed two miles west of Whitby at Raven's Hill, and moved on to attack the settlement and to destroy the monastery. Events By Place Byzantine Empire September — Basil I becomes sole ruler of the Byzantine Empire. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe A Viking is one of the Norse ( Scandinavian Explorers Warriors Merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas It was only after the Norman Conquest of 1066 that William de Percy ordered that the monastery be refounded (1078), dedicating it to St Peter and St Hilda. Later it became Presteby (meaning the habitation of Priests in Old Norse) then Hwytby; next Whiteby, (meaning the "white settlement" in Old Norse, probably from the colour of the houses) and finally Whitby. Old Norse is the North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during the Viking Age Old Norse is the North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during the Viking Age
According to Langdale's Yorkshire Dictionary (1822) and Baine's Directory of the County of York (1823), even up to the reign of Elizabeth I Whitby was little more than a small fishing port. In 1540, it had consisted of only around twenty to thirty houses and had a population of about two hundred inhabitants. In that year Henry VIII dissolved the monasteries, including Whitby Abbey. Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of
At the end of the 16th century, Thomas Chaloner of York travelled to Italy and visited the alum works in the Papal States. Sir Thomas Chaloner (1559 - 1615 was an English naturalist. He was the son of Statesman and Poet Sir Thomas Chaloner. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest For the purely-slang term alum meaning "graduate" see Alumnus. The Papal States, State(s of the Church or Pontifical States (in Italian Stato Ecclesiastico, Stato della Chiesa, Stati della Chiesa He recognised that the rock from which the alum was made was identical to that abundant in several areas in and around his Guisborough estate in North Yorkshire. Guisborough ( IPA /ˈgizbrə/ is a Market town within the borough of Redcar and Cleveland and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire Alum was a very important product at that time, used internationally, in curing leather, fixing dyed cloths and for medicinal uses. Leather is a material created through the Tanning of hides and Skins of Animals primarily Cattlehide The Tanning process Up to this period the Vatican had maintained a virtual monopoly on the production and sale of the product. Vatican City, officially the State of the Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano is a Landlocked sovereign City-state whose territory
Chaloner secretly brought some of the Pope's workmen to England, and over the following years developed a thriving alum industry in Yorkshire. (It is said that this development significantly lowered the international price of alum, impacting the profitability of a traditional source of revenue for the Vatican, and that Chaloner was excommunicated). Excommunication is a religious Censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community
Over the centuries, the town spread both inland and onto the West Cliff, whilst the East Cliff (sometimes called the Haggerlythe) remains dominated by the ruins of Whitby Abbey and St Mary's Church. Whitby Abbey is a ruined Benedictine Abbey sited on Whitby 's East Cliff in North Yorkshire on the north-east coast of England It is quite a distance to reach the East Cliff by road, the alternative being to climb the 199 steps, which are famed enough that many who make the climb can be heard counting on the way up. 2005 saw the completion of the first major restoration of the 199 steps since the 19th century, when they were changed from wooden "stairs" to stone steps. In an attempt to raise funds, each step was sponsored for £1,000 by locals and visitors alike. The culmination of this project was a service at St Mary's Church on Sunday 1 October 2005. Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. To commemorate the occasion, each step features a page dedicated to its sponsor in a book that is currently available, on request, at the church.
Among the resulting alum producing centres, several were established close to Whitby, including that near Sandsend (now Sandsend Ness), just three miles from the town, in 1615. Sandsend Ness is an old Alum quarrying site close to Whitby in North Yorkshire, England. With this, two new, rapidly growing activities were promoted in the port of Whitby, the transport of the alum itself and that of the coal necessary for its production.
With this, the town's wealth increased and Whitby began to grow, extending its activities to include shipbuilding, using the local oak as raw material. See also Shipbuilding (song. Shipbuilding is the construction of Ships It normally takes place in a specialized facility known as a The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of about 400 species of Trees and Shrubs in the Genus Quercus (from Latin Taxes on imports entering via the port raised the necessary finance to improve and extend the town's twin piers, thereby improving the harbour and permitting further increases in trade.
In 1753 the first whaling ship set sail from Whitby to Greenland. Whaling is the hunting of Whales and dates back to at least 6000 BC Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat meaning "Land of the Greenlanders" Grønland is a self-governing Danish Province located between the This initiated a new phase in the town's development, and by 1795 Whitby had become a major centre for the whaling industry. Whaling is the hunting of Whales and dates back to at least 6000 BC
Whitby was the site of the Rohilla disaster of 30 October 1914, when the hospital ship Rohilla was sunk (either by running aground, or hitting a mine; accounts differ) within sight of shore just off Whitby. Rohilla was a Steamship of the British India Steam Navigation Company which ran aground in 1914 while serving as HMHS Rohilla (His Events 637 - Antioch surrenders to the Muslim forces under Rashidun Caliphate after the Battle of Iron bridge. Year 1914 ( MCMXIV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Eighty-five people lost their lives in the disaster; most of them are buried in the churchyard at Whitby. A churchyard is a patch of land adjoining or surrounding a church which is usually owned by the relevant church or local Parish itself
Also in 1914, Whitby was shelled by German battlecruisers Von der Tann and Derfflinger, aiming for the signal post on the end of the headland. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Battlecruisers were large Warships in the first half of the 20th century that were first introduced by the British Royal Navy. Development The preceding German large cruiser design ''Blücher'', was an incremental increase over previous armoured cruisers Construction by Blohm und Voss at their yard in Hamburg, Derfflinger's keel was laid in January 1912 Scarborough and Hartlepool were also attacked. Scarborough is a town on the North Sea coast of North Yorkshire, England. Hartlepool ('hɑːtlɪpuːl is a North Sea port in North East England Whitby Abbey sustained considerable damage during the attack.
The modern Port of Whitby, strategically placed for shipping to Europe, with very good proximity to the Scandinavian countries, is capable of handling a wide range of cargoes, including grain, steel products, timber and potash. Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well Potash (or carbonate of potash) is an impure form of Potassium carbonate ( K 2 CO3) Vessels of up to 3,000 tonnes DWT are received on a routine basis at the Wharf, which has the capability of loading/unloading two ships simultaneously. 5,000 sq metres of dock space is currently (2004) allocated for storage of all-weather cargo and a further 1,600 sq metres of warehouse space is reserved for weather-critical goods storage.
The town is served by Whitby railway station which forms the terminus of the Esk Valley Line from Middlesbrough, formerly the northern terminus of the Whitby, Pickering and York line. Whitby railway station serves the town of Whitby in North Yorkshire, England. The Esk Valley Line is the railway line from Middlesbrough to Whitby in North Yorkshire, England. Middlesbrough ( IPA ( Received pronunciation) is a Town in the Tees Valley sub-region of the North East of England Pickering is an ancient Market town and Civil parish in the Ryedale district of the County of North Yorkshire, England, York ( is an historic Walled city sited at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England. Whitby is also served by the Yorkshire Coastliner bus line, which can take travellers to and from Leeds, Tadcaster, York, Scarborough, Bridlington, Pickering, Malton and many more towns in Yorkshire. Yorkshire Coastliner is a Bus company based in Malton in North Yorkshire, England. Leeds ( is located on the River Aire in West Yorkshire, England Tadcaster is a Market town in North Yorkshire, England, lying on the Great North Road approximately 15 miles east of Leeds and 10 York ( is an historic Walled city sited at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England. Scarborough is a town on the North Sea coast of North Yorkshire, England. Bridlington is a town and Civil parish in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. Pickering is an ancient Market town and Civil parish in the Ryedale district of the County of North Yorkshire, England, Malton is a Market town in North Yorkshire, England. The town is the location of the offices of Ryedale District Council and has a population Yorkshire is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in Great Britain.
The town was awarded "Best Seaside Resort 2006", by Which? Holiday magazine. Which? is a product-testing and campaigning charity with a Magazine and Website run by Which? Ltd (formerly known as the Consumers'
The town's college, Whitby Community College has recently expanded with a brand new design and technology, however it lost its speciality status due to being placed under special measures, this has now been rescinded as of March 2007. A community college is a type of Educational institution. The term has different meanings in different countries
Whitby has a fish market on the quayside, which is not set to any particular day of the week, instead taking place when the need arises. For the Sydney railway station see Fish Market MLR station Sydney.  This ready supply of fresh fish has resulted in an abundance of "chippies" in the town, including the Magpie Cafe which Rick Stein has described as the best fish and chip shop in Britain. Fish and chips (sometimes written " fish ’n’ chips " is a popular Take-away food originating from the United Kingdom. Christopher Richard (Rick Stein OBE (born January 4 1947) is an English Chef, restaurateur 
In a campaign led by Whitby's Friends of the Earth group, Whitby is looking to make the exciting and forward-thinking move of becoming one of a growing number of UK towns to be plastic bag-free, instead encouraging the use of re-useable shopping bags made of cotton or other materials. This move is hoped to help preserve the beautiful setting that has made the town so attractive to tourists.
There are several schools within Whitby:
West Cliff has its own landmarks — a statue of Captain James Cook, who sailed from the town, and a whalebone arch, commemorating the once large whaling industry. Captain James Cook FRS RN ( – 14 February 1779) was an English Explorer, Navigator and Baleen or whalebone is the means by which Baleen whales feed These whales do not have Teeth, but instead have rows of baleen plates in There is also a new science museum — Whitby Wizard. A science museum or a science centre is a Museum devoted primarily to Science. Whitby Wizard is a Science museum in Whitby, North Yorkshire, England. The whalebone arch is the second to stand on this spot; the original (a larger version) is now preserved in Whitby Archives Heritage Centre. By the inner harbour, next to the tourist information office, there is also a statue commemorating William Scoresby, inventor of the crow's nest. William Scoresby ( 5 october 1789 - 21 March 1857) English Arctic explorer scientist and divine was born near Whitby A crow's nest is a structure in the upper part of the Mainmast of a ship that is used as a lookout point
Find more whitby West Cliff Attractions at Whitby Online Business Directory
See Jet (lignite)
The black mineraloid, jet is found in the cliffs around Whitby, and has been used since the Bronze Age to make beads and other jewellery. Jet is a geological material and is considered to be a minor gemstone A mineraloid is a Mineral -like substance that does not demonstrate Crystallinity. Jet is a geological material and is considered to be a minor gemstone The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for Jewellery (also spelled jewelry, see spelling differences) is a personal Ornament, such as a necklace ring or bracelet made from Gemstones The Romans mined jet extensively, and Whitby jet was at the peak of its popularity in the mid-19th century, especially after it was favoured as mourning jewellery by Queen Victoria. Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901 was from 20 June 1837 the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
Whitby Museum holds a large collection on the archaeological and social history of jet. Whitby Museum is a private museum in Whitby, North Yorkshire, England, run by Whitby Literary and Philosophical Society a learned society and registered It also displays a “hand of glory”. The Hand of Glory is the dried and pickled hand of a man who has been hanged, often specified as being the left (Latin sinister hand or else if the man were hanged
One unusual feature of Whitby is the Dracula Museum - a large portion of Bram Stoker's famous novel was set in Whitby, describing Dracula's arrival in Britain on a ship washed ashore in the harbour, and how Lucy watched from the churchyard as the sun set over the nearby headland of Kettleness, but did not know how many steps she climbed to get there. Dracula is an 1897 novel by Irish author Bram Stoker, featuring as its primary Antagonist the vampire Count Dracula. Abraham "Bram" Stoker (8 November 1847 – 20 April 1912 was an Irish writer of novels and short stories who is best known today for his 1897 horror Stoker's story incorporated various pieces of Whitby folklore, including the beaching of the Russian ship Dmitri, which became the basis of Demeter in the book. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending
The novel Caedmon's Song by Peter Robinson plays in Whitby. Cædmon 's Song is a novel written by Peter Robinson in 1990. Dr Peter Robinson (born 1950) is an English -born Canadian -based crime writer Whitby also features significantly in the novel Possession, by A. S. Byatt. Dame Antonia Susan Duffy DBE (born Antonia Susan Drabble 24 August 1936 Sheffield, England) is a Postmodern Novelist
Michel Faber's novel, The Hundred and Ninety Nine Steps is set in Whitby. Michel Faber (born 13 April 1960) is a Dutch writer of fiction
Whitby appears prominently in The Resurrectionists, by Kim Wilkins. Kim Wilkins (1970-) is an Australian writer of Popular fiction based in Brisbane, Queensland.
Robin Jarvis has written The Whitby Witches, a trilogy of children's fantasy novels set in Whitby, that borrow from bits of local folklore. Robin Jarvis (born May 8, 1963) is a British children's novelist who writes Fantasy novels often about Anthropomorphic rodents and
Whitby Is home to the former Green Howard afiliated Cadet Detachment of A company Yorkshire North And West Army Cadet Force who due to the merge of the Green Howards now parade under The Yorkshire Regiment (Yorkshire Warriors,Devils Regiment)The Detachment is located at Caedmon School, Airy Hilland tkes part in a wide range of ACF activities,imcluding Shooting at Queen Elizabeth Barracks York (or other camps depending on circumstances) Expeditionsand much much more to find out more visit the New Yorkshire N & W cadet force website be awre the information on location is incorrect due to the movementof the detachment between disbanding and reformingfor more info either visit the detachment or visit www. History During the late 1850’s local Militia units (Predecessors of the Territorial Army (TA were organised into a nationwide Volunteer Reserve Force Shooting is the act or process of firing Rifles Shotguns or other projectile Weapons such as bows or Crossbows Even the firing of
Whitby is also home to 740 (Whitby) Squadron, Air Training Corps. A squadron is a small unit or formation of Cavalry, armour, Aircraft (including Balloons) or Warships Army The Air Training Corps ( ATC) is a cadet organisation based in the United Kingdom. The squadron is located at Caedmon School, Airy Hill, and takes part in a wide-range of ATC activities, including flying at RAF Church Fenton, gliding at RAF Topcliffe, and shooting at Whitby Rifle Club. Church Fenton is a village in North Yorkshire, England. The village is served by a railway station Church Fenton railway station. Gliding is a Recreational activity and competitive Sport in which pilots fly un-powered aircraft known as Gliders or sailplanes Shooting is the act or process of firing Rifles Shotguns or other projectile Weapons such as bows or Crossbows Even the firing of The squadron is always recruiting new young people between the ages of 13 and 17 and parades on Mondays and Thursdays between 6:45pm and 9pm.
Whitby Regatta occurs once a year for three days in August. Originally a local rowing competition, over the years it has expanded to include events such as a large fair stretching down the pier, police demonstrations, fireworks and military displays - including the spectacle of the Red Arrows, providing the weather is good. The Red Arrows, officially known as the Royal Air Force Aerobatic Team, is the Aerobatics display team of the Royal Air Force, based at RAF Scampton
Rowing still forms a major part of the weekend and races span out over three days between the three old rival clubs - Whitby Friendship ARC, Whitby Fishermen's ARC and Scarborough ARC. The races increase in distance as the competing crews grow in age and experience, with the grand finale of the men's senior race on the Monday night, which is rowed from Sandsend to Whitby over a distance of over 4,000 metres. The 2007 senior race was won by Whitby Friendship ARC's senior crew stroked by Adam Young and coxed by Jamie Wassall. The men's junior race was also won by the Friendship with Shaun Hopper, Marc Blackburn, Andrew Grady and James Collinson in the stroke seat. This gave Friendship the 2007 Wilson Cup after being defeated by Scarborough the previous year.
Each year, on the eve of Ascension Day, the Penny Hedge ceremony is performed. The general and most common understanding of the Christian Doctrine of Ascension holds that Jesus bodily ascended to Heaven in the presence The Penny Hedge is an ancient tradition in the English coastal town of Whitby in Yorkshire.
For at least the last two decades the town has hosted the Whitby Folk Week, which currently includes around 600 different events in various venues.
Whitby Now has been a massive part of the live music scene in Whitby over the last decade or so. Originally thought up by local legend Mark Liddell, the event grows from strength to strength each year. 2007 saw over 15 local bands perform to a sell-out crowd. Bands such as YabbaDabbaDoo, The Merkins and Wasting Charlie really showed what a thriving music scene such a small town as Whitby has.
The town has played host to Musicport, an annual world music festival, since the late 1990s. From 2008, Musicport will move to Bridlington. Bridlington is a town and Civil parish in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England.
Whitby Abbey and houses below
Whitby Abbey from opposite headland
Whitby Abbey showing whalebone arch
Boats at Whitby
Boats at Whitby
Whitby tour boat
Statue of Captain James Cook
Rear of The Shambles at Whitby
Whitby Beach from the pier