Weaving is an ancient textile art and craft that involves placing two sets of threads or yarn called the warp and weft of the loom and turning them into cloth. Harris Tweed ( Clò Mór or Clò na Hearadh in Gaelic) is a luxury Cloth that has been handwoven by the islanders on the Isles Harris ( Na Hearadh in Scottish Gaelic nə hɛɾəɣ is the southern part of the largest island of the Western Isles of Scotland or Outer A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial Fibres often referred to as thread or Yarn. This article is about the fiber product For the type of joke see Shaggy dog story. In Weaving, the warp is the set of lengthwise Yarns through which the Weft is woven WEFT Champaign 901FM is a Community radio station in Champaign Illinois, founded in 1981 and owned by Prairie Air Inc A loom is a Machine or device for Weaving thread or Yarn into Textiles Looms can range from very small hand-held frames to large free-standing A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial Fibres often referred to as thread or Yarn. This cloth can be plain (in one color or a simple pattern), or it can be woven in decorative or artistic designs, including tapestries. Tapestry is a form of Textile art. It is woven by hand on a vertical Loom.
The majority of commercial fabrics, in the West, are woven on computer-controlled Jacquard looms. A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial Fibres often referred to as thread or Yarn. A computer is a Machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. The Jacquard Loom is a mechanical Loom, invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard in 1801, that has holes punched in pasteboard each row of which corresponds to In the past, simpler fabrics were woven on other dobby looms and the Jacquard harness adaptation was reserved for more complex patterns. A Dobby Loom is a type of floor Loom that controls the warp threads using a device called a dobby. Some believe the efficiency of the Jacquard loom, and the Jacquard weaving process makes it more economical for mills to use them to weave all of their fabrics, regardless of the complexity of the design. Jacquard Weaving makes possible in almost any Loom the programmed raising of each warp thread independently of the others However, an industrialist weaving large runs of simple plain weave fabric may need to be convinced of the logic of investing in Jacquard machines, when a much lower cost loom would suffice.
Handweaving, along with hand spinning, is a popular craft. Spinning is an ancient textile art in which plant, animal or synthetic Fibers are twisted together to form Yarn (or thread Weavers use wooden looms to create rugs, fabrics, and tapestries. A loom is a Machine or device for Weaving thread or Yarn into Textiles Looms can range from very small hand-held frames to large free-standing Tapestry is a form of Textile art. It is woven by hand on a vertical Loom.
Fabric in which the warp and/or weft is tie-dyed before weaving is called ikat. Tie-dye is typically brightly colored patterned Textile or clothing which is made from knit or woven fabric usually Cotton, through a Resist dyeing Ikat, or Ikkat, is a style of Weaving that uses a Resist dyeing process similar to Tie-dye on either the warp or Weft Fabric decorated using a wax resist method is called batik. Batik ( pronunciation:, but often in English is or) is a wax-resist Dyeing technique used on Textile.
Satin weaves, twill weaves, and plain weaves are the 3 basic types of weaving by which the majority of woven products are formed. Satin weave is one of the three important Textile weaves. (The other two are Plain weave and Twill weave Twill is a type of fabric woven with a pattern of diagonal parallel ribs Plain or tabby weave is the most basic of the three fundamental types of Textile weaves.
In general, weaving involves the interlacing of two sets of threads at right angles to each other: the warp and the weft. In Geometry, two lines or planes (or a line and a plane are considered perpendicular (or orthogonal) to each other if they form congruent In Weaving, the warp is the set of lengthwise Yarns through which the Weft is woven WEFT Champaign 901FM is a Community radio station in Champaign Illinois, founded in 1981 and owned by Prairie Air Inc The warp are held taut and in parallel order, typically by means of a loom, though some forms of weaving may use other methods. The loom is warped (or dressed) with the warp threads passing through heddles on two or more harnesses. The warp threads are moved up or down by the harnesses creating a space called the shed. In Weaving, the shed is the area between upper and lower warp yarns through which the Weft is woven The weft thread is wound onto spools called bobbins. The bobbins are placed in a shuttle which carries the weft thread through the shed. The raising/lowering sequence of warp threads gives rise to many possible weave structures from the simplest plain weave (also called tabby), through twills and satins to complex computer-generated interlacings. Twill is a type of fabric woven with a pattern of diagonal parallel ribs Satin weave is one of the three important Textile weaves. (The other two are Plain weave and Twill weave
Both warp and weft can be visible in the final product. By spacing the warp more closely, it can completely cover the weft that binds it, giving a warpfaced textile such as rep weave. Conversely, if the warp is spread out, the weft can slide down and completely cover the warp, giving a weftfaced textile, such as a tapestry or a Kilim rug. Tapestry is a form of Textile art. It is woven by hand on a vertical Loom. Kilims are flat Tapestry -woven Carpets or Rugs produced from the Turkey, Balkans to Pakistan. There are a variety of loom styles for hand weaving and tapestry. A loom is a Machine or device for Weaving thread or Yarn into Textiles Looms can range from very small hand-held frames to large free-standing In tapestry, the image is created by placing weft only in certain warp areas, rather than across the entire warp width. WEFT Champaign 901FM is a Community radio station in Champaign Illinois, founded in 1981 and owned by Prairie Air Inc
There are some indications that weaving was already known in the Palaeolithic era. The term Paleolithic (or Palaeolithic) (from Greek παλαιός palaios, " Old " and λίθος Lithos, "stone" An indistinct textile impression has been found at Pavlov, Moravia. Neolithic textiles are well known from finds in pile dwellings in Switzerland. The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos Stilt houses or pile dwellings are houses raised on Piles over the surface of the soil or a body of water One extant fragment from the Neolithic was found in Fayum at a site which dates to about 5000 BCE. The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos Faiyum ( Arabic: الفيوم Coptic:) is a city in Middle Egypt and the capital of the Faiyum Governorate. This fragment is woven at about 12 threads by 9 threads per cm in a plain weave. Flax was the predominant fibre in Egypt at this time and continued popularity in the Nile Valley, even after wool became the primary fibre used in other cultures around 2000 BCE. Flax (also known as common flax or linseed) (binomial name Linum usitatissimum) is a member of the genus Linum The Nile (النيل, Ancient Egyptian iteru or Ḥ'pī, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing River Wool is the fiber derived from the specialized skin cells called follicles of animals in the Caprinae family principally sheep, but the hair of certain species Another Ancient Egyptian item, known as the Badari dish, depicts a textile workshop. This item, catalogue number UC9547, is now housed at the Petrie Museum and dates to about 3600 BCE. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology in London, England, is run by the Institute of Archaeology, which is part of University College Enslaved women worked as weavers during the Sumerian Era. Sumer ( Sumerian: sux-Latn [[Ki (earth ki]]-[[EN (cuneiform en]]-'''ĝir15''', Akkadian: Šumeru; possibly Biblical Shinar They would wash wool fibers in hot water and wood-ash soap and then dry them. Wool is the fiber derived from the specialized skin cells called follicles of animals in the Caprinae family principally sheep, but the hair of certain species Lye is a Corrosive alkaline substance commonly Sodium hydroxide (NaOH Next, they would beat out the dirt and card the wool. Carding is the processing of brushing raw or washed Fibers to prepare them as Textiles A large variety of fibers can be carded anything from Dog hair, to The wool was then graded, bleached, and spun into a thread. A bleach is a Chemical that removes color or whitens often via Oxidation. The spinners would pull out fibers and twist them together. This was done by either rolling fibers between palms or using a hooked stick. The hands ( med / lat: manus pl manūs are the two intricate prehensile multi- Fingered body parts normally located at the end of each arm of a The thread was then placed on a wooden or bone spindle and rotated on a clay whorl which operated like a flywheel. Wood is hard fibrous lignified structural tissue produced as secondary Xylem in the stems of Woody plants notably trees but also shrubs Bones are rigid organs that form part of the Endoskeleton of Vertebrates They function to move support and protect the various organs of the body produce Clay is a naturally occurring material composed primarily of fine-grained Minerals which show plasticity through a variable range of Water content, and A flywheel is a mechanical device with significant Moment of inertia used as a storage device for Rotational energy.
The slaves would then work in three-woman teams on looms, where they stretched the threads, after which they passed threads over and under each other at perpendicular angles. A loom is a Machine or device for Weaving thread or Yarn into Textiles Looms can range from very small hand-held frames to large free-standing The finished cloth was then taken to a fuller. A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial Fibres often referred to as thread or Yarn.
Easton's Bible Dictionary (1897) points to numerous Biblical references to weaving in ancient times:
Weaving was an art practised in very early times (Ex. 35:35). The Egyptians were specially skilled in it (Isa. 19:9; Ezek. 27:7), and some have regarded them as its inventors.
In the wilderness, the Hebrews practised it (Ex. 26:1, 8; 28:4, 39; Lev. 13:47). It is referred to in subsequent times as specially the women's work (2 Kings 23:7; Prov. 31:13, 24). No mention of the loom is found in Scripture, but we read of the "shuttle" (Job 7:6), "the pin" of the beam (Judg. 16:14), "the web" (13, 14), and "the beam" (1 Sam. 17:7; 2 Sam. 21:19). The rendering, "with pining sickness," in Isa. 38:12 (A.V.) should be, as in the Revised Version, "from the loom," or, as in the margin, "from the thrum. The Revised Version (or English Revised Version) of the Bible is a late 19th-century British revision of the King James Version of 1611 " We read also of the "warp" and "woof" (Lev. 13:48, 49, 51-53, 58, 59), but the Revised Version margin has, instead of "warp," "woven or knitted stuff. "
Textile weaving, using cotton dyed with pigments, was a dominant craft among pre-contact tribes of the American southwest, including various Pueblo peoples, the Zuni, and the Ute tribes. Cotton is a soft staple Fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant ( Gossypium sp Pueblos are traditional communities of Native Americans in the southwestern United States of America. The Zuni (also spelled Zuñi by the Spanish and in early 20th Century ethnological texts or Ashiwi (as the Zuni refer to themselves in their own UTE ( Usinas y Terminales Eléctricas) is Uruguay 's government-owned power company The first Spaniards to visit the region wrote about seeing Navajo blankets. With the introduction of sheep and wool by Europeans, the Navajo adopted the new source of thread and the resulting woolen products have become very well known. The Navajo or Diné people (also spelled Navaho) of the Southwestern United States By the 1700s the Navajo had begun to import yarn with their favorite color, Bayeta red.
Using an upright loom, the Navajos made almost exclusively utilitarian blankets. Little patterning and few colors were characteristic of almost all early blankets, except for the much sought after Chief's Blanket, which evolved from the 1st Phase, few wide bands, to the 2nd phase, wide bands with squares on the corners to the 3rd Phase which made more and more use of patterns and colors. The Navajo also traded for commercial wool, including the uniforms of soldiers, to reweave into intricate multicolored blankets called Germantown.
Under the influence of European settlers at trading posts, the local Navajos began to weave blankets and rugs into distinct styles. Navajo rugs and blankets are Textiles produced by Navajo people ( Diné) of the Four Corners area of the United States. They included "Two Gray Hills" (predominantly black and white, with traditional patterns), "Teec Nos Pos" (colorful, with very extensive patterns), "Ganado" (founded by Don Lorenzo Hubbell), red dominated patterns with black and white, "Crystal" (founded by J. Don Lorenzo Hubbell ( November 27, 1853 &ndash November 12, 1930) was a 19th century trader instrumental in promoting the sale of Navajo B. Moore), oriental and Persian styles (almost always with natural dyes), "Wide Ruins," "Chinlee," banded geometric patterns, "Klagetoh," diamond type patterns, "Red Mesa" and bold diamond patterns. The Persian carpet ( Pahlavi bōb Persian farš فرش meaning "to spread" and qāli) is an essential part of A mesa ( Spanish, Portuguese and Arabic for "table" is an elevated area of land with a flat top and sides that are usually steep cliffs Many of these patterns exhibit a fourfold symmetry, which is thought to embody traditional ideas about harmony.
In Native Amazonia, densely woven palm-bast mosquito netting, or tents, were utilized by the Panoans, Tupí, Western Tucano, Yameo, Záparoans, and perhaps by the indigenous peoples of the central Huallaga River basin (Steward 1963:520). The Amazon Rainforest (Brazilian Portuguese: Floresta Amazônica or Amazônia; Spanish: Selva Amazónica or Amazonía Arecaceae or Palmae (also known by the name Palmaceae, which is taxonomically invalid or commonly palm tree) the palm family is a family of Flowering Mosquitoes are insects in the family Culicidae. They have a pair of scaled wings a pair of Halteres, a slender body and long legs A tent is a shelter consisting of sheets of fabric or other material draped over or attached to a frame of poles or attached to a supporting rope The term Indigenous Peoples or autochthonous peoples can be used to describe any Ethnic group who inhabit a geographic region with which they have the earliest historical Aguaje palm-bast (Mauritia flexuosa, Mauritia minor, or swamp palm) and the frond spears of the Chambira palm (Astrocaryum chambira, A. Astrocaryum chambira (Chambira palm is a palm native to Amazon Rainforest Vegetation in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru munbaca, A. tucuma, also known as Cumare or Tucum) have been used for centuries by the Urarina of the Peruvian Amazon to make cordage, net-bags hammocks, and to weave fabric. The Urarina are an Indigenous people of the Peruvian Amazon Basin ( Loreto) who inhabit the Chambira, Urituyacu and Corrientes Rivers The hammock is a fabric sling used for Sleeping or resting while suspended above ground A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial Fibres often referred to as thread or Yarn. Among the Urarina, the production of woven palm-fiber goods is imbued with varying degrees of an aesthetic attitude, which draws its authentication from referencing the Urarina’s primordial past. The Urarina are an Indigenous people of the Peruvian Amazon Basin ( Loreto) who inhabit the Chambira, Urituyacu and Corrientes Rivers Urarina mythology attests to the centrality of weaving and its role in engendering Urarina society. The word mythology (from the Greek grc μυθολογία mythología, meaning "a story-telling a legendary lore" The post-diluvial creation myth accords women’s weaving knowledge a pivotal role in Urarina social reproduction. Diluvium is a term in Geology for superficial deposits formed by Flood -like operations of water and so contrasted with Alluvium or Alluvial A creation myth is a supernatural mytho-[[religion religious]] story or explanation that describes the beginnings of humanity, Earth, life, and Even though palm-fiber cloth is regularly removed from circulation through mortuary rites, Urarina palm-fiber wealth is neither completely inalienable, nor fungible since it is a fundamental medium for the expression of labor and exchange. Wealth derives from the old English word "weal" which means "well-being The circulation of palm-fiber wealth stabilizes a host of social relationships, ranging from marriage and fictive kinship (compadrazco, spiritual compeership) to perpetuating relationships with the deceased. An interpersonal relationship is a relatively long-term association between two or more people NOTICE TO WOULD-BE ROMEOS ************** Kinship is a relationship between any entities that share a genealogical origin through either biological cultural or historical descent Death is the termination of the biological functions that define living Organisms It refers both to a specific 
Hand weaving of carpets and kilims has been an important element of the tribal crafts of many of the subregions of modern day Iran. Kilims are flat Tapestry -woven Carpets or Rugs produced from the Turkey, Balkans to Pakistan. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Examples of carpet types are the Lavar Kerman carpet from Kerman and the Seraband rug from Arak. Kerman (کرمان is a city in Iran. It is the center of Kerman province. Seraband rug or Saraband, is an Iranian (Persian handwoven floor covering from the Ser-e Band district located southwest of Arak Iran.
Before the Industrial Revolution, weaving remained a manual craft, usually undertaken by craftsmen in their homes. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the Looms might be broad or narrow; broad looms were those too wide for the weaver to pass the shuttle through the shed, so that the weaver needed an assistant (often an apprentice). Apprenticeship is a system of Training a new generation of practitioners of a skill This ceased to be necessary after John Kay invented the flying shuttle in 1733, which also sped up the process of weaving. A number of people have been called John Kay: John Kay (flying shuttle (1704&ndash1780 English inventor of textile machinery notably the Flying shuttle The flying shuttle was developed by John Kay ( 1704 - 1764) In 1733 he invented one of the key developments in Weaving that helped
The first attempt to mechanise weaving was the work of Edmund Cartwright from 1785. Edward (Edmund Cartwright ( April 24, 1743 &ndash October 30, 1823) was an English clergyman and inventor of the Power He built a factory at Doncaster and obtained a series of patents between 1785 and 1792. Doncaster is a large town in South Yorkshire, England and the principal settlement of the Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster. In 1788, his brother Major John Cartwight built Revolution Mill at Retford (named for the centenary of the Glorious Revolution. John Cartwright ( 17 September 1740 &ndash 23 September 1824) served in the Royal Navy then joined the Nottinghamshire Retford is a Market town in Nottinghamshire in the East Midlands of England, located 31 miles from the County town of Nottingham The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland in 1688 by a union In 1791, he licensed his loom to the Grimshaw brothers of Manchester, but their Knott Mill burnt down the following year (possibly a case of arson). Edmund Cartwight was granted a reward of £10,000 by Parliament for his efforts in 1809. The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories  However, success in power-weaving also required improvements by others, including H. Horrocks of Stockport. Stockport ( is a large town in Greater Manchester, England. It lies on elevated ground on the River Mersey at the influx of the rivers Goyt Only during the two decades after about 1805, did power-weaving take hold. This led ultimately to hardship among handloom weavers, whose wages were driven down by competition from machine. This led to machine breaking by the Luddites. The Luddites were a Social movement of British Textile artisans in the early Nineteenth century who protested&mdashoften by destroying mechanized Textile manufacture was one of the leading sectors in the British Industrial Revolution, but weaving was a comparatively late sector to be mechanised. See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the However, ultimately, the various innovations took weaving from a home-based artisan activity (labour intensive and man-powered) to mass-production under the power of steam undertaken in factories. An artisan, also called a Craftsman, is a skilled manual worker who crafts items that may be functional or strictly decorative including furniture clothing A steam engine is a Heat engine that performs Mechanical work using Steam as its Working fluid. A factory (previously manufactory) or manufacturing plant is an industrial Building where workers manufacture goods See also Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution. With the establishment of overseas colonies, the British Empire at the end of the 17th century/beginning of the 18th century had a vast source of raw materials and a vast market
Another important step forward was the invention in France of the Jacquard loom, enabling complicated patterned cloths to be woven, by using punched cards to determine which threads of coloured yarn should appear on the upper side of the cloth. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Jacquard Weaving makes possible in almost any Loom the programmed raising of each warp thread independently of the others
Colonial America was heavily reliant on Great Britain for manufactured goods of all kinds. The term colonial history of the United States refers to the history of the land that would become the United States from the start of European settlement to the time of independence See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands British policy was to encourage the production of raw materials in colonies. Weaving was not prohibited, but the export of British wool was. Wool is the fiber derived from the specialized skin cells called follicles of animals in the Caprinae family principally sheep, but the hair of certain species As a result many people wove cloth from locally produced fibers in Colonial America.
In Colonial times the colonists mostly used cotton and flax for weaving. Cotton is a soft staple Fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant ( Gossypium sp Flax (also known as common flax or linseed) (binomial name Linum usitatissimum) is a member of the genus Linum They could get one cotton crop each fall. Flax was harvested in the summer.
In preparing wool for weaving, colonists would first shear the sheep with spring back clippers. Sheep shearing, shearing or clipping is the process by which the woollen fleece of a Sheep is cut off This was done while keeping the sheep's feet from touching anything so it would not try to break free. They would try to cut the wool off the sheep in one big chunk because that way they would get long fibers. Sheep-shearing was done in the spring so that the fleece would regrow in time for the winter.
After shearing, wool would be washed in hot water to get out the dirt and grease (lanolin), then carded, at which point it would be ready for spinning into yarn. Lanolin, also called Adeps Lanae, wool wax, wool fat, anhydrous wool fat or wool grease, is a greasy yellow substance secreted by Spinning is an ancient textile art in which plant, animal or synthetic Fibers are twisted together to form Yarn (or thread Washing the wool was a delicate procedure, because they didn't want to agitate the fibres too much in the process, and end up with felt. Felt is a non-woven cloth that is produced by matting condensing and pressing fibers If the wool was clean enough (little to no vegetable matter), they could wait until after it is spun to clean out the lanolin, at which point it is easier to clean because it is yarn.
A card is a set of two brushes stroked one on the other with the fibre in the middle. This process of carding loosen and fluffs the fiber, as opposed to combing, which lines up all the fibres in the same direction, making the wool or cotton ready for spinning. Carding is the processing of brushing raw or washed Fibers to prepare them as Textiles A large variety of fibers can be carded anything from Dog hair, to Combing is a method for preparing Fiber for spinning by use of combs Spinning is an ancient textile art in which plant, animal or synthetic Fibers are twisted together to form Yarn (or thread
Cotton was harvested from little stalks. The cotton boll is white, roughly spherical and fluffy. Its seeds had to be removed before carding, a difficult and time-consuming process. (Later, a "cotton gin" was invented which took a lot of the work out of seed removal. A Cotton Gin' (short for cotton engine) is a machine that quickly and easily separates the Cotton fibers from the seedpods and the sometimes sticky seeds a job ) After carding it would be ready for spinning.
Linen is made from flax fibre. After growing the flax, workers had to ret it. Retting is a stage in the manufacturing of vegetable fibers, especially the Bast fibers It is a process that employs water and microbial action to separate the bast To prepare flax for weaving, the stalks would be "braked", meaning beaten, with a tool that looks like a paper cutter but instead of having a big knife it has a blunt arm, then a scutching tool (a blunt wooden knife) is used to scrape away pieces of the stalk, and then the fibre is pulled through a heckling comb to get it ready for spinning. In Botany, a peduncle is a stalk supporting an Inflorescence, or after Fecundation a fruit Heckling combs are used to remove the fibrous core and impurities from Flax. A heckling comb is like a brush with metal bristles that you pull flax stalks through.
After they spun the yarn, it would be dyed with berries, bark, flowers, herbs or weeds, often gathered by children.
With the yarn made, they would prepare the loom. The strings on a loom run in two directions. The yarn that is attached to the loom is called the warp, and the woof or weft is woven through it. In Weaving, the warp is the set of lengthwise Yarns through which the Weft is woven WEFT Champaign 901FM is a Community radio station in Champaign Illinois, founded in 1981 and owned by Prairie Air Inc The woof is wrapped around the shuttle, and woven alternately over and under the warp strings. A shuttle is a tool designed to neatly and compactly store Weft yarn while Weaving.
A plain weave was what most people liked in Colonial times. Almost everything was plain woven then. Sometimes designs were woven into the fabric but mostly designs were added after weaving. The colonists would usually add designs by using either wood block prints or embroidering.
The Jacquard loom attachment was perfected in 1801, and was becoming common in Europe by 1806. The Jacquard Loom is a mechanical Loom, invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard in 1801, that has holes punched in pasteboard each row of which corresponds to It came to the US in the early 1820's, some immigrant weavers bringing jacquard equipment with them, and spread west from New England. At first it was used with traditional human-powered looms. As a practical matter, previous looms were mostly limited to the production of simple geometric patterns. The jacquard allowed individual control of each warp thread, row by row without repeating, so very complex patterns were suddenly feasible. Jacquard woven coverlets (bedspreads) became popular by mid-century, in some cases being custom-woven with the name of the customer embedded in the programmed pattern. A woven coverlet or coverlid is a type of Bed covering with a woven design in colored Wool Yarn on a background of natural Undyed cotton warp was usually combined with dyed wool weft.
Natural dyes were used until just before the Civil War, when artificial dyes started to come into use.