A weapon of mass destruction (WMD) is a weapon which can kill large numbers of humans and/or cause great damage to man-made structures (e. A weapon is a Tool used either in Hunting, or attack or defence in Combat for the purpose of subduing enemy personnel or to destroy enemy weapons Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus g. buildings), natural structures (e. g. mountains) or the biosphere in general. The term covers several weapon types, including nuclear, biological, chemical (NBC) and, increasingly, radiological weapons. A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from Nuclear reactions either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Biological warfare (BW — known as a germ warfare, biological weapons and bioweaponry — is the use of any Pathogen ( Bacterium Chemical warfare involves using the toxic properties of Chemical substances to kill injure or incapacitate an enemy. A radiological weapon (or radiological dispersion device, RDD) is any weapon that is designed to spread Radioactive material with the intent to kill and There is controversy over when the term was first used, either in 1937 (in reference to the aerial bombardment of Guernica, Spain) or in 1945 (with reference to nuclear weapons). A bomb is any of a range of devices that typically rely on the Exothermic Chemical reaction of an Explosive material to produce an extremely The bombing of Guernica ( April 26, 1937) was an aerial attack on the Basque town of Guernica, causing widespread destruction and Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and progressing through the Cold War, the term came to refer more to non-conventional weapons. The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were nuclear attacks near the end of World War II against the Empire of Japan by the United States at Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the A conventional weapon is a Weapon that does not incorporate toxic chemical, biological or nuclear payloads The phrase entered widespread usage in relation to the U.S.-led 2003 invasion of Iraq. Multi-National Force - Iraq (MNF-I, is a military command, led by the United States that is fighting the Iraq War against Iraqi insurgents or resistants The 2003 invasion of Iraq, from March 20 to May 1 2003 was spearheaded by the United States, backed by British forces and smaller contingents from Australia Terms used in a military context include atomic, biological, and chemical warfare (ABC warfare), nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) after the invention of the hydrogen bomb, and chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN), recognizing the threat of subcritical radiological weapons. The Teller–Ulam design is a Nuclear weapon design which is used in Megaton -range Thermonuclear weapons and is more colloquially referred to as "the CBRN is an acronym referring to Chemical Biological Radiological and Nuclear. A critical mass is the smallest amount of Fissile material needed for a sustained Nuclear chain reaction.
Due to the indiscriminate impact of WMD, the fear of a WMD attack has shaped political policies and campaigns, fostered social movements, and has been the central theme of many films. Support for different levels of WMD development and control varies nationally and internationally. Yet understanding of the nature of the threats is not high, in part because of imprecise usage of the term by politicians and the media.
|“||Who can think at this present time without a sickening of the heart of the appalling slaughter, the suffering, the manifold misery brought by war to Spain and to China? Who can think without horror of what another widespread war would mean, waged as it would be with all the new weapons of mass destruction?||”|
At that time, there were no nuclear weapons; biological weapons were already being researched by Japan, (see Unit 731), and chemical weapons had seen wide use. The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict in Spain that started after an attempted Coup d'état committed by parts of the army against the government of The Second Sino-Japanese War ( July 7, 1937 to September 9, 1945) was a major war fought between the Republic of China and the A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from Nuclear reactions either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Biological warfare (BW — known as a germ warfare, biological weapons and bioweaponry — is the use of any Pathogen ( Bacterium For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. was a covert biological and Chemical warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during Chemical warfare involves using the toxic properties of Chemical substances to kill injure or incapacitate an enemy.
The application of the term to specifically nuclear and radiological weapons is traced by William Safire to the Russian phrase oruziye massovovo porazheniya. A radiological weapon (or radiological dispersion device, RDD) is any weapon that is designed to spread Radioactive material with the intent to kill and William L Safire (born December 17, 1929) is an American author semi-retired columnist and former Journalist and presidential He credits James Goodby (of the Brookings Institution) with tracing what he considers the earliest known English-language use soon after the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (although it is not quite verbatim): a communique from a November 15, 1945 meeting of Harry Truman, Clement Attlee and Mackenzie King (probably drafted by Vannevar Bush — or so Bush claimed in 1970) referred to "weapons adaptable to mass destruction". The Brookings Institution is a nonprofit public policy organization based in Washington D The Japanese city of ( is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chūgoku region of western Honshū, the largest of Japan 's ( is the Capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. Events 655 - Battle of Winwaed: Penda of Mercia is defeated by Oswiu of Northumbria. Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar Clement Richard Attlee 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC ( 3 January 1883 &ndash 8 October 1967 William Lyon Mackenzie King PC OM CMG ( December 17, 1874 – July 22, 1950) was a Canadian Vannevar Bush ( March 11, 1890 &ndash June 30, 1974; pronounced "VAN-ee-var" ˈvæˌniː That exact phrase, says Safire, was also used by Bernard Baruch in 1946 (in a speech at the United Nations probably written by Herbert Bayard Swope). Bernard Mannes Baruch (bəˈɹuk ( August 18, 1870 &ndash June 20, 1965) was a Jewish-American Financier, stock market Speculator The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Herbert Bayard Swope ( January 5 1882 - June 20 1958) was a U  The same phrase found its way into the UN resolution to create the Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)), which used the wording "…atomic weapons and of all other weapons adaptable to mass destruction". The United Nations Atomic Energy Commission ( UNAEC) was founded on 24 January 1946 by the first resolution of the United Nations General Assembly The International Atomic Energy Agency ( IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its
An exact use of this term was given in a lecture "Atomic Energy as an Atomic Problem" by J. Robert Oppenheimer. The lecture was delivered to the Foreign Service and the State Department, on September 17th, 1947. The United States Foreign Service is the diplomatic service of the United States government under the aegis of the Department of State. The lecture is reprinted in The Open Mind (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1955). "It is a very far reaching control which would eliminate the rivalry between nations in this field, which would prevent the surreptitious arming of one nation against another, which would provide some cushion of time before atomic attack, and presumably therefore before any attack with weapons of mass destruction, and which would go a long way toward removing atomic energy at least as a source of conflict between the powers. "
An early use of the exact phrase in an international treaty was in the Outer Space Treaty of 1967, however no definition was provided. A Treaty is an agreement under International law entered into by actors in international law namely States and International organizations. Key points of the Treaty The Outer Space Treaty represents the basic legal framework of international space law
The term "WMD" had fallen out of use since the early Cold War era, when it was primarily a reference to nuclear weapons. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the At the time, the US stockpiles of thermonuclear weapons were regarded as a necessary deterrent against an all-out strike from the Soviet Union (see Mutual Assured Destruction). The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Mutual assured destruction ( MAD; sometimes written as mutually assured destruction) is a Doctrine of military Strategy in which a full-scale Hence the less dysphemistic military term strategic weapons fell into favor with US policy-makers who approved of, or at least condoned, the amassed American nuclear arsenal. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
In 1990 and during the 1991 Gulf War, WMD was resurrected and used widely by members of the Clinton Administration, including Madeleine Albright, Samuel Berger and William Cohen, by other western politicians and by the media. The United States Presidency of Bill Clinton, also known as the Clinton Administration, was the executive branch of the Federal Madeleine Korbel Albright (born Marie Jana Korbelová on May 15, 1937) was the first woman to become United States Secretary of State. Samuel Richard "Sandy" Berger (born October 28, 1945) served as the 19th United States National Security Advisor under President William Sebastian Cohen (born 28 August 1940) is an author and American politician from the U They referred more specifically to the chemical weapons that were in Iraq under Hussein’s regime. Chemical warfare involves using the toxic properties of Chemical substances to kill injure or incapacitate an enemy. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti ( Arabic: ar صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي --> April 28 1937 &ndash December 30 "Weapons of mass destruction" replaced "strategic weapons" in the common American lexicon. After 9/11, it would be the anthrax attacks, and the multitude of hypothetical smallpox terrorist attack scenarios in the media that would shape the prevalent image of a weapon of mass destruction into a device of bioterrorism. The 2001 Anthrax attacks in the United States, also known as Amerithrax from its Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI case name occurred over For the use of biological agents in warfare see Biological warfare. This usage reached a crescendo with the 2002 Iraq disarmament crisis and the alleged existence of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq that became the primary justification for the 2003 invasion of Iraq. The issue of Iraq's disarmament reached a crisis in 2002-2003 when U The Niger uranium forgeries refers to falsified classified documents initially revealed by Italian intelligence. The 2003 invasion of Iraq, from March 20 to May 1 2003 was spearheaded by the United States, backed by British forces and smaller contingents from Australia Because of its prolific use, the American Dialect Society voted WMD the word of the year in 2002, and in 2003 Lake Superior State University added WMD to its list of terms banished for "Mis-use, Over-use and General Uselessness". The American Dialect Society, founded in 1889 is a Learned society "dedicated to the study of the English language in North America, and of other The word of the year refers to any of various assessments as to the most important word or expression in the Public sphere. Lake Superior State University is a small Public university in Sault Sainte Marie Michigan. 
The most widely used definition is that of nuclear, biological or chemical weapons (NBC) although there is no treaty or customary international law that contains an authoritative definition. A Treaty is an agreement under International law entered into by actors in international law namely States and International organizations. International law is the term commonly used for referring to the system of implicit and explicit agreements that bind together nation-states in adherence to recognized values and standards Instead, international law has been used with respect to the specific categories of weapons within WMD, and not to WMD as a whole.
The acronym NBC is used with regards to battlefield protection systems for armored vehicles, because all three involve insidious toxins that can be carried through the air and can be protected against with vehicle air filtration systems. An armoured fighting vehicle ( AFV) is a military Vehicle, protected by armour and armed with Weapons Most AFVs are equipped for driving in rugged An air filter is a device which removes solid Particulates such as Dust, Pollen, Mold, and bacteria from Air. However, there is an argument that nuclear weapons do not belong in the same category as chemical, biological, or "dirty bomb" radiological weapons, which have limited destructive potential (and close to none, as far as property is concerned), whereas nuclear weapons are immensely destructive and could be said to belong in a class by themselves. The term dirty bomb is primarily used to refer to a radiological dispersal device ( RDD) a speculative Radiological weapon which combines Radioactive
The NBC definition has also been used in official U. S. documents, by the US President the US Central Intelligence Agency, the US Department of Defense, and the US General Accounting Office. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by near as long as it used to be several months ago It has been actively summarized and split into sub-articles and there is a dynamic talk page discussion of all The United States Department of Defense ( DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government The Government Accountability Office ( GAO) is the Audit, Evaluation, and investigative arm of the United States Congress. 
Other documents expand the definition of WMD to also include radiological or conventional weapons. A conventional weapon is a Weapon that does not incorporate toxic chemical, biological or nuclear payloads The US military refers to WMD as:
The significance of the words separable and divisible part of the weapon is that missiles such as the Pershing II and the SCUD are considered weapons of mass destruction, while aircraft capable of carrying bombloads are not. Pershing was a family of solid-fueled two-stage Medium-range ballistic missiles designed and built by Martin Marietta to replace the Redstone missile as Scud is a series of Tactical ballistic missiles developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War and exported widely to other countries
While in US civil defense, the category is now Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive (CBRNE), which defines WMD as:
The US FBI also considers conventional weapons (i. A conventional weapon is a Weapon that does not incorporate toxic chemical, biological or nuclear payloads e. bombs) as WMD: "A weapon crosses the WMD threshold when the consequences of its release overwhelm local responders". Gustavo Bell Lemus, the Vice President of Colombia, at the 2001 United Nations Conference on the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects, quoted the Millennium Report of the UN Secretary-General to the General Assembly, in which Kofi Annan said that small arms could be described as WMD because the fatalities they cause "dwarf that of all other weapons systems - and in most years greatly exceed the toll of the atomic bombs that devastated Hiroshima and Nagasaki". Gustavo Adolfo Bell Lemus (born on February 1, 1957 in Barranquilla, Atlantico) is a Colombian Historian, Journalist Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. Kofi Atta Annan, GCMG (born 8 April 1938 is a Ghanaian Diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations Small arms is a term used by the Armed forces to refer to Infantry Weapons such as the Firearms that an individual soldier can carry The Japanese city of ( is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chūgoku region of western Honshū, the largest of Japan 's ( is the Capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. 
Chemical weapons expert Gert G. Harigel considers only nuclear weapons true weapons of mass destruction, because "only nuclear weapons are completely indiscriminate by their explosive power, heat radiation and radioactivity, and only they should therefore be called a weapon of mass destruction". He prefers to call chemical and biological weapons "weapons of terror" when aimed against civilians and "weapons of intimidation" for soldiers. Testimony of one such soldier expresses the same viewpoint.  For a period of several months in the winter of 2002-2003, US Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz frequently used the term "weapons of mass terror," apparently also recognizing the distinction between the psychological and the physical effects of many things currently falling into the WMD category. The United States Deputy Secretary of Defense is the second-highest ranking official in the United States Department of Defense. Paul Dundes Wolfowitz (born December 22, 1943) is a former United States Ambassador to Indonesia, U
An additional condition often implicitly applied to WMD is that the use of the weapons must be strategic. In other words, they would be designed to "have consequences far outweighing the size and effectiveness of the weapons themselves".  The strategic nature of WMD also defines their function in the military doctrine of total war as targeting the means a country would use to support and supply its war effort, specifically its population, industry, and natural resources. Total war is a conflict of unlimited scope in which a Belligerent engages in a total mobilization of all available resources at his disposal
The Washington Post reported on 3/30/2006: "Jurors asked the judge in the death penalty trial of Zacarias Moussaoui today to define the term "weapons of mass destruction" and were told it includes airplanes used as missiles". The Washington Post is the largest and most circulated Newspaper in Washington D Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. Zacarias Moussaoui ( Arabic: زكريا موسوي; born May 30 1968 is a French citizen who was convicted of conspiring to kill citizens Moussaoui was indicted and tried for the use of airplanes as WMD. (see above).
The development and use of WMD is governed by international conventions and treaties, although not all countries have signed and ratified them:
In 1996 the International Court of Justice provided an advisory opinion regarding the use and threat of use of nuclear weapons. Arms control is an umbrella term for restrictions upon the development production stockpiling Proliferation, and usage of Weapons especially Weapons of mass A Treaty is an agreement under International law entered into by actors in international law namely States and International organizations. The Treaty banning Nuclear Weapon Tests In The Atmosphere In Outer Space And Under Water, often abbreviated as the Partial Test Ban Treaty ( PTBT) Key points of the Treaty The Outer Space Treaty represents the basic legal framework of international space law The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, also Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty ( NPT or NNPT) is a Treaty to limit the spread The Seabed Arms Control Treaty (or Seabed Treaty) is a multilateral agreement between the United States, Soviet Union, United Kingdom, and 84 The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT bans all nuclear explosions in all environments for military or civilian purposes The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (usually referred to as the The Chemical Weapons Convention ( CWC) is an Arms control agreement which outlaws the production stockpiling and use of chemical weapons Its full name is Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons was an Advisory opinion delivered by the International Court of Justice (ICJ on 8 July The statement is an authoritative legal pronouncement but not legally binding. It stated that any threat of the use of force, or the use of force, by means of nuclear weapons that is contrary to Article 2, paragraph 4 of the United Nations Charter or that fails to meet all the requirements of Article 51 would be unlawful. The United Nations Charter is the Treaty that forms and establishes the International organization called the United Nations.
Adopted by the UN Security Council on April 28, 2004, UN Resolution 1540 recognizes the threat posed to international peace and security by nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, as well as their means of delivery. Events 1192 - Assassination of Conrad of Montferrat (Conrad I King of Jerusalem, in Tyre, two days after his title "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " It calls upon greater effort by nations to limit proliferation of such weapons.
Weapons of mass destruction, especially nuclear weapons, are rarely used because their use is essentially an "invitation" for a WMD retaliation, which in turn could escalate into a war so destructive it could easily destroy huge segments of the world's population. During the Cold War, this understanding became known as mutually assured destruction and was largely the reason war never broke out between the WMD-armed United States and Soviet Union. Mutual assured destruction ( MAD; sometimes written as mutually assured destruction) is a Doctrine of military Strategy in which a full-scale The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991
The only country to have used a nuclear weapon in war is the United States. The United States was the first country in the world to develop Nuclear weapons, and is the only country to have used them as actual weapons, Nations that are known or believed to possess Nuclear weapons are sometimes referred to as the nuclear club. The Federal government of the United States is known to have possessed three types of Weapons of mass destruction: Nuclear weapons chemical weapons There are eight countries that have declared they possess nuclear weapons and are known to have tested a nuclear weapon, only five of which are members of the NPT. The eight include: People's Republic of China; France; India; Pakistan; Russia; The United Kingdom; the United States of America; and North Korea. The People's Republic of China is estimated by the US Government to have an arsenal of about 150 Nuclear weapons as of 1999, which matches France is one of the five "Nuclear Weapons States" under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty but is not known to possess or develop any chemical or India is believed to possess an arsenal of Nuclear weapons and maintains intermediate-range Ballistic missiles to deliver them The Islamic Republic of Pakistan began focusing on nuclear development in January 1972 under the leadership of Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Russia possesses the largest stockpile of Weapons of mass destruction in the world The United Kingdom is one of the five official nuclear weapon states under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and has an independent nuclear deterrent The United States was the first country in the world to develop Nuclear weapons, and is the only country to have used them as actual weapons, North Korea is the commonly used short form name for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (or DPRK) a State located in East Asia, Israel is considered by most analysts to have nuclear weapons numbering in the low hundreds as well, but maintains an official policy of nuclear ambiguity, neither denying nor confirming its nuclear status. Israel is widely believed to possess a substantial arsenal (an estimated 100 to 200 of Nuclear weapons and maintains intercontinental-range Ballistic missiles to deliver Iran is suspected by western countries of seeking nuclear weapons, a claim that it denies. Iran is not known to possess Weapons of mass destruction, and has signed treaties repudiating possession of them including the Biological Weapons South Africa developed a small nuclear arsenal in the 1980s but disassembled them in the early 1990s, making it the only country to have fully given up an independently developed nuclear weapons arsenal. During the 1970s and 1980s South Africa pursued research into nuclear, biological, and Chemical weapons Six nuclear weapons were assembled. Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine inherited stockpiles of nuclear arms following the break-up of the Soviet Union, but relinquished them to the Russian Federation. Belarus ( Belarusian Беларусь / Biełaruś is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the north and east Kazakhstan, also Kazakstan ( Қазақстан, Qazaqstan, qɑzɑqˈstɑn Казахстан, Kazakhstán,) officially the Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Countries with access to nuclear weapons through nuclear sharing agreements include: Belgium, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Turkey. Nuclear sharing is a concept in NATO 's policy of nuclear deterrence, which involves member countries without Nuclear weapons of their own in the planning The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Though Germany is one of the most technologically advanced countries in the world since World War II it has generally refrained from using this technology to outfit Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Although the Netherlands do not have weapons of mass destruction made by itself the country participates in the NATO Nuclear weapons sharing arrangements and trains Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches North Korea has claimed to have developed and tested nuclear devices; although outside sources have been unable to unequivocally support the state's claims, North Korