Whisky (Scottish Gaelic: uisge-beatha), or whiskey (Irish: uisce beatha or fuisce), refers to a broad category of alcoholic beverages that are distilled from fermented grain mash and aged in wooden casks (generally oak). Scottish Gaelic ( Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. Irish (ga ''Gaeilge'' is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish. Distillation is a method of separating Mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture Fermentation in Food processing typically refers to the conversion of Sugar to Alcohol using Yeast under Anaerobic conditions In Brewing and Distilling, mashing is the process of combining a mix of milled Grain (typically Malted Barley with supplementary A barrel or cask is a hollow cylindrical container traditionally made of Wood Staves and bound with Iron Hoops The The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of about 400 species of Trees and Shrubs in the Genus Quercus (from Latin
Different grains are used for different varieties, including: barley, malted barley, rye, malted rye, wheat, and maize (corn). Barley ( Hordeum vulgare) is an annual Cereal Grain, which serves as a major animal Feed crop, with smaller amounts used for Malting is a process applied to Cereal grains in which the grains are made to Germinate by soaking in water and are then quickly halted from germinating further Rye ( Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain and forage crop Wheat ( Triticum spp is a worldwide cultivated grass from the Levant area of the Middle East. Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica Whisky derives from the Gaelic word for "water" (uisce or uisge), and is called in full uisge-beatha (in Scotland) or uisce beatha (Ireland), meaning "Water of Life". The Goidelic languages, (also sometimes called particularly in colloquial situations the Gaelic languages or collectively Gaelic) historically formed a Dialect Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. For the Canadian Folk rock band see Uisce Beatha (band. Uisce beatha (pronounced ˈɪɕkəˌbˠahə is the name given Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world It is related to the Latin aqua vitae, also meaning "water of life".  It is always Scotch whisky, and Irish whiskey.
The first written record of whisky comes from 1405 in Ireland, where it was distilled by monks.  It is also mentioned in Scotland in 1496.  However it is thought that whisky had already been around for at least several hundred years prior. When or where whisky was first distilled is unknown and the local, undocumented beverage production during the period makes identification of the drink's origin difficult. A drink, or beverage, is a Liquid specifically prepared for Human consumption Additionally, it is possible that different groups discovered processes of distillation completely independently of one another.
Some scholars believe distilled spirits were first produced between the 8th century AD and 9th century AD in the Middle East with the art of distillation being brought to Ireland and Britain by Christian monks. The 8th century is the period from 701 to 800 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. The 9th century is the period from 801 to 900 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth MONK is a Monte Carlo software package for simulating nuclear processes particularly for the purpose of determining the neutron multiplication factor or k-effective It is a popular legend that St. Patrick introduced distillation to Ireland and Scotland, but he lived too early for that to be possible. Saint Patrick (Patricius Irish: Naomh Pádraig) was a Roman Britain -born Christian Missionary and is the Patron saint It is, however, possible that the distillation process was discovered in Ireland and possibly Britain (either independently or in precursor to Arabian distillation) by farmers as a way of making use of excess grain after harvest. The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية šibh al-jazīra al-ʻarabīya or جزيرة العرب jazīrat al-ʻarab)
Whisky or whisky-like products are produced in most grain-growing areas. They differ in base product, alcoholic content, and quality.
Malts and Grains are combined in various ways
Whiskies do not mature in the bottle, only in the cask, so the "age" of a whisky is the time between distillation and bottling. A barrel or cask is a hollow cylindrical container traditionally made of Wood Staves and bound with Iron Hoops The This reflects how much the cask has interacted with the whisky, changing its chemical makeup and taste. Whiskies which have been in bottle for many years may have a rarity value, but are not "older" and will not necessarily be "better" than a more recently made whisky matured in wood for a similar time. Most whiskies are sold at or near an alcoholic strength of 40% abv.
Scotch whiskies are generally distilled twice, though some are distilled a third time. Scotch whisky is Whisky made in Scotland. In Britain the term whisky is usually taken to mean Scotch unless otherwise specified International laws require anything bearing the label "Scotch" to be distilled in Scotland and matured for a minimum of three years in oak casks, among other, more specific criteria. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. If Scotch whisky is from more than one cask, and if it includes an age statement on the bottle, it must reflect the age of the youngest whisky in the blend. Many cask-strength single malts omit the age as they use younger elements in minute amounts for flavouring and mellowing. The basic types of Scotch are Malt and Grain, which are combined to create blends. While the market is dominated by blends, the most highly prized of Scotch whiskies are the single malts.
Most Irish whiskeys are distilled three times. Irish whiskey (Fuisce or Uisce beatha) is a Whiskey made in Ireland. Though traditionally distilled using the pot still method, column stills are used for the grain whiskey used in Irish blends. By law, Irish whiskey must be aged in wooden casks for a period of not less than three years, although in practice it is usually three or four times that period.  Unpeated malt is almost always used, the main exception being Connemara Peated Malt whiskey. Peat is an accumulation of partially Decayed Vegetation matter.
There are several types of whiskey common to Ireland: Single Malt, Single Grain, Blended Whiskey and uniquely to Ireland, pure pot still whiskey. Single malt whisky is a Whisky which is distilled at a single distillery, and which is made completely from a single type of malted A blended whisky (or whiskey) is the product of blending different types of whiskies. Pure pot still whiskey is a type of whiskey which contains only "pot still whiskey" The designation "pure pot still" as used in Ireland generally refers to whiskey made of 100% barley, mixed malted and unmalted, and distilled in a pot still made of copper. The "green" unmalted barley gives the traditional pure pot still whiskey a spicy, uniquely Irish quality. Like single malt, pure pot still is sold as such or blended with grain whiskey. Usually no real distinction is made between whether a blended whiskey was made from single malt or pure pot still.
The model for Japanese whiskies is the single malt Scotch, although there are examples of Japanese blended whiskies. Whisky production in Japan began around 1870 but the first commercial production was in 1924 when the country's first Distillery — Yamazaki —opened The base is a mash of malted barley, dried in kilns fired with a little peat (although considerably less than is the case in Scotland), and distilled using the pot still method. For some time it was believed by many that whisky made in the Scotch style, but not produced in Scotland, could not possibly measure up to the standards of the traditional Scotch distilleries. Because of this, until fairly recently, the market for Japanese whiskies was almost entirely domestic.
However, in recent years, a number of blind tastings have been organized by Whisky Magazine, which have included Japanese single malts in the lineup, along with malts from distilleries considered to be among the best in Scotland. On more than one occasion, the results have had Japanese single malts (particularly those of Yoichi and Yamazaki) scoring higher than their Scotch counterparts. 
Canadian whiskies are usually lighter and smoother than other whiskey styles. Canadian whisky is Whisky that by law must be mashed distilled and aged at least three years in Canada in a wooden barrel of not greater than 700 L capacity Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Another common characteristic of many Canadian whiskies is their use of rye that has been malted, which provides a fuller flavour and smoothness. By Canadian law,  Canadian whiskies must be produced in Canada, be distilled from a fermented mash of cereal grain, be aged in small wooden barrels for no less than 3 years, and possess the aroma, taste and character generally attributed to Canadian whisky. The terms "Canadian Whisky", "Canadian Rye Whisky" and "Rye Whisky" are legally indistinguishable in Canada and do not denote any particular proportion of rye or other grain used in production.
American whiskeys must be distilled from a fermented mash of grain and possess the taste, aroma, and characteristics generally attributed to whisky. The most common of the "named types" listed in the federal regulationsare:
The "named types" of American whiskey must be distilled to not more than 80 percent alcohol by volume. In Chemistry, an alcohol is any Organic compound in which a Hydroxyl group ( - O[[hydrogen H]]) is bound to a Carbon "Named types" must then be aged in charred new oak containers, excepting corn whiskey. Corn whiskey does not have to be aged but, if it is aged, it must be in new un-charred oak barrels or used barrels. The aging for corn whiskey usually is brief, e. g. six months.
If the aging for a "named type" reaches 2 years or beyond, the whiskey is then additionally designated "straight" e. g. "straight rye whiskey". "Straight whiskey" (without naming a grain) is a whiskey which has been aged in charred new oak containers for 2 years or more and distilled at not more than 80 percent alcohol by volume but is derived from less than 51% of any one grain. In Chemistry, an alcohol is any Organic compound in which a Hydroxyl group ( - O[[hydrogen H]]) is bound to a Carbon
American blended whiskeys combine straight whiskey with un-aged whiskey, grain neutral spirits, flavorings and colorings.
Not defined by the law but important in the marketplace is Tennessee whiskey, of which Jack Daniel's is the leading example. Tennessee whiskey is a Bourbon whiskey that undergoes a filtering stage called the Lincoln County Process, in which the whiskey is filtered through a thick layer of Jack Daniel's is a brand of Tennessee whiskey which is among the world's best-selling liquors and is known for its square bottles and black label During distillation, it is identical to bourbon in almost every important respect. The most recognizable difference is that Tennessee whiskey is filtered through sugar maple charcoal, giving it a unique flavor and aroma. Tennessee ( is a state located in the Southern United States. Acer saccharum ( Sugar Maple) is a species of Maple native to the hardwood forests of northeastern North America, from Nova Scotia Charcoal' is the blackish residue consisting of impure Carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from Animal and Vegetation
In 2000, Penderyn Distillery started production of the Penderyn single malt Welsh whisky in Wales. Welsh whisky (Wisgi Cymreig alternative forms wysgi, chwisgi) is a distilled spirit made in Wales. Penderyn is a village near Hirwaun, in Rhondda Cynon Taff, Wales. The first bottles went on sale on 1 March 2004, Saint David's Day. Events 86 BC - Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army enters in Athens, removing the Tyrant "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Saint David's Day ( Welsh: Dydd Gŵyl Dewi) is the feast day of Saint David, the Patron saint of Wales, and falls on It is now sold throughout the world.
Indian whisky is an alcoholic beverage that is labelled as "whisky" in India. Indian whisky is a distilled Alcoholic beverage that is labelled as " Whisky " in India. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Much Indian whisky is distilled from fermented molasses, and as such would be considered a sort of rum outside of the Indian subcontinent. Molasses or Treacle is a thick Syrup by-product from the processing of the Sugarcane or Sugar beet into Sugar. Rum is a Distilled beverage made from Sugarcane by-products such as Molasses and sugarcane Juice by a process of fermentation This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia For geopolitical treatments see South Asia.  90% of the "whisky" consumed in India is molasses based, although India has begun to distill whisky from malt and other grains. 
In both the Bretagne/France (Armorik) and in Germany (Slyrs), whiskies are distilled using techniques similar to those in Scotland. Manx Spirit from the Isle of Man is, like some Virginia whiskeys in the USA, actually distilled elsewhere and re-distilled in the country of its nominal "origin". In England, a new distillery (St. George's Distillery) became operational in late 2006; the product will come onto the market in due time, based on ageing and marketing considerations.
Recently at least two distilleries in the traditionally brandy-producing Caucasus region announced their plans to enter the Russian domestic market with whiskies. Brandy (from brandywine, derived from Dutch brandewijn — “burnt wine” is a spirit produced by distilling Wine The Caucasus ( also referred to as North Caucasus) is a geopolitical region located between Europe Asia & Middle East The Stavropol-based Praskoveysky distillery bases its product on Irish technology, while in Kizlyar, Dagestan's "Russian Whisky" announced a Scotch-inspired drink in single malt, blended and wheat varieties. Stavropol (Ста́врополь is a city located in south-western Russia and is the administrative center of Stavropol Krai. Kizlyar (Кизля́р is a town in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, located in the delta of the Terek River 221 km northwest of The Republic of Dagestan dæɡɪˈstɑːn (IntEng ˈdeɪɡəstæn (AmEng (Респу́блика Дагеста́н Дагъистанлъул ДжумхIурият Daɣistanłul 
The word "whiskey" is believed to have been coined by soldiers of King Henry II who invaded Ireland in the 12th century as they struggled to pronounce the native Irish words uisce beatha (IPA: [ɪʃkʲə bʲahə]) meaning "water of life". The history of Irish begins with the arrival of speakers of Celtic languages in Ireland. Over time, the pronunciation changed from "Whishkeyba" to "Whisky". The name itself is a gaelic translation of the Latin phrase aqua vitae, meaning "Water of Life". Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Aqua vitae ( Latin, “water of life” is an archaic name for a concentrated Aqueous solution of Ethanol. 
At one time, all whisky was spelled without the extra 'e', as "whisky". In around 1870, the reputation of Scottish whisky was very poor as Scottish distilleries flooded the market with cheaper spirits produced using the Coffey still. The Irish and American distilleries adopted the spelling "whiskey", with the extra "e", to distinguish their higher quality product.  Today, the spelling whisky (plural whiskies) is generally used for whiskies distilled in Scotland, Wales, Canada, and Japan, while whiskey is used for the spirits distilled in Ireland and America. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Even though a 1968 directive of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms specifies "whisky" as the official U. Year 1968 ( MCMLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco Firearms and Explosives (abbreviated ATF) is a specialized federal law enforcement and regulatory organization within the United S. spelling, it allows labeling as "whiskey" in deference to tradition and most U. S. producers still use the historical spelling. Exceptions such as Early Times, Maker's Mark, and George Dickel are usually indicative of a Scottish heritage. Early Times is a brand of "Kentucky Whisky" which was first distilled in 1860 Maker’s Mark is a handcrafted small-batch Bourbon whiskey distilled in Loretto Kentucky. George Dickel is the name of a brand of Tennessee whiskey manufactured in Cascade Hollow Tennessee, near Tullahoma.
In the late Victorian era, Irish whiskey was the world's whisk(e)y of choice. Culture The Victorian fascination with novelty resulted in a deep interest in the relationship between modernity and cultural continuities Of the Irish whiskeys, Dublin whiskeys were regarded as the grands crus of whiskeys. Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. A grand cru ( French for great growth) is a Regional wine classification that designates a Vineyard known for its favorable reputation in producing In order to differentiate Dublin whiskey from other whiskies, the Dublin distilleries adopted the spelling "whiskey". The other Irish distilleries eventually followed suit. The last Irish "whisky" was Paddy, which adopted the "e" in 1966. Paddy Whiskey is a brand of 80- proof blended Irish whiskey produced in Cork, Ireland by the company Irish Distillers. 
In some countries, the abbreviated term "Scotch" is often used for "Scotch whisky". Scotch whisky is Whisky made in Scotland. In Britain the term whisky is usually taken to mean Scotch unless otherwise specified
In many Latin-American countries, "whiskey" (wee-skee) is used as a photographer's cue to smile, supplanting English "cheese".
Whiskies and other distilled beverages such as cognac and rum are complex beverages containing a vast range of flavouring compounds, of which some 200 to 300 can be easily detected by chemical analysis. Cognac (ˈkɒnjæk named after the town of Cognac in France, is a Brandy produced in the region surrounding the town Rum is a Distilled beverage made from Sugarcane by-products such as Molasses and sugarcane Juice by a process of fermentation The flavouring chemicals include "carbonyl compounds, alcohols, carboxylic acids and their esters, nitrogen- and sulphur-containing compounds, tannins and other polyphenolic compounds, terpenes, and oxygen-containing heterocyclic compounds" and esters of fatty acids. In Organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a Functional group composed of a Carbon Atom double-bonded to an Oxygen Carboxylic acids are Organic acids characterized by the presence of a Carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=OOH usually written -COOH or -CO2H Esters are a class of Chemical compounds and Functional groups Esters consist of an inorganic or organic Acid in which at least Tannins are Astringent, bitter plant Polyphenols that either bind and Precipitate or shrink Proteins The astringency from the tannins is what Phenol, is a toxic colourless Crystalline Solid with a sweet tarry odor commonly referred to as a "hospital smell" Terpenes are a large and varied class of Hydrocarbons, produced primarily by a wide variety of plants particularly Conifers though also by some insects such In Chemistry, especially Biochemistry, a fatty acid is a Carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched Aliphatic tail ( chain) which  The nitrogen compounds include pyridines, picolines and pyrazines. Pyridine is a Chemical compound with the formula C5[[Hydrogen H5]] N. Pyrazine is a Heterocyclic Aromatic Organic compound. Pyrazine is a symmetrical molecule with Point group D2h 
The flavouring of whisky is partially determined by the presence of congeners and fusel oils. Fusel alcohols, also sometimes called fusel oils, or potato oil in Europe are higher order (more than two carbons Alcohols formed by fermentation Fusel oils are higher alcohols than ethanol, are mildly toxic, and have a strong, disagreeable smell and taste. Toxicity is the degree to which a substance is able to damage an exposed organism An excess of fusel oils in whisky is considered a defect. A variety of methods are employed in the distillation process to remove unwanted fusel oils. Traditionally, American distillers focussed on secondary filtration using charcoal, gravel, sand, or linen to subtract undesired distillates. Charcoal' is the blackish residue consisting of impure Carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from Animal and Vegetation Gravel is rock that is of a specific Particle size range In Geology, gravel is any loose rock that is larger than two millimeters (2mm Sand is a naturally occurring Granular material composed of finely divided rock and Mineral particles Linen is a Textile made from the Fibers of the Flax plant Linum usitatissimum. Canadian distillers have traditionally employed column stills which can be controlled to produce an almost pure (and less flavourful) ethanol known as neutral grain spirit or grain neutral spirit (GNS). A column still, also called a continuous still, patent still or Coffey still, is a variety of Still that consists of two Columns invented Neutral grain spirit (aka grain neutral spirit ( GNS) pure grain alcohol, or corn liquor) is a clear colorless flammable liquid that  Flavour is restored by blending the neutral grain spirits with flavouring whiskies. 
Acetals are rapidly formed in distillates and a great many are found in distilled beverages, the most prominent being acetaldehyde diethyl acetal (1,1-diethoxyethane). An acetal is a Molecule with two single bonded oxygens attached to the same carbon atom Among whiskies the highest levels are associated with malt whisky.  This acetal is a principal flavour compound in sherry, and contributes fruitiness to the aroma. Sherry is a Fortified wine, made in and around the town of Jerez, Spain. 
The diketone diacetyl (2,3-Butanedione) has a buttery aroma and is present in almost all distilled beverages. Diacetyl ( IUPAC Systematic name: butanedione or 23-butanedione) is a natural byproduct of fermentation. Whiskies and cognacs typically contain more than vodkas, but significantly less than rums or brandies. Vodka is one of the world's most popular Distilled beverages It is a clear liquid which consists of mostly Water and Ethanol purified by Distillation Brandy (from brandywine, derived from Dutch brandewijn — “burnt wine” is a spirit produced by distilling Wine 
Whisky lactone (3-methyl-4-octanolide) is found in all types of oak. lactone is a cyclic Ester in Organic chemistry. It is the condensation product of an Alcohol group and a Carboxylic acid This lactone has a strong coconut aroma. The Coconut Palm ( Cocos nucifera) is a member of the Family Arecaceae (palm family  Whisky lactone is also known as quercus lactone. 
Commercially charred oaks are rich in phenolic compounds. One study discriminated 40 different phenolic compounds. The coumarin scopoletin is present in whisky, with the highest level reported in Bourbon whiskey. Coumarin is a Chemical compound ( Benzopyrone) a Toxin found in many Plants notably in high concentration in the Tonka bean, Bourbon is an American Whiskey, a type of distilled spirit, made primarily from Corn and named for Bourbon County Kentucky. 
The health benefits of moderate alcohol consumption (better health and longevity) commonly associated with wine appear to apply also to whisky. Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice Many researchers now suspect that the beneficial substance is the alcohol itself — although research has not ruled out other components in the beverages as also being responsible for beneficial effects.  However, excessive consumption of alcohol can harm many of the body's essential organs, particularly the liver. The liver is a vital organ in the human body and is present in Vertebrates and some other animals  Furthermore, frequent consumption of strong spirits, such as whisky, significantly increases a person's chance of developing head and neck cancers. The term head and neck cancer refers to a group of biologically similar cancers originating from the upper aerodigestive tract including the Lip, Oral cavity ( 
People once thought that whisky made from barley/malt contained gluten and should be avoided on a gluten-free diet, along with beers, lagers, ales and stouts. Gluten is a composite of the proteins Gliadin and Glutenin. These exist conjoined with Starch, in the Endosperms of some A gluten-free diet is recommended amongst other things in the treatment of Coeliac disease and Wheat allergy. Beer is the world's oldest and most widely consumed Alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea It is now known that the distillation process removes all traces of gluten and is safe to consume on a gluten-free diet. Gluten is a composite of the proteins Gliadin and Glutenin. These exist conjoined with Starch, in the Endosperms of some