|Westminster Palace, Westminster Abbey and Saint Margaret's Church*|
|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|State Party||United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland|
|Criteria||I, II, IV|
|Region†||Europe and North America|
|Inscription||1987 (11th Session)|
|* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.|
† Region as classified by UNESCO.
The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a large, mainly Gothic church, (it served as a cathedral from 1546 - 1556), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. The Anglican church of St Margaret Westminster is situated in the grounds of Westminster Abbey on Parliament Square, and is the Parish church A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex As of 2008 there are a total of 878 World Heritage Sites located in 145 "State Parties" The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. Asia Minor, Cyprus, all of the Aegean Islands, the Canaries A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex See also Gothic art Gothic architecture is a style of Architecture which flourished during the high and late medieval period. A church building is a Building or Structure whose primary purpose is to facilitate the meeting of a church. Westminster is an area of Central London, within the City of Westminster. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. It is the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English monarchs. The Coronation of the British Monarch is a Ceremony (specifically Initiation rite) in which the Monarch of the United Kingdom and of the other This list of cemeteries compiles notable cemeteries, Mausoleums and other places people are buried, worldwide. The Kings of Wessex, who conquered Kent and Sussex from Mercia in 825 became increasingly dominant over the other kingdoms of England during
According to tradition a shrine was first founded in 616 on the present site, then known as Thorn Ey (Thorn Island); its tradition of miraculous consecration after a fisherman on the River Thames saw a vision of Saint Peter justifying the presents of salmon from the Thames fishermen that the Abbey received. The word tradition comes from the Latin traditionem acc of traditio which means "a giving up delivering up surrendering" and is used in a number of Thorney Island was the Eyot on the Thames, upstream of mediæval London, where Westminster Abbey and the Palace of Westminster (commonly The Thames ( is a major River flowing through southern England. In the 960s or early 970s Saint Dunstan, assisted by King Edgar, planted a community of Benedictine monks here. Dunstan (c909&ndash 19 May 988) was an Abbot of Glastonbury, a Bishop of Worcester, a Bishop of London, and an Edgar I the Peaceful or the Peaceable (c 7 August 943&ndash8 July 975 1 Benedictine refers to the Spirituality and Consecrated life in accordance with the Rule of St Benedict, written by Benedict of Nursia in MONK is a Monte Carlo software package for simulating nuclear processes particularly for the purpose of determining the neutron multiplication factor or k-effective The stone Abbey was built around 1045–1050 by King Edward the Confessor and was later rebuilt again by Henry III in 1245, who had selected the site for his burial: it was consecrated on December 28, 1065, only a week before the Confessor's death and subsequent funeral. King Edward the Confessor (c 1003 &ndash 5 January 1066 son of Ethelred the Unready, was the penultimate Anglo-Saxon King of England and the last Events 1065 - Westminster Abbey is Consecrated. 1308 - The reign of Emperor Hanazono, Emperor of It was the site of the last coronation prior to the Norman Invasion, that of his successor King Harold. Harold Godwinson, (c 1022 &ndash 14 October 1066 also known as Harold II, is widely regarded as the last Anglo-Saxon King of England before the
The only extant depiction of the original Abbey, in the Romanesque style that is called Norman in England, together with the adjacent Palace of Westminster, is in the Bayeux Tapestry. An abbey (from Latin abbatia derived from Syriac abba "father" is a Christian Monastery or Regional characteristics of Romanesque architecture|Romanesque art Romanesque architecture is the term that is used to describe the architecture of Middle Ages Europe which For other buildings in Normandy see Architecture of Normandy. The Bayeux Tapestry (Tapisserie de Bayeux is a 50 cm by 70 m (20 in by 230 ft long embroidered cloth which explains the events leading up to the 1066 Norman invasion of Increased endowments supported a community increased from a dozen monks in Dunstan's original foundation, to about eighty monks. 
The Abbot and learned monks, in close proximity to the Royal Palace of Westminster, the seat of government from the later twelfth century, became a powerful force in the centuries after the Norman Conquest: the Abbot was often employed on royal service and in due course took his place in the House of Lords as of right. Released from the burdens of spiritual leadership, which passed to the reformed Cluniac movement after the mid-tenth century, and occupied with the administration of great landed properties, some of which lay far from Westminster, "the Benedictines achieved a remarkable degree of identification with the secular life of their times, and particularly with upper-class life", Barbara Harvey concluded, to the extent that her depiction of daily life provides a wider view of the concerns of the English gentry in the High and Late Middle Ages. The Abbey of Cluny (or Cluni, or Clugny, pronunciation klyˈni is an abbey in France. The proximity of the Palace of Westminster did not extend to providing monks or abbots with high royal connections; in social origin the Benedictines of Westminster were as modest as most of the order. The abbot remained Lord of the Manor of Westminster as a town of two to three thousand persons grew around it: as a consumer and employer on a grand scale the monastery helped fuel the town economy, and relations with the town remained unusually cordial, but no enfranchising charter was issued during the Middle Ages. The title of Lord of the Manor arose in the English mediaeval system of Manorialism following the Norman Conquest.  The abbey built shops and dwellings on the west side, encroaching upon the sanctuary.
The Abbey became the coronation site of Norman kings, but none were buried there until Henry III, intensely devoted to the cult of the Confessor, rebuilt the Abbey in Anglo-French Gothic style as a shrine to honour Edward the Confessor and as a suitably regal setting for Henry's own tomb, under the highest Gothic nave in England. Henry III (1 October 1207 &ndash 16 November 1272 was the son and successor of John "Lackland" as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 See also Gothic art Gothic architecture is a style of Architecture which flourished during the high and late medieval period. King Edward the Confessor (c 1003 &ndash 5 January 1066 son of Ethelred the Unready, was the penultimate Anglo-Saxon King of England and the last For the New York prison see The Tombs. A Tomb is a repository for the remains of the dead. The Confessor's shrine subsequently played a great part in his canonisation. A shrine, from the Latin scrinium (‘box’ also used as a desk like the French bureau) was originally a container usually made of precious materials used The work continued between 1245-1517 and was largely finished by the architect Henry Yevele in the reign of King Richard II. Henry Yevele (c1320-1400 was the most prolific and successful master mason active in late medieval England Richard II (6 January 1367 &ndash ca 14 February 1400 was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399 Henry VII added a Perpendicular style chapel dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary in 1503 (known as the Henry VII Chapel). English Gothic is the name of the Architectural style that flourished in England from about 1180 until about 1520 The Henry VII Lady Chapel, now more often known just as the Henry VII Chapel is a large Lady chapel at the far eastern end of Westminster Abbey built Much of the stone came from Caen, in France (Caen stone), the Isle of Portland (Portland stone) and the Loire Valley region of France (tuffeau limestone). Caen (kɑ̃ is a commune in northwestern France. It is the Prefecture of the Calvados department and the capital of the This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Caen stone or Pierre de Caen, is a light creamy-yellow Jurassic Limestone quarried in northwestern France near the city of Caen The Isle of Portland ( is a limestone tied island long by wide in the English Channel. Portland stone is a Limestone from the Jurassic period quarried on the Isle of Portland, Dorset. Loire Valley (Vallée de la Loire is known as the Garden of France and the Cradle of the French Language. Tuffeau is a marine Sedimentary rock, found in the Loire Valley of France.
In 1535, the Abbey's annual income of £2400-2800 during the assessment attendant on the Dissolution of the Monasteries rendered it second in wealth only to Glastonbury Abbey. The Tudor rose (sometimes called the English Rose is a traditional heraldic emblem of England and takes its name and origins from the Tudor dynasty WikipediaCITE#Citation_styles --> Attributed arms are Coats of arms given King Edward the Confessor (c 1003 &ndash 5 January 1066 son of Ethelred the Unready, was the penultimate Anglo-Saxon King of England and the last The Dissolution of the Monasteries, sometimes referred to as the Suppression of the Monasteries, was the formal process between 1536 and 1541 by which Henry VIII disbanded Glastonbury Abbey, founded in the seventh century was a rich and powerful monastery in Glastonbury, Somerset, England. Henry VIII had assumed direct royal control in 1539 and granted the Abbey cathedral status by charter in 1540, simultaneously issuing letters patent establishing the Diocese of Westminster. Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of Letters patent are a type of Legal instrument in the form of an Open letter issued by a Monarch or Government, granting an office right The Diocese of Westminster was a short-lived diocese of the Church of England, extant from 1540 - 1550 By granting the Abbey cathedral status Henry VIII gained an excuse to spare it from the destruction or dissolution which he inflicted on most English abbeys during this period. Westminster was a cathedral only until 1550. The expression "robbing Peter to pay Paul" may arise from this period when money meant for the Abbey, which was dedicated to St Peter, was diverted to the treasury of St Paul's Cathedral. St Paul's Cathedral, is the Anglican Cathedral on Ludgate Hill, in the City of London, and the seat of the Bishop of London.
The Abbey was restored to the Benedictines under the Catholic Queen Mary, but they were again ejected under Queen Elizabeth I in 1559. Mary I (18 February 1516 &ndash 17 November 1558 was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 19 July 1553 until her death In 1579, Elizabeth re-established Westminster as a "Royal Peculiar" — a church responsible directly to the sovereign, rather than to a diocesan bishop — and made it the Collegiate Church of St Peter, (that is a church with an attached chapter of canons, headed by a dean). A Royal Peculiar (or Royal Peculier) is a place of worship that falls directly under the jurisdiction of the British monarch, rather than a Diocese A canon (from the Latin canonicus, itself derived from the Greek κανωνικος 'relating to a rule' is a priest who is a member of certain bodies of the The last Abbot was made the first Dean. It suffered damage during the turbulent 1640s, when it was attacked by Puritan iconoclasts, but was again protected by its close ties to the state during the Commonwealth period. A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was an associate of any number of religious groups advocating for more "purity" of Worship and Doctrine, Iconoclasm, Greek for "image-breaking" is the deliberate destruction within a culture of the culture's own religious Icons and other symbols or monuments The Commonwealth of England was the Republican government which ruled first England (including Wales) and then Ireland and Scotland Oliver Cromwell was given an elaborate funeral there in 1658, only to be disinterred in January 1661 and posthumously hanged from a nearby gibbet. Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 Old Style &ndash 3 September 1658 Old Style) was an English military and political leader best known
The abbey's two western towers were built between 1722 and 1745 by Nicholas Hawksmoor, constructed from Portland stone to an early example of a Gothic Revival design. Nicholas Hawksmoor (probably 1661 - 25 March 1736) was a British Architect born to a humble family in Nottinghamshire Portland stone is a Limestone from the Jurassic period quarried on the Isle of Portland, Dorset. The Gothic Revival is an architectural movement which began Further rebuilding and restoration occurred in the 19th century under Sir George Gilbert Scott. Sir George Gilbert Scott ( 13 July 1811 &ndash 27 March, 1878) was an English Architect of the Victorian Age A narthex for the west front was designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens in the mid C20 but was not executed. The narthex of a church is the entrance or lobby area located at the end of the Nave, at the far end from the church's main Altar. Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens, OM, KCIE, PRA, FRIBA, LLD ( 29 March 1869 – 1 January 1944
Until the 19th century, Westminster was the third seat of learning in England, after Oxford and Cambridge. The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University) located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the It was here that the first third of the King James Bible Old Testament and the last half of the New Testament were translated. The New English Bible was also put together here in the 20th century. The New English Bible (NEB was a fresh translation of the Bible into modern English directly from the original Greek, Hebrew, and Aramaic
Since the coronations in 1066 of both King Harold and William the Conqueror, all English and British monarchs (except Edward V and Edward VIII, who did not have coronations) have been crowned in the Abbey. Harold Godwinson, (c 1022 &ndash 14 October 1066 also known as Harold II, is widely regarded as the last Anglo-Saxon King of England before the William I of England ( 1027 His reign which brought Norman culture to England had an enormous impact on the subsequent course of England in the Middle Ages Edward V ( 4 November 1470 &ndash 1483? was the King of England from 9 April 1483 until his deposition two months later  Henry III, was unable to be crowned in London when he first came to the throne because Prince Louis of France had taken control of the city and so was crowned in Gloucester Cathedral, but this coronation was deemed by the Pope to be improper, and a further coronation was held in the Abbey on 17 May 1220. Henry III (1 October 1207 &ndash 16 November 1272 was the son and successor of John "Lackland" as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 Louis VIII the Lion ( 5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226) reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226 Gloucester Cathedral, or the Cathedral Church of St Peter and the Holy and Undivided Trinity, in Gloucester, England, stands in the north of the city Events 1521 - Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham, is executed for Treason.  Lady Jane Grey, whose reign lasted just nine days, and was of doubtful legality was also never crowned. Lady Jane Grey (1536/1537&ndash 12 February 1554) also referred to as Queen Jane, a greatniece of Henry VIII of England, was a claimant The Archbishop of Canterbury is the traditional cleric in the coronation ceremony. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the chief bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given Religion. King Edward's Chair (or St Edward's Chair), the throne on which British sovereigns are seated at the moment of coronation, is housed within the Abbey; from 1296 to 1996 the chair also housed the Stone of Scone upon which the kings of Scotland are crowned, but pending another coronation the Stone is now kept in Scotland. King Edward's Chair, sometimes known as St Edward's Chair or The Coronation Chair, is the throne on which the British monarch sits for the coronation The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Stone of Scone (ˈskuːn also commonly known as the Stone of Destiny or the Coronation Stone is an oblong block of red Sandstone, about by by in
Henry III rebuilt the Abbey in honour of the Royal Saint Edward the Confessor whose relics were placed in a shrine in the sanctuary and now lie in a burial vault beneath the 1268 Cosmati mosaic pavement, in front of the High Altar. Henry III (1 October 1207 &ndash 16 November 1272 was the son and successor of John "Lackland" as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 King Edward the Confessor (c 1003 &ndash 5 January 1066 son of Ethelred the Unready, was the penultimate Anglo-Saxon King of England and the last A shrine, from the Latin scrinium (‘box’ also used as a desk like the French bureau) was originally a container usually made of precious materials used For a protective coffin enclosure see Burial vault (enclosure. This article is about the Cosmati family. For details of the style see Cosmatesque. Henry III was interred nearby in a superb chest tomb with effigial monument, as were many of the Plantagenet kings of England, their wives and other relatives. For the New York prison see The Tombs. A Tomb is a repository for the remains of the dead. A church monument is an architectural or sculptural Memorial to a dead person or persons located within a Christian church The House of Plantagenet (planˈtadʒɪnɪt also called the House of Anjou, or the First Angevin dynasty, was originally a noble Subsequently, most Kings and Queens of England were buried here, although Henry VIII and Charles I are buried in St. George's Chapel at Windsor Castle, as are all monarchs and royals after George II. Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of Charles I, (19 November 1600 &ndash 30 January 1649 was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution. Windsor Castle, in Windsor in the English county of Berkshire, is the largest inhabited Castle in the world and dating back to the time of George II (George Augustus 10 November 1683 &ndash 25 October 1760 was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (
Aristocrats were buried inside chapels and monks and people associated with the Abbey were buried in the Cloisters and other areas. One of these was Geoffrey Chaucer, who was buried here as he had apartments in the Abbey where he was employed as master of the Kings Works. Geoffrey Chaucer (c 1343 – 25 October 1400? was an English author poet Philosopher, bureaucrat, courtier and Diplomat. Other poets were buried around Chaucer in what became known as Poets' Corner. Poets’ Corner is the name traditionally given to a section of the South Transept of Westminster Abbey due to the number of Poets Playwrights and Abbey musicians such as Henry Purcell were also buried in their place of work. Henry Purcell (ˈpɜrsəl 10 September 1659 (? – 21 November 1695 was an English Baroque Composer. Subsequently it became an honour to be buried or memorialised here. The practice spread from aristocrats and poets to generals, admirals, politicians, scientists, doctors, etc. . These include:
The following are buried in the Nave
The following were buried in the Abbey but later removed on the orders of Charles II:
The most recent person to be buried in the Abbey was Sir Laurence Olivier in 1989. Hampstead is an area of London, England, located north-west of Charing Cross. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (February 27 1807 &ndash March 24 1882 was an American educator and Poet whose works include " Paul Revere's Ride " Cambridge Massachusetts is a City in the Greater Boston area of Massachusetts, United States. Levett is an Anglo-Norman territorial Surname deriving from the village of Livet-en-Ouche now Jonquerets-de-Livet, in Eure, Normandy William Shakespeare ( baptised Stratford-upon-Avon (ˌstrætfɚd əpɒn ˈɛɪvən is a Market town and Civil parish in south Warwickshire, England. Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 1854 – 30 November 1900 was an Irish Playwright, Novelist, poet and Author of General James Wolfe ( 2 January, 1727 &ndash 13 September, 1759) was a British Army officer known for his training reforms Greenwich ( ˈɡrɛnɪtʃ GREN-itch /ˈɡrɛnɪdʒ/ GREN-idge or /ˈɡrɪnɪdʒ/ GRIN-idge is a district in south-east London, William Booth ( April 10, 1829 &ndash August 20, 1912) was a British Methodist preacher who founded The Salvation The Salvation Army is a Christian charity and church that is internally organised like a military service. The term martyr ( Greek μάρτυς martys "witness" is most commonly used today to describe an individual who sacrifices their life (or personal freedom Biography Maximilian Kolbe was born in January 1894 in Zduńska Wola, which was at that time part of the Russian Empire. Manche Masemola (1913-1928 was a Christian Martyr, of the Pedi tribe lived in Marishane, a small village near Pietersburg, in South Janani Jakaliya Luwum (1922 &ndash 17 February, 1977) was the Archbishop of the Church of Uganda from 1974 to 1977 and one of the most influential HIH The Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna of Russia (Elizabeth Feodorovna Romanova Елизавета Фëдоровна Романова ( 1 November 1864 Martin Luther King Jr ( January 15, 1929 April 4, 1968) was an American clergyman, Activist and prominent leader Óscar Arnulfo Romero y Galdámez ( August 25 1917 &ndash March 24 1980) commonly known as Monseñor Romero, was a Bishop Dietrich Bonhoeffer ˈdiːtrɪç ˈboːnhøfɐ ( February 4, 1906 &ndash April 9, 1945) was a German Lutheran Esther John was a Christian Nurse. She is counted in ten most famous Christian martyrs of the present day Lucian Tapiedi (b ca 1921—1942 was a Papuan Anglican teacher who was one of the "New Guinea Martyrs Wang Zhiming ( 1907 - December 29, 1973) was a Miao Pastor little known outside his home in Wuding County, Yunnan Charles II (Charles Stuart 29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685 was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 Old Style &ndash 3 September 1658 Old Style) was an English military and political leader best known Lord Protector is a particular British title for Heads of State with two meanings (and full styles at different periods of history Robert Blake (1599 — August 17, 1657) was one of the most important military commanders of the Commonwealth of England, and one of the most famous John Pym (1584 &ndash December 8, 1643) was an English parliamentarian, leader of the Long Parliament and a prominent critic of Laurence Kerr Olivier Baron
Westminster School and Westminster Abbey Choir School are also in the precincts of the Abbey. The Royal College of St Peter in Westminster, almost always known as Westminster School, is one of Britain 's leading boys' Independent schools with Westminster Abbey Choir School (WACS is a British boarding preparatory school and the only school in the United Kingdom exclusively for the education of It was natural for the learned and literate monks to be entrusted with education, and Benedictine monks were required by the Pope to maintain a charity school in 1179; Westminster School may have been founded even earlier for children or novices, and the legendary Croyland Chronicle relates a story of 11th century king Edward the Confessor's Queen Editha chatting to a schoolboy in the cloisters, and sending him off to the Palace larder for a treat. Benedictine refers to the Spirituality and Consecrated life in accordance with the Rule of St Benedict, written by Benedict of Nursia in The Croyland Chronicle (or " Crowland Chronicle " is an important if not always reliable primary source for English Medieval history in particular King Edward the Confessor (c 1003 &ndash 5 January 1066 son of Ethelred the Unready, was the penultimate Anglo-Saxon King of England and the last Edith of Wessex, (c 1029 &ndash December 19 1075) married King Edward the Confessor of England in 1045
The organ was built by Harrison & Harrison in 1937, then with four manuals and 84 speaking stops, and was used for the first time at the Coronation of King George VI. Harrison & Harrison are a firm of Pipe organ builders in the UK, examples of whose work can also be found in many other countries Some pipework from the previous Hill organ of 1848 was revoiced and incorporated in the new scheme. The two organ cases, designed in the late nineteenth century by John Loughborough Pearson, were re-instated and coloured in 1959. John Loughborough Pearson ( Brussels, 5 July 1817 - 11 December 1897) was a 19th-century Architect renowned for his work In 1982 and 1987, Harrison and Harrison enlarged the organ under the direction of the then Abbey Organist Simon Preston to include an additional Lower Choir Organ and a Bombarde Organ: the current instrument now has five manuals and 109 speaking stops. Simon Preston (born 4 August 1938, Bournemouth, England) is an English Organist, conductor, and Composer In 2006 the console of the organ was refurbished by Harrison and Harrison, and space was prepared for two additional 16ft stops on the Lower Choir Organ and the Bombarde Organ.
The Abbey is a collegiate church organised into the College of St Peter, which comprises the Dean and four residentiary Canons (one of whom is also Rector of St Margaret's Church, Westminster, and Speaker's Chaplain), and seventeen other persons who are members ex officio, as well as twelve lay vicars and ten choristers. Nathaniel Giles (1558-1633 or 1634 was an English Renaissance organist and composer John Mundy or Munday (c 1550/1554 – 29 June 1630) was an English Composer and Organist of the Renaissance period Edmund Hooper (ca 1553 &ndash 1621 was an English composer and Organist. Orlando Gibbons ( baptised 25 December 1583 &ndash 5 June 1625) was an English Composer and Organist Thomas Day ( 22 June 1748 - 28 September 1789) was a British author John Blow (baptised 23 February 1649 &ndash 1 October 1708 was an English Composer and Organist. Henry Purcell (ˈpɜrsəl 10 September 1659 (? – 21 November 1695 was an English Baroque Composer. John Blow (baptised 23 February 1649 &ndash 1 October 1708 was an English Composer and Organist. William Croft (30 December (baptism 1678 - 14 August 1727 was an English Composer and organist. Benjamin Cooke ( 1734 - 14 September 1793) was an English Composer, Organist and Teacher. Samuel Arnold ( 1740 - October 22, 1802) was an English Composer and Organist. Thomas Greatorex ( October 5, 1758 – July 18, 1831) was an English Composer, Astronomer and Mathematician. James Turle (1802-1882 was an English Organist and Composer, was born at Taunton, Somerset, and started as a Choirboy Sir John Frederick Bridge ( 5 December 1844 &ndash 18 March 1924) was an English Composer and organist at Westminster Abbey Sir Sydney Hugo Nicholson ( 9 February 1875 &ndash 30 May 1947) was an English Choir director Organist and Sir Ernest Bullock ( 15 September 1890, Wigan, England – 24 May 1979, Aylesbury, England was an English Sir William Neil McKie (22 May 1901 Melbourne, Australia – 1 December 1984 Ottawa, Canada) was an Australian Organist Douglas Albert Guest ( 9 May 1916 &ndash 18 November 1996) was an English Organist, conductor, Teacher Simon Preston (born 4 August 1938, Bournemouth, England) is an English Organist, conductor, and Composer Martin Neary is an English Organist and Choral conductor. He is a former organist of Winchester Cathedral and Westminster Abbey. James O'Donnell (born 1961 in Scotland) is the current Organist and Master of the Choristers of Westminster Abbey. The London Underground is a Metro system serving a large part of Greater London and neighbouring areas of Essex, Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire St James's Park is a London Underground station by St James's Park in the City of Westminster. For other items relating to Westminster see Westminster (disambiguation Westminster is a London Underground station in the The word rector ("ruler" from the Latin regere and Rector meaning "Teacher" In Latin has a number of different meanings but all of them indicate an academic The Anglican church of St Margaret Westminster is situated in the grounds of Westminster Abbey on Parliament Square, and is the Parish church A lay clerk, also known as a lay vicar, song man or a vicar choral, is a professional adult Singer (or an accomplished amateur in a Cathedral The seventeen are the Receiver-General and Chapter Clerk, the Registrar, the Auditor, the Legal Secretary and the Clerk of the Works (the administrative officers). Chapter Clerk is the title usually given to the officer responsible for the administrative support to the Chapter of a Cathedral or Collegiate church in The most general definition of an audit is an evaluation of a person organization system process project or product The Clerk of the Works or Clerk of Works (often abbreviated CoW is a person employed by the Architect or client on a Construction site. Those more directly concerned with liturgical and ceremonial operations include the Precentor, the Chaplain and Sacrist, the Organist, and the (honorary) High Steward and High Bailiff. A precentor is one who helps facilitate worship The details vary depending on the religion denomination and era in question A sacristan is an officer who is charged with the care of the Sacristy, the church, and their contents The High Steward of Westminster Abbey is an honorary role at Westminster Abbey, London The Abbey and its property is in the care of the Librarian, the Keeper of the Muniments, and the Surveyor of the Fabric. Lastly, the educational role of the Abbey is reflected in the presence of the Headmaster of the Choir School, the Headmaster and Under Master of Westminster School, and the Master of The Queen's Scholars. The Royal College of St Peter in Westminster, almost always known as Westminster School, is one of Britain 's leading boys' Independent schools with
The Abbey is governed by the Dean and Chapter established under the Elizabethan statute of 1560. This consists of the Dean and the four residentiary Canons.
The Westminster abbey museum is located in the 11th century vaulted undercroft of St Peter beneath the former monks' dormitory in Westminster Abbey. The Westminster Abbey Museum is located in the magnificent 11th century vaulted undercroft of St Peter beneath the former monks' dormitory in Westminster Abbey, This is one of the oldest areas of the Abbey, dating back almost to the foundation of the Norman church by King Edward the Confessor in 1065. King Edward the Confessor (c 1003 &ndash 5 January 1066 son of Ethelred the Unready, was the penultimate Anglo-Saxon King of England and the last
The exhibits include a unique collection of royal and other funeral effigies (funeral saddle, helm and shield of Henry V), together with other treasures, including some panels of medieval glass, 12th century sculpture fragments, Mary II's coronation chair and replicas of the Coronation regalia, effigies of Edward III, Henry VII and his queen, Elizabeth I, Charles II, William III, Mary II and Queen Anne.
Later wax effigies include a striking likeness of Horatio, Viscount Nelson wearing some of his own clothes and another of the famous Prime Minister William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, modelled by an American lady called Patience Wright. During recent conservation of Elizabeth I's effigy a unique corset dating from 1603 was found on the figure and is now displayed separately.
A recent addition to the display is the late 13th century Westminster Retable, England's oldest altarpiece. It was most probably designed for the High Altar of the Abbey, although it has been damaged in past centuries. The panel has been expertly cleaned and conserved. One section shows the figure of St Peter, the patron saint of the Abbey.
The Great West Door and towers, as seen from Tothill Street
An view of from the nearby London Eye to the North East
At night, from Dean's Yard to the South; artificial light highlights the flying buttresses
The North entrance
Four of the ten Christian martyrs depicted in statues above the Great West Door
The Quire in 1848. The London Eye, also known as the Millennium Wheel, is the tallest (its height is) Ferris wheel in Europe, and has become the most popular paid tourist A flying buttress, or arc-boutant, is a specific type of Buttress usually found on a religious building such as a Cathedral. The term martyr ( Greek μάρτυς martys "witness" is most commonly used today to describe an individual who sacrifices their life (or personal freedom
The tomb of Henry III of England in the Abbey. Henry III may refer to Henry III Duke of Bavaria (940-989 Henry III Holy Roman Emperor (1017-1056 Henry the Lion
The Little Cloister