Wheelchair rugby is a team sport for athletes with a disability. Sport is an Activity that is governed by a set of rules or Customs and often engaged in competitively Disabled sports are sports played by persons with a Disability, including physical and Intellectual disabilities. Developed in Canada in the late 1970s, it is currently practiced in over twenty countries around the world and is a Paralympic sport. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The Paralympic Games are a multi-sport event for athletes with physical and sensorial disabilities
The sport's original name was murderball; in the United States, it is referred to as quad rugby. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the All wheelchair rugby players are quadriplegic, with a disability affecting both upper and lower limbs. Quadriplegia, also known as tetraplegia, is a Symptom in which a human experiences Paralysis affecting all four limbs although not necessarily total paralysis Wheelchair rugby is a mixed sport, with men and women competing on the same teams.
Wheelchair rugby is played indoors on a hardwood court. The rules include elements of wheelchair basketball, ice hockey, and handball. Wheelchair basketball is a sport thought for people in Wheelchairs In some countries such as Canada Australia and England able-bodied athletes are allowed to compete alongside Ice hockey, often referred to simply as hockey, is a team Sport played on Ice. Handball (also known as team handball, European handball, or Olympic handball) is a Team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six It is a contact sport, and physical contact between wheelchairs is an integral part of the game.
The sport of wheelchair rugby is governed by the International Wheelchair Rugby Federationwhich was established in 1993.
Wheelchair rugby's roots go back to, wheelchair basketball and ice hockey. Wheelchair basketball is a sport thought for people in Wheelchairs In some countries such as Canada Australia and England able-bodied athletes are allowed to compete alongside Ice hockey, often referred to simply as hockey, is a team Sport played on Ice. It was created in 1977 by Jerry Terwin, Duncan Campbell, Randy Dueck, Paul LeJeune and Chris Sargent, five Canadian wheelchair athletes in Winnipeg, Manitoba to be a sport for quadriplegics. Winnipeg (ˈwɪnɨpɛg is the capital and largest city in the Canadian province of Manitoba, and 7th largest municipality in Canada with a population Manitoba (English ˌmænɨˈtoʊbə French /manitoba/ is a province of Canada, spanning 647797 square kilometres (250116  sq mi of North America Quadriplegia, also known as tetraplegia, is a Symptom in which a human experiences Paralysis affecting all four limbs although not necessarily total paralysis At that time, wheelchair basketball was the most common team sport for wheelchair users. That sport's physical requirement for players to dribble and shoot baskets relegated quadriplegic athletes, with functional impairments to both their upper and lower limbs, to supporting roles. The new sport — originally called murderball due to its aggressive, full-contact nature — was designed to allow quadriplegic athletes with a wide range of functional ability levels to play integral offensive and defensive roles. Team united states are the current wolrd champions.
Murderball was introduced to the United States in 1981 by Brad Mikkelsen. With the aid of the University of North Dakota's Disabled Student Services, he formed the first American team, the Wallbangers. The University of North Dakota ( UND) is a Public university in Grand Forks North Dakota, USA. The first North American competition was held in 1982. In the late 1980s, the name of the sport outside the United States was officially changed from Murderball to Wheelchair Rugby. In the United States, the sport's name was changed to Quad Rugby.
The first international tournament was held in 1989 in Toronto, Canada, with teams from Canada, the United States and Great Britain. Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario In 1990, Wheelchair Rugby first appeared at the World Wheelchair Games as an exhibition event, and in 1993 the sport was recognised as an official international sport for athletes with a disability by the International Stoke Mandeville Wheelchair Sports Federation (ISMWSF). The World Wheelchair and Amputee Games, formerly known as the Stoke Mandeville Wheelchair Games, the Stoke Mandeville Games, and the World Wheelchair Games The International Wheelchair and Amputee Sports Federation (IWAS is an international sports organization that governs sports for wheelchair users and amputees In the same year, the International Wheelchair Rugby Federation (IWRF) was established as a sports section of ISMWSF to govern the sport. The International Wheelchair Rugby Federation (IWRF a sport section of the International Wheelchair and Amputee Sports Federation, is the international governing body for the
The first IWRF World Wheelchair Rugby Championships were held in Notwil, Switzerland, in 1995. Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 Wheelchair rugby appeared as a demonstration sport at the 1996 Summer Paralympics in Atlanta, and was granted full medal status at the 2000 Summer Paralympics in Sydney, Australia. The 1996 Paralympic Games in Atlanta, USA were the first Paralympics to get mass media sponsorship 136 Countries participated on the 2000 Paralympics Many of the same venues of the Sydney Olympics were used including the Olympic Stadium Stadium Australia. Sydney (ˈsɪdniː is the most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 4 For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics.
There are currently twenty-one active countries in international competition, with several others developing the sport. The current President of the IWRF is Brad Mikkelsen.
Wheelchair rugby is played by two teams of up to twelve players. Four players from each team may be on the court at one time. It is a mixed sport, and both male and female athletes play on the same teams.
Wheelchair rugby is played indoors on a hardwood court of the same dimensions as a regulation basketball court — 28 metres long by 15 metres wide. Basketball is a team Sport in which two teams of five active players each try to score points against one another by propelling a ball through a 10 feet (3 m The required court markings are a centre line and circle, and a key area measuring 8 metres wide by 1. 75 metres deep at each end of the court.
The goal line is the section of the end line within the key. In many outdoor ball sports goal line refers to the line which a team is attempting to advance the ball towards Each end of the goal line is marked with a cone-shaped pylon. Players score by carrying the ball across the goal line. For a goal to count, two wheels of the player's wheelchair must cross the line while the player has possession of the ball.
A team is not allowed to have more than three players in their own key while they are defending their goal line. Offensive players are not permitted to remain in the opposing team's key for more than ten seconds.
A player with possession of the ball must bounce or pass the ball within ten seconds.
Teams have fifteen seconds to advance the ball from their back court into the front court.
Physical contact between wheelchairs is permitted, and forms a major part of the game. However, physical contact between wheelchairs that is deemed dangerous — such as striking another player from behind — is not allowed. Direct physical contact between players is not permitted.
Fouls are penalized by either a one-minute penalty, for defensive fouls and technical fouls, or a loss of possession, for offensive fouls. In Basketball, a technical foul (also known as a "T" or a "Tech" is any infraction of the rules penalized as a foul which does not involve physical contact In some cases, a penalty goal may be awarded in lieu of a penalty. Common fouls include spinning (striking an opponent's wheelchair behind the main axle, causing it to spin horizontally or vertically), illegal use of hands or reaching in (striking an opponent with the arms or hands), and holding (holding or obstructing an opponent by grasping with the hands or arms, or falling onto them).
Wheelchair rugby games consist of four eight-minute quarters. If the game is tied at the end of regulation play, three-minute overtime periods are played. Overtime is an additional period of play specified under the rules of a Sport in order to bring the game to a decision and avoid declaring the contest a tie or draw
Much like able-bodied rugby matches, highly competitive wheelchair rugby games are fluid and fast-moving, with possession switching back and forth between the teams while play continues. The game clock is stopped when a goal is scored, or in the event of a violation — such as the ball being played out of bounds — or foul. Players may only be substituted during a stoppage in play.
Wheelchair Rugby is played in a manual wheelchair. A wheelchair is a wheeled Mobility device in which the user sits The rules include detailed specifications for the wheelchair. Many players use custom-made sports wheelchairs that are specifically designed for wheelchair rugby. Key design features include a front bumper, designed to help strike and hold opposing wheelchairs, and wings, which are positioned in front of the main wheels to make the wheelchair more difficult to stop and hold. All wheelchairs must be equipped with spoke protectors, to prevent damage to the wheels, and an anti-tip device at the back.
New players and players in developing countries sometimes play in wheelchairs that have been adapted for wheelchair rugby by the addition of temporary bumpers and wings.
The wheelchair rugby ball is identical in size and shape to a regulation volleyball. Volleyball is an Olympic team sport in which two teams of 6 active players (5 normal players and one 'libero' are separated by a net that is usually four feet Wheelchair rugby balls are typically of a 'soft-touch' design, with a slightly textured surface to provide a better grip. The balls are normally over-inflated compared to a volleyball, to provide a better bounce. The official ball of the sport from 2000-2006 is the Molten soft touch volleyball, model number WR58X. is a Japanese Sports equipment and automotive parts Company based in Hiroshima, Japan.
Players use a variety of other personal equipment, such as gloves and applied adhesives to assist with ball handling, and various forms of strapping to help them maintain a good seating position.
