Whaling is the hunting of whales and dates back to at least 6,000 BC. Whales are marine mammals which are neither Dolphins (ie members of the families Delphinidae or Platanistoidae) nor Porpoises Orcas Whaling and other threats have led to at least five of the 13 great whales being listed as endangered. An endangered species is a population of an organism which is at risk of becoming Extinct because it is either few in numbers or threatened by changing environmental or predation  Commercial whaling is subject to a moratorium by the International Whaling Commission (IWC), although the moratorium is hotly contested. The International Whaling Commission ( IWC) is an international body set up by the terms of the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW, which
Whaling began in prehistoric times, and was initially confined to (near) coastal waters. The history of whaling is very extensive stretching back for Millennia. Territorial waters, or a territorial sea, as defined by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, is a belt of coastal waters extending at most Early whaling affected the development of many cultures. Although prehistoric hunting and gathering is generally considered to have low ecological impact, early whaling in the Arctic altered freshwater ecology. The Arctic is the Region around the Earth 's North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole.  The development of modern whaling techniques was spurred in the 19th century by the increase in demand for whale oil, sometimes known as "train oil", and in the 20th century by a demand for whale meat. Whale oil is the oil obtained from the Blubber of various species of Whales particularly the three species of Right Whale ( Eubalaena japonica Nantucket, Massachusetts was once the whaling capital of the world. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States. 
Whale oil is used little today, thus modern whaling primarily has commercial value as a food source. whaling Dolphin drive hunting, also called dolphin drive fishing, is a method of Hunting Dolphins and occasionally other small Cetaceans by driving The primary species hunted is the minke whale, the second smallest of the baleen whales. Minke Whale ( or Lesser Rorqual is a name given to two species of Marine mammal belonging to a Clade within the suborder of Baleen whales The The baleen whales, also called whalebone whales or great whales, form the Mysticeti, one of two suborders of the Cetacea (whales dolphins and Recent scientific surveys estimate a population of 179,000 in the central and North East Atlantic and 700,000 around Antarctica. 
International cooperation on whaling regulation started in 1931 and a number of multi-lateral agreements now exist in this area, the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW) of 1946 being the most important. The International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling is an international agreement (see Environmental agreement) signed in 1946 in order to "provide for the proper The International Whaling Commission (IWC) was founded by the ICRW for the purpose of giving management advice to the member nations on the basis of the work of the Scientific Committee. The International Whaling Commission ( IWC) is an international body set up by the terms of the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW, which Countries which are not members of IWC are not bound by its regulation and conduct their own management programs.
The members of the IWC voted on 23 July 1982 to enter into a moratorium on all commercial whaling beginning in the 1985-86 season. Events 1632 - Three hundred colonists bound for New France depart from Dieppe France. Year 1982 ( MCMLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar) Since 1992, the IWC Scientific Committee has requested of the IWC that it be allowed to give quota proposals for some whale stocks, but this has so far been refused by the IWC Plenary committee. Norway legitimately continues to hunt Minke Whales commercially under IWC regulations, as it has lodged an objection to the moratorium. Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional Minke Whale ( or Lesser Rorqual is a name given to two species of Marine mammal belonging to a Clade within the suborder of Baleen whales The
Canada left the IWC in 1982 and as such is not bound by the moratorium on whaling. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Canadian whaling is carried out by various Inuit groups around the country in small numbers and is managed by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans. Inuit (plural the singular Inuk, means "man" or "person" is a general term for a group of culturally similar Indigenous peoples inhabiting Fisheries and Oceans Canada ( DFO) is the department within the government of Canada that is responsible for developing and implementing policies and programs The meat obtained from this whaling is commercially sold through shops and supermarkets. This meat is typically not available in southern metropolitan centers such as Vancouver, Toronto, or Montreal but is more available in northern communities where whale meat is a component of the traditional diet. Vancouver (vænˈkuːvɚ is a coastal Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario Montreal, or Montréal in French ( pronounced in French, in English) is the largest city in the Canadian province of Quebec There is considerable consternation amongst conservationists about the hunt. The Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society says "Canada has pursued a policy of marine mammal management which appears to be more to do with political expediency rather than conservation. ( WDCS) the Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society is a wildlife Charity that is dedicated solely to the worldwide conservation and welfare of all whales dolphins "
Some whaling is conducted from Grenada, Dominica and Saint Lucia. Bequia ( pronounced beck-way) is the second largest island in the Grenadines. Grenada (grɪˈneɪdə is an Island nation that includes the southern Grenadines in the southeastern Caribbean Sea. The Commonwealth of Dominica, commonly known as Dominica, is an Island nation in the Caribbean Sea. Saint Lucia (ˌseɪnt ˈluːʃɪə is an Island nation in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean. Species hunted are the short-finned pilot whale, pygmy killer whale and spinner dolphins. The Short-finned Pilot Whale ( Globicephala macrorhynchus) is one of the two Species of Cetacean in the Genus Globicephala The Pygmy Killer Whale ( Feresa attenuata) is a small rarely-seen Cetacean of the Oceanic dolphin family (Delphinidae The Spinner Dolphin ( Stenella longirostris) is a small Dolphin found in off-shore tropical waters around the world Throughout the Caribbean, around 400 pilot whales are caught annually and their meat sold locally. The pilot whale is either of two Species of Cetacean in the Genus Globicephala. The hunting of small cetaceans is not regulated by the IWC. The Order Cetacea (sɪˈteɪʃiə L cetus, whale includes Whales Dolphins and Porpoises Cetus is
In Saint Vincent and the Grenadines on the island of Bequia the International Whaling Commission allows natives of the island to catch up to four humpback whales per year using traditional hunting methods and equipment. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is an island nation in the Lesser Antilles chain of the Caribbean Sea. Bequia ( pronounced beck-way) is the second largest island in the Grenadines.
Whaling in the Faroe Islands has been practiced since at least the 10th century. Whaling in the Faroe Islands has been practised since at least the tenth century The Faroe Islands or Faeroe Islands or simply Faroe(s or Faeroes (Føroyar meaning " Sheep Islands" Færøerne Old Norse It is strongly regulated by Faroese authorities and is not approved by the International Whaling Commission (IWC). Around 950 long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melaena) are caught annually, although mainly during the summer. Occasionally, other species are hunted as well, such as the northern bottlenose whale and Atlantic white-sided dolphin. The hunts, called grindadráp in Faroese, are non-commercial and are organised on a community level; anyone can participate. The hunters first surround the pilot whales with a wide semicircle of boats. The boats then drive the pilot whales slowly into a bay or to the bottom of a fjord.
Most Faroese consider the hunt an important part of their culture and history and arguments about the topic rarely fail to raise strong emotions. Animal rights groups criticize the hunt as being cruel and unnecessary. The hunters claim in return that most journalists do not exhibit sufficient knowledge of the catch methods or its economic significance.
Greenland Inuit whalers caught around 175 whales per year, making them the third largest hunt in the world after Norway and Japan, though their take is only about one quarter of either Japan's or Norway's, which take 600 or more whales each year. Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. The IWC treats the west and east coasts of Greenland as two separate population areas and sets separate quotas for each coast. The far more densely populated west coast accounts for over 90 percent of individuals caught. In a typical year around 150 minke and 10 fin whales are taken from west coast waters and around 10 minkes are from east coast waters. Minke Whale ( or Lesser Rorqual is a name given to two species of Marine mammal belonging to a Clade within the suborder of Baleen whales The
Unlike Norway, Iceland did not lodge an objection against the IWC moratorium, which came into force in 1986. Iceland has a long tradition of subsistence Whaling; spear-drift whaling was practised from the 12th century or earlier and continued in a relic form Between 1986 and 1989 around 60 animals per year were taken under a scientific permit. However, under strong pressure from anti-whaling countries, viewing scientific whaling as a circumvention of the moratorium, Iceland ceased whaling altogether in 1989. Following the 1991 refusal of the IWC to accept its Scientific Committee's recommendation to allow sustainable commercial whaling, Iceland left the IWC in 1992.
Iceland rejoined the IWC in 2002 with a reservation to the moratorium. This reservation is not recognized by a number of anti-whaling countries. In 2003 Iceland resumed scientific whaling. Iceland presented a feasibility study to the 2003 IWC meeting to take 100 minke, 100 fin, and 50 sei in each of 2003 and 2004. The primary aim of the study was to deepen the understanding of fish-whale interactions (the strongest advocates for a resumed hunt are fishermen concerned that whales are taking too many fish). The hunt was supported by three-quarters of the Icelandic population. Amid concern from the IWC Scientific Committee about the value of the research and its relevance to IWC objectives, no decision on the proposal was reached. However under the terms of the convention the Icelandic government issued permits for a scientific catch. In 2003, Iceland took 36 minke whales from a quota of 38. In 2004, it took 25 whales (the full quota). In 2005, the government issued a permit for a third successive year - allowing whalers to take up to 39 whales.
Iceland resumed commercial whaling in 2006. The annual quota is set to 30 minke whales (out of an estimated 174,000 animals in the North Atlantic) and nine fin whales (out of an estimated 30,000 animals in the North Atlantic). Iceland resumed commercial whaling on 22 October 2006 after Icelandic fishermen caught a 60-ton female fin whale. Events 202 BC - Hannibal Barca, leader of the Carthaginians, is defeated by the Roman legions under Scipio Africanus Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. 
Lamalera, on the south coast of the island of Lembata, and Lamakera on neighbouring Solor are the last two remaining Indonesian whaling communities. Pulau Lembata (the Island of Lembata formerly known as Pulau Lomblen, is the largest island of the Solor Archipelago, in the Lesser Sunda Islands Solor is a volcanic island located off the eastern tip of Flores island in the Lesser Sunda Islands of Indonesia, in the Solor Archipelago. The hunters have religious taboos that ensure that they use every part of the animal. About half of the catch is kept in the village; the rest is traded in local markets, using barter. In 1973, the UN's Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) sent a whaling ship and a Norwegian master whaler to modernize their hunt. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional This effort lasted three years, and was not successful. According to the FAO report, the Lamalerans "have evolved a method of whaling which suits their natural resources, cultural tenets and style. "
When the commercial whaling moratorium was introduced by the IWC in 1982, Japan lodged an official objection, but withdrew this objection in 1987 after the United States threatened it with sanctions. Japan has a long history of Whaling. However current whaling conducted by Japan is a source of Political dispute between pro- and anti-whaling For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Thus, Japan became bound by the moratorium, unlike Norway, Russia and Iceland. Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Iceland, officially the Republic of Iceland ( ( Ísland or Lýðveldið Ísland ( In 1987 Japan stopped commercial whaling activities in Antarctic waters, but in the same year began a scientific whaling program, JARPA.
The stated purpose of the research program is to establish the number and dynamics of whale dynamics. The Japanese government wishes to resume whaling in a sustainable manner under the oversight of the International Whaling Commission (IWC), both for the whale products and to help preserve fishing resources by culling whales. The International Whaling Commission ( IWC) is an international body set up by the terms of the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW, which Anti-whaling organisations claim that the research program is a front for commercial whaling and that the number of whales caught are unjustified since equivalent information can be obtained by non-lethal means. The Institute of Cetacean Research (ICR) which conducts the research disagrees, states that the information from tissue faeces samples is insufficient and the sample size is necessary to get a representative sample. Institute of Cetacean Research (ICR 日本鯨類研究所 Nippon Geirui Kenkyūsho) is a Japanese privately owned non-profit institution
Japan's scientific whaling program has remained controversial at least in anti-whaling countries. Countries opposed to whaling have passed non-binding resolutions in the IWC urging Japan to stop the program. The research program is under IWC regulations. Japan claims that several whale stock are sufficiently large to sustain a controlled hunt and blames filibustering by anti whaling side for continuation of scientific whaling. Deputy whaling commissioner, Joji Morishita, told BBC News that "The reason for the moratorium [on commercial whaling] was scientific uncertainty about the number of whales. . . . It was a moratorium for the sake of collecting data and that is why we started scientific whaling. We were asked to collect more data. " 
Norway has registered an objection to the International Whaling Commission moratorium, and is thus not bound by it. Whaling in Norway is a centuries long tradition in Northern Norway. Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional In 1993, Norway resumed a commercial catch, following a period of five years where a small catch was made under a scientific permit. The catch is made solely from the Northeast Atlantic Minke Whale population, which is estimated to consist of about 107,000 animals. Minke Whale ( or Lesser Rorqual is a name given to two species of Marine mammal belonging to a Clade within the suborder of Baleen whales The  Norwegian Minke Whale catches have fluctuated between 487 animals in 2000 to 592 in 2007.
Prior to the moratorium, Norway caught around 2,000 Minkes per year. The North Atlantic hunt is divided into five areas and usually lasts from early May to late August. Norway exports a limited amount of whale meat to the Faroes and Iceland. It has been attempting to export to Japan for several years, though this has been hampered by concerns in the Japanese domestic market about the effects of pollution in the blubber of the North Atlantic Minke whale. Minke Whale ( or Lesser Rorqual is a name given to two species of Marine mammal belonging to a Clade within the suborder of Baleen whales The
In May 2004, the Norwegian Parliament passed a resolution to considerably increase the number of Minkes hunted each year. The Ministry of Fisheries also initiated a satellite tracking programme of various whale species to monitor migration patterns and diving behaviour. The tagging research program has been underway since 1999. 
Since 2006, when the Norwegian whaling quota was increased by 30%, Norwegian whalers have been allowed to hunt a quota of 1,052 Minke whales a year. Since the 1993 hunt resumption the Norwegian quota has rarely been fully met. 
Russians in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug in the Russian Far East are permitted under IWC regulation to take up to 140 Gray Whales from the North-East Pacific population each year. Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (Чуко́тский автоно́мный о́круг tr Russian Far East (Да́льний Восто́к Росси́и ˈdalʲnʲɪj vʌˈstok rʌˈsʲiɪ is a term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i The Gray Whale or Grey Whale ( Eschrichtius robustus) is a Whale that travels between feeding and breeding grounds yearly
|All catch in 2003-2007 was Bowhead whale. The Bowhead Whale ( Balaena mysticetus) also known as Greenland Right Whale or Arctic Whale, is a Baleen whale of the right whale family|
In the United States whaling is carried out by Alaska natives from nine different communities in Alaska. Alaska Natives are Indigenous peoples of the Americas native to the state of Alaska within the United States. The whaling program is managed by the Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission which reports to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ( NOAA) is a scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the The hunt takes around 50 Bowhead Whales a year from a population of about 8,000 in Alaskan waters. The Bowhead Whale ( Balaena mysticetus) also known as Greenland Right Whale or Arctic Whale, is a Baleen whale of the right whale family Conservationists fear this hunt is not sustainable, though the IWC Scientific Committee, the same group that provided the above population estimate, projects a population growth of 3. 2% per year. The hunt also took an average of one or two Gray Whales each year until 1996. The quota was reduced to zero in that year due to concerns about sustainability. A review set to take place in the future may result in the hunt being resumed. Bowhead whales weigh approximately 5-10 times as much as minke whales . Minke Whale ( or Lesser Rorqual is a name given to two species of Marine mammal belonging to a Clade within the suborder of Baleen whales The
The Makah tribe in Washington State also reinstated whaling in 1999, despite intense protests from animal rights groups. For Ozette in Tales of Symphonia see Tales of Symphonia The Makah (məˈkɑː from the Klallam name for the tribe màq̓áʔa) are a Native American They are currently seeking to resume whaling of the gray whale , a right granted to the Makah by the Treaty of Neah Bay. The Gray Whale or Grey Whale ( Eschrichtius robustus) is a Whale that travels between feeding and breeding grounds yearly For Ozette in Tales of Symphonia see Tales of Symphonia The Makah (məˈkɑː from the Klallam name for the tribe màq̓áʔa) are a Native American
Since the IWC moratorium, there have been several instances of illegal whale caching by IWC nations. In 1994, the IWC reported evidence from genetic testing of whale meat and blubber for sale on the open market in Japan in 1993.  In addition to the legally-permitted minke whale, the analyses showed that the 10-25% tissues sample came from non minke, baleen whales species, neither of which were then allowed for take under the IWC rules. Further research in 1995 and 1996 shows significant drop of non-minke baleen whales sample to 2. 5%.  In a separate paper, Baker stated that "many of these animals certainly represent a bycatch (incidental entrapment in fishing gear)" and stated that DNA monitoring of whale meat is required to adequately track whale products. 
It was revealed in 1994 that the Soviet Union had been systematically underreporting the number of whales it took. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 For example, from 1948 to 1973, the Soviet Union caught 48,477 Humpback Whales rather than the 2,710 it officially reported to the IWC. The humpback whale ( Megaptera novaeangliae) is a Baleen Whale.  On the basis of this new information, the IWC stated that it would have to rewrite its catch figures for the last forty years.  According to Ray Gambell, the Secretary of the IWC at the time, the organisation had raised its suspicions of underreporting with the former Soviet Union, but it did not take further action because it could not interfere with national sovereignty. 
In 1985, an activist organization, Earthtrust, placed undercover employees on Korean fishing vessels who took photographs of both fin and right whales being hunted and processed in violation of the ban. Earthtrust is a Non-governmental organization (NGO dedicated to wildlife protection 
Whales are long-lived (averaging 90-100 years for most species) and slow to mature making establishing a sustainable catch difficult for many species and stocks, especially those depleted by past industrial whaling. The International Whaling Commission ( IWC) is an international body set up by the terms of the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW, which Whales have value both for tourism and to whalers and — as many whales are migratory — the value of an individual whale to each industry may be different across its range. International debates have focused on issues of sustainability and conservation as well as ownership and national sovereignty. Also raised in debates is cetacean intelligence and the level of suffering which the animals undergo during harvest. Cetacean intelligence denotes the cognitive capabilities of the Cetacean order of mammals and especially the various species of Dolphin. Animal welfare refers to the viewpoint that it is morally acceptable for humans to use nonhuman animals for food in animal research, as clothing and in entertainment Since the International Whaling Commission (IWC) 1986 ban on commercial whaling, the value of lethal sampling of whales for scientific research and to establish catch quotas has also been debated. The International Whaling Commission ( IWC) is an international body set up by the terms of the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW, which Finally, the value of whaling to fisheries as a method of controlling whales' perceived negative impact on fish stocks is another point of debate.
The sharpest point of debate over whaling today concerns the conservation status of hunted species. Today there is widespread agreement around the world that it is morally wrong to exterminate a species of animal. The unregulated whaling before IWC-introduced regulation and ban had depleted a number of whale populations to a significant extent and several whales species were severely endangered. Past ban on these species of whales which were implemented around 1960s has helped some of these species to recover, according to IUCN's Cetacean Specialist Group (CSG). "Several populations of southern right whales, humpbacks in many areas, grey whales in the eastern North Pacific, and Blue Whales in both the eastern North Pacific and central North Atlantic have begun to show signs of recovery. "
Other species, however, in particular the Minke Whale, have never been considered endangered and still other species or certain population group within particular whales species have shown signs of recovery.
Still, those opposed to whaling argue that a return to full-scale commercial whaling will lead to economic concerns overriding those of conservation, and there is a continuing battle between each side as to how to describe the current state of each species. For instance, conservationists are pleased that the Sei Whale continues to be listed as endangered but Japan says that the species has swelled in number from 9,000 in 1978 to about 28,000 in 2002 and so its catch of 50 Sei whales per year is safe, and that the classification of endangered should be reconsidered for the North Pacific population.
Some North Atlantic states have recently argued that Fin Whales should not be listed as endangered any more and criticize the list for being inaccurate.  IUCN has recorded studies showing that more than 40,000 individuals are present in the North Atlantic Ocean around Greenland, Iceland, and Norway.  As there is no information about Fin Whales in areas outside of the Northern Atlantic where they still hold the status of being endangered.
Whale conservation statuses as determined by The World Conservation Union (IUCN) is shown below. Note that, in the case of Blue and Gray Whales, the IUCN distinguishes the statuses of various populations. These populations, while not regarded as separate species, are considered sufficiently important with respect to conservation. .  The Data Deficient category is not included. Data Deficient ( DD) is a category applied by the IUCN to a species when the available information is not sufficient for a proper assessment of Conservation status
|Extinct||Critically Endangered||Endangered||Vulnerable||Lower Risk|
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Since the 1986 IWC ban on whaling, Japan has conducted its whaling by issuing scientific research permits. The Bowhead Whale ( Balaena mysticetus) also known as Greenland Right Whale or Arctic Whale, is a Baleen whale of the right whale family The Blue Whale ( Balaenoptera musculus) is a Marine mammal belonging to the suborder of Baleen whales (called Mysticeti The Sei Whale ( or) Balaenoptera borealis is a Baleen whale, the third largest Rorqual after the Blue Whale and the Fin Whale. The North Atlantic Right Whale ( Eubalaena glacialis) is a Baleen whale, one of three Right whale species belonging to the genus Eubalaena The North Pacific Right Whale ( Eubalaena japonica) is a very large robust Baleen whale species that was common in the North Pacific until 1840 but now extremely The Bowhead Whale ( Balaena mysticetus) also known as Greenland Right Whale or Arctic Whale, is a Baleen whale of the right whale family The Bowhead Whale ( Balaena mysticetus) also known as Greenland Right Whale or Arctic Whale, is a Baleen whale of the right whale family The humpback whale ( Megaptera novaeangliae) is a Baleen Whale. The Sperm Whale ( Physeter macrocephalus or Physeter catodon) is the largest of all Toothed whales and largest living toothed animal The Bowhead Whale ( Balaena mysticetus) also known as Greenland Right Whale or Arctic Whale, is a Baleen whale of the right whale family The Blue Whale ( Balaenoptera musculus) is a Marine mammal belonging to the suborder of Baleen whales (called Mysticeti The Bowhead Whale ( Balaena mysticetus) also known as Greenland Right Whale or Arctic Whale, is a Baleen whale of the right whale family The Gray Whale or Grey Whale ( Eschrichtius robustus) is a Whale that travels between feeding and breeding grounds yearly Minke Whale ( or Lesser Rorqual is a name given to two species of Marine mammal belonging to a Clade within the suborder of Baleen whales The The genus Berardius contains two species of Beaked whale, Baird's Beaked Whale and Arnoux's Beaked Whale. The Southern Right Whale ( Eubalaena australis) is a Baleen whale, one of three species classified as Right whales belonging to the genus Eubalaena The Short-finned Pilot Whale ( Globicephala macrorhynchus) is one of the two Species of Cetacean in the Genus Globicephala The Orca or Killer Whale ( Orcinus orca) less commonly Blackfish or Seawolf, is the largest species of the Oceanic dolphin family The Bowhead Whale ( Balaena mysticetus) also known as Greenland Right Whale or Arctic Whale, is a Baleen whale of the right whale family The Blue Whale ( Balaenoptera musculus) is a Marine mammal belonging to the suborder of Baleen whales (called Mysticeti The Gray Whale or Grey Whale ( Eschrichtius robustus) is a Whale that travels between feeding and breeding grounds yearly Minke Whale ( or Lesser Rorqual is a name given to two species of Marine mammal belonging to a Clade within the suborder of Baleen whales The The Pygmy Right Whale ( Caperea marginata) is a Baleen whale, the sole member of the family Neobalaenidae. The Long-finned pilot whale ( Globicephala melas) is one of the two Species of Cetacean in the Genus Globicephala. The pygmy sperm whale ( Kogia breviceps) is one of three Species of Toothed whale in the Sperm whale family. The dwarf sperm whale ( Kogia sima) is one of three Species of Whale in the Sperm whale family. The Melon-headed Whale ( Peponocephala electra; other names are many-toothed blackfish and electra dolphin) is a Cetacean of the Oceanic dolphin The False Killer Whale ( Pseudorca crassidens) is a Cetacean and one of the larger members of the Oceanic dolphin family (Delphinidae The value of "lethal sampling" of whales is a highly contentious issue. The stated aim of the Japanese JARPA research program is to establish sustainable whaling in the Antarctic Ocean. 
Lethal sampling is required to obtain age information, which can be reliably gathered by looking at the ear plug in the head of the dead animal. Japan initially argued that simple population distribution of whale species is enough to determine the level of sustainability of the hunt and argued that certain species of whale, particularly minke whales are in sufficient number to be hunted. The Anti-whaling side countered by arguing that more accurate composition of population distribution in term of age and sex distribution is needed to determine the sustainability, which ironically provided the justification for the Japanese hunt under the scientific research exemption. Within the frame of the RMP computer modelling, age data is not needed to establish a catch limit for whaling, which is the stated goal of the Japanese research.  The IWC requires information on population structure, abundance and prior whaling history, all of which can be obtained through non-lethal means . However, the IWC Scientific Committee acknowledge the usefullness of the data from JARPA here : 
The results from the JARPA programme, while not required for management under the RMP, have the potential to improve management of minke whales in the Southern Hemisphere in the following ways: (1) reductions in the current set of plausible scenarios considered in Implementation Simulation Trials; and (2) identification of new scenarios to which future Implementation Simulation Trials will have to be developed (e. g. the temporal component of stock structure). The results of analyses of JARPA data could be used in this way perhaps to increase the allowed catch of minke whales in the Southern Hemisphere, without increasing depletion risk above the level indicated by the existing Implementation Simulation Trials of the RMP for these minke whales
All other information can be gathered through non-lethal means. Dietary information can be gathered from analysis of whale faeces. Gender, reproductive status, and population profiles can be gathered from non-lethal biopsies. A biopsy (in Greek: βίος life and όψη look/appearance is a Medical test involving the removal of cells or tissues
Major discoveries claimed by JARPA 1 include: they have found the population structure of minke whales in Antarctic is healthy; they have detected change in the ecosystem of Antarctic Ocean; and they have found "very low level" of contaminants in minke whales. An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants animals and micro-organisms( Biotic factors in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical (  Some of the research includes a paper named Fertilizability of ovine, bovine, and minke whales spermatazoa intracytoplasmically injected into bovine oocytes. 
According to 2006 Australian Broadcasting Corporation's Catalyst, popular science show, which strongly argued against whaling, of the 18 year JARPA I program, which lethally obtained samples from 6800 whales, less than 55 peer reviewed papers were produced, 14 that could be relevant to goals of the JARPA program, and only 4 that would require lethal sampling. The Australian Broadcasting Corporation, commonly abbreviated to the 'ABC' is Australia's national public broadcaster. Catalyst is the primary science-journalism television series made by ABC1.  Joji Morishita of JARPA has said the number of samples was required in order to obtain statistically significant data.
Farming whales in captivity has never been attempted and would almost certainly be logistically impossible. Instead, whales are killed at sea often using explosive harpoons, which puncture the skin of a whale and then explode inside its body. An explosive material is a material that either is chemically or otherwise Energetically unstable or produces a sudden expansion of the material usually accompanied A harpoon is a long Spear -like instrument used in Fishing to catch fish or other large aquatic animals such as Whales It accomplishes this task by impaling Anti-whaling groups say this method of killing is cruel, particularly if carried out by inexperienced gunners, because a whale can take several minutes or even hours to die. In March 2003, Whalewatch, an umbrella group of 140 conservation and animal welfare groups from 55 countries published a report, Troubled Waters, whose main conclusion was that whales cannot be guaranteed to be killed humanely and that all whaling should be stopped. They quoted figures that said 20% of Norwegian and 60% of Japanese-killed whales failed to die as soon as they had been harpooned. John Opdahl of the Norwegian embassy in London responded by saying that Norwegian authorities worked with the IWC to develop the most humane methods. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. He said that the average time taken for a whale to die after being shot was the same as or less than that of animals killed by big game hunters on safari. The phrase Big Five game was coined by Big-game hunters and refers to the five most difficult animals in Africa to hunt on foot SAFARI was an attempt by the French government under the presidency of Georges Pompidou, to create a centralized database of personal data Whalers also say that the free-roaming lifestyle of whales followed by a quick death is less cruel than the long-term suffering of factory-farmed animals.
In response to the UK's opposition to the resumption of commercial whaling on the grounds that no humane method of catching whales exists, or "is on the horizon", the pro-whaling High North Alliance points to apparent inconsistencies in the policies of some anti-whaling nations by drawing comparisons between commercial whaling and recreational hunting. The High North Alliance (Norwegian Høge Nord Alliansen is an umbrella organisation of several Fishing, Whaling and Nordic Municipal For instance, the United Kingdom allows the commercial shooting of deer without these shoots adhering to the standards of British slaughterhouses, but says that whalers must meet these standards as a pre-condition before they would support whaling. A slaughterhouse, also called an abattoir (from the French verb abattre, "to strike down" or freezing works ( New Zealand Moreover, fox hunting, in which foxes are mauled by dogs, is legal in many anti-whaling countries including Ireland, the United States, Portugal, Italy and France (although not in the United Kingdom) according to UK Government's Burns Inquiry (2000). Fox hunting is an activity involving the tracking chase and sometimes killing of a fox traditionally a Red fox, by trained Foxhounds or other Scent hounds Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Pro-whaling nations argue that they should only have to adhere to the lowest standards (such as for the UK Red Deer hunts), and draw the conclusion that the cruelty argument is a mere expression of cultural bigotry, similar to the Western attitude towards the eating of dog meat in several East Asian countries. The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings In some countries apart from being kept as pets certain breeds of Dogs are raised on farms and Slaughtered for their meat 
The whale watching industry and anti-whaling advocates argue that whaling catch "friendly" whales that are curious about boats, as these whales are the easiest to catch. Whale watching is the practice of observing Whales and other Cetaceans in their natural habitat This analysis claims that once the economic benefits of hotels, restaurants and other tourist amenities are considered, hunting whales is a net economic loss. This argument is particularly contentious in Iceland, as it has among the most-developed whale-watching operations in the world and the hunting of Minke Whales resumed in August 2003. Iceland, officially the Republic of Iceland ( ( Ísland or Lýðveldið Ísland ( Minke Whale ( or Lesser Rorqual is a name given to two species of Marine mammal belonging to a Clade within the suborder of Baleen whales The Brazil, Argentina and South Africa argue that whale watching is a growing billion-dollar industry that provides more revenue and more equitable distribution of profits than commercial whaling by pelagic fleets from far-away developed countries would provide. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Peru, Uruguay, Australia, and New Zealand also support proposals to permanently forbid whaling South of the Equator, as Indonesia is the only country in the Southern Hemisphere with a whaling industry. Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. Uruguay.(official full name in República Oriental del Uruguay;, Oriental Republic of Uruguay) is a country located in the southeastern part of South America For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. Anti-whaling groups claim that developing countries which support a pro-whaling stance are damaging their economies by driving away anti-whaling tourists.
Pro-whaling advocates argue that the economic analysis assumes unsustainable whaling by arguing that whaling deprives the whale watching industry of whales. Whalers counter that if whales are hunted on a sustainable basis, there is no competition between the two industries, that most whaling takes place outside of coastal areas, where whale watching takes place, and that communication between any whaling fleet and whale watching boats would ensure that whaling and whale watching occurred in different areas. Pro-whaling advocates also argue that whaling continues to provide employment in the fishery, logistic and restaurant industries and that whale blubber can be converted into valuable oleochemicals and whale carcass can be rendered into meat and bone meal. Oleochemicals are Chemicals derived from biological oils or Fats They are analogous to Petrochemicals which are chemicals derived from Petroleum Rendering is a process that converts waste animal tissue into stable value-added materials Meat and bone meal (MBM is a product of the rendering industry Poorer whaling nations argue that the need for resumption of whaling is pressing. Horace Walters, from the Eastern Caribbean Cetacean Commission stated, "We have islands which may want to start whaling again - it's expensive to import food from the developed world, and we believe there's a deliberate attempt to keep us away from our resources so we continue to develop those countries' economies by importing from them. "
While whales possess the largest physical brains of any animal, there is no consensus about the existence, nature and magnitude of cetacean intelligence. Cetacean intelligence denotes the cognitive capabilities of the Cetacean order of mammals and especially the various species of Dolphin. Animal cognition is the title given to a modern approach to the mental capacities of (non-human Animals. This lack of knowledge is partly because of the cost and difficulty of carrying out research with marine mammals. Humpback whales have been found to have spindle neurons, a type of brain cell previously considered to exist only in dolphins, humans and other primates, and some species of whale are highly social. Spindle neurons, also called von Economo neurons (VENs are a specific class of Neurons that participate in signal transmission in the nervous system and
There is an argument that whales should not be killed because of their alleged high intelligence. The Pro-whaling justification is that pigs, which also possess high intelligence, are routinely butchered and eaten, or indeed that intelligence should not be the determining factor of whether an animal is acceptable to eat or not.
Whale meat products from several species often contain pollutants such as PCBs, mercury, and dioxins. Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability disorder harm or discomfort to the physical systems or living organisms they are in Polychlorinated biphenyls ( PCB s are a class of Organic compounds with 1 to 10 Chlorine atoms attached to Biphenyl which is a molecule composed Mercury (ˈmɜrkjʊri also called quicksilver or hydrargyrum, is a Chemical element with the symbol Hg ( Latinized hydrargyrum Not to be confused with Dioxane or Digoxin. Dioxin is a heterocyclic, organic, antiaromatic compound  The red meat and blubber of Long-finned Pilot Whales in the Faroe islands have high toxin levels and this has a detrimental effect on those who eat the red meat and blubber.  In Norway, only the red meat of Minke Whales is eaten and the levels of some toxins conform to national limits. . The consumption of whale meat in Japan has also faced scrutiny from this, especially its use in school lunches. 
In general, levels of pollutants in toothed whale products are higher than levels in baleen whales, reflecting the fact that toothed whales feed at a higher trophic level than baleen whales in the food chain. In Ecology, trophic dynamics is the system of trophic levels ( Greek trophē, food which describe the position that an organism occupies Food chains, also called food networks and/or trophic networks, describe the feeding relationships between species within an Ecosystem. Organochloride pesticides HCH and HCB are also at higher levels in toothed species than in baleen species, although Minke Whales had higher levels than most other baleen species. Applications The simplest form of organochlorides are chlorinated Hydrocarbons These consist of simple Hydrocarbons in which one or more hydrogen atoms have A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used to kill a pest. 
Whale meat is very high in protein, very low in saturated fat, and has, like other meats, high level of cholesterol and sodium. Saturated fat is Fat that consists of Triglycerides containing only saturated Fatty acids Explanation Fat that occurs 
Whalers say that whaling is an essential condition for the successful operation of commercial fisheries, and thus the plentiful availability of food from the sea that consumers have become accustomed to. Events 1071 - Battle of Manzikert: The Seljuk Turks defeat the Byzantine Army at Manzikert. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Hvalba is one of the larger Villages in the Faroe Islands. Population: 654 Postal code (Zip FO 850 This argument is made particularly forcefully in Atlantic fisheries, for example the cod-capelin system in the Barents Sea. The Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, is a well-known Demersal food fish belonging to the family Gadidae. The capelin or caplin, Mallotus villosus, is a small Fish of the Smelt family found in the Atlantic and Arctic oceans The Barents Sea (Barentshavet Баренцево море is a part of the Arctic Ocean located north of Norway and Russia. A Minke Whale's annual diet consists of 10 kilograms of fish per kilogram of body mass, which puts a heavy predatory pressure on commercial species of fish. Minke Whale ( or Lesser Rorqual is a name given to two species of Marine mammal belonging to a Clade within the suborder of Baleen whales The Thus, whalers say that an annual cull of whales is needed in order for adequate amounts of fish to be available for humans. Anti-whaling campaigners say that the pro-whaling argument is inconsistent: if the catch of whales is small enough not to negatively affect whale stocks, it is also too small to positively affect fish stocks. To make more fish available, they say, more whales will have to be caught, putting populations at risk. Additionally, often whale feeding grounds and commercial fisheries do not overlap.
Professor Daniel Pauly, Director of the Fisheries Center at the University of British Columbia weighed into the debate in July 2004 when he presented a paper to the 2004 meeting of the IWC in Sorrento. Dr Daniel Pauly is a French -born biologist famous for his work in studying human impacts on global fisheries The University of British Columbia ( UBC) is a Canadian public research University with campuses near Vancouver and in Kelowna Pauly's primary research is the decline of fish stocks in the Atlantic, under the auspices of the Sea Around Us Project. The Sea Around Us Project is an international research group based at the University of British Columbia Fisheries Centre that is devoted to studying the impacts This report was commissioned by Humane Society International, an active anti-whaling lobby. The report stated that although cetaceans and pinnipeds are estimated to eat 600 million tonnes of food per year, compared with just 150 million tonnes eaten by humans (These are Pauly's figures. Pinnipeds ("fin-feet" lit "winged feet" or fin-footed mammals are a widely distributed and diverse group of semi-aquatic marine Mammals comprising Researchers at the Institute for Cetacean Research gave figures of 90 million tonnes for humans and 249-436 million tonnes for cetaceans. ), the type of much of the food that cetaceans eat (in particular, deep sea squid and krill) is not consumed by humans. Moreover, the reports says, the locations where whales and humans catch fish only overlap to a small degree. In an interview with the BBC, Pauly stated that:
|“||The bottom line is that humans and marine mammals can co-exist. There's no need to wage war on them in order to have fish to catch. And there's certainly no cause to blame them for the collapse of the fisheries. It's really cynical and irresponsible for Japan to claim that the developing countries would benefit from a cull of marine mammals. It's the rich countries that are sucking the fish out of the poor countries' own seas.||”|
— Daniel Pauly , BBC
In the report Pauly also considers more indirect effects of whales' diet on the availability of fish for fisheries. Dr Daniel Pauly is a French -born biologist famous for his work in studying human impacts on global fisheries He continues to conclude that whales are not a significant reason for diminished fish stocks.
More recent studies have also concluded that there are several factors contributing to the decline in fish stocks, such as pollution and habitat loss. 
However, the dietary behaviour of whales differ among species as well as season, location and availability of prey. For example, Sperm Whales' prey primarily consists of mesopelagic squid. However, in Iceland, they are reported to consume mainly fish.  In addition to krill, Minke Whales are known to eat a wide range of fish species including capelin, herring, sand lance, mackerel, gadoids, cod, saithe and haddock. Krill are a type of Shrimp -like marine Invertebrate animal These small Crustaceans are important organisms of the Zooplankton, particularly The capelin or caplin, Mallotus villosus, is a small Fish of the Smelt family found in the Atlantic and Arctic oceans Herring are small Oily fish of the genus Clupea found in the shallow temperate waters of the North Atlantic, the Baltic Sea, the North A sand lance or sandlance is a Fish belonging to the family Ammodytidae. Mackerel is a common name applied to a number of different species of Fish, mostly but not exclusively from the family Scombridae. Pollock (or pollack, pronounced the same and listed first in most UK and US dictionaries is the common name used for either of the two Species of marine The haddock or offshore hake is a marine Fish distributed on both sides of the North Atlantic.  Minke Whales are estimated to consume 633,000 tons of Atlantic herring per year in part of Northeast Atlantic.  In the Barents Sea, it is estimated that a net economic loss of five tons of cod and herring per fishery results from every additional Minke Whale in the population due the fish consumption of the single whale. 
From an abolitionist animal rights perspective, environmental concerns, possible cetacean intelligence, and animal welfare concerns are irrelevant. Abolitionism within the Animal rights movement is a movement that seeks to abolish animal exploitation "Animal liberation" redirects here for other uses see Animal liberation (disambiguation. The widely accepted notion that whales are sentient is thought to be reason enough not to harm or exploit them in any way. Sentience is the ability to feel or perceive subjectively. It is an important concept in the philosophy of Animal rights, in buddhist philosophy and in