To be eligible to play wheelchair rugby, athletes must have some form of disability with a loss of function in both the upper and lower limbs . The majority of wheelchair rugby athletes have spinal cord injuries at the level of their cervical vertebrae. The spinal cord is a long thin tubular bundle of Nerves that is an extension of the Central nervous system from the brain and is enclosed in and protected Other eligible players have multiple amputations, polio, or neurological disorders such as cerebral palsy, some forms of muscular dystrophy, or Guillain-Barré syndrome, among other medical conditions. Amputation is the removal of a body extremity by trauma or Surgery. Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an acute viral Infectious disease spread from person to person primarily via Cerebral palsy ( CP) is an Umbrella term encompassing a group of non-progressive, non- contagious conditions that cause Physical disability Muscular dystrophy (MD refers to a group of genetic, Hereditary Muscle diseases that cause progressive muscle weakness Guillain-Barré syndrome ( GBS) (in French ɡilɛ̃ baˈʁe in English ˈɡiːlæn ˈbɑreɪ /ɡiːˈæn bəˈreɪ/ etc
Players are classified according to their functional level and assigned a point value ranging from 0. 5 (the lowest functional level) to 3. 5 (the highest). The total classification value of all players on the court for a team at one time cannot exceed eight points.
The classification process begins with an assessment of the athlete's level of disability to determine if the minimum eligibility requirements for wheelchair rugby are met. These require that an athlete have a neurological disability that involves at least three limbs, or a non-neurological disability that involves all four limbs. The athlete then completes a series of muscle tests designed to evaluate the strength and range of motion of the upper limbs and trunks. A classification can then be assigned to the athlete. Classification frequently includes subsequent observation of the athlete in competition to confirm that physical function in game situations reflects what was observed during muscle testing.
Athletes are permitted to protest their classification if they feel they have not been properly evaluated. Athletes can be granted a permanent classification if they demonstrate a stable level of function over a series of classification tests.
Wheelchair rugby classification is conducted by personnel with medical training, usually physicians, physiotherapists, or occupational therapists. A physician, medical practitioner or medical doctor who practices Medicine, and is concerned with maintaining or restoring human Health Occupational Therapy, often abbreviated "OT", is the "use of productive or creative activity in the treatment or rehabilitation of physically cognitively or Classifiers must also be trained in muscle testing and in the details of wheelchair rugby classification.
There are currently more than twenty-four active countries playing wheelchair rugby, divided into three zones:
The major international competitions in wheelchair rugby are Zone Championships, held in each odd-numbered year; World Championships, held quadrennially in even-numbered years, opposite the Summer Paralympic Games; and the Paralympic Games. The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the Continents of North America and South America For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those The Czech Republic ( ˈt͡ʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka short form in Česko ˈt͡ʃɛskɔ also called Czechia, The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː The Paralympic Games are a multi-sport event for athletes with physical and sensorial disabilities
The 2006 World Wheelchair Rugby Championships was held in Christchurch, New Zealand from September 12-16, 2006, of which the final was streamed live on the Television New Zealand website. Christchurch (Ōtautahi The largest City in the South Island, it is also the second largest city and third largest urban area of New Zealand Wheelchair rugby is also on the program for the 2008 Summer Paralympics in Beijing, China. The 2008 Summer Paralympic Games, the thirteenth Paralympics, took place in Beijing, China from September 6 to September 17 2008 China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National
Wheelchair rugby was featured in the Oscar-nominated 2005 documentary Murderball. "The Oscar" redirects here for the film see The Oscar (film. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
The character Jason Street in the NBC television show Friday Night Lights, tries out for the United States quad rugby team. Friday Night Lights is an Award-winning American serial Drama television series adapted by Peter Berg, Brian Grazer and
Prior to 2002, the United States was undefeated internationally, having won gold at the 1995 and 1998 World Championships, and at the 1996 and 2000 Summer Paralympics.
Canadian star 3. 5 Garett Hickling, who is shown above in a big hit on the United States' 2. 0 Bryan Kirkland, was named the Most Valuable Player at the first three World Championships in the sport's history. No MVP was selected at the most recent World Championships, which were held in Christchurch, New Zealand in 2006. Christchurch (Ōtautahi The largest City in the South Island, it is also the second largest city and third largest urban area of New Zealand New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
A variety of other wheelchair sports have been developed based on the rules of rugby union or rugby league. Overview See also Playing rugby union A rugby union match lasts for 80 minutes (plus stoppage time with a short History See also History of rugby league The grass roots of rugby league can be traced to early football history, through the playing of ball games These include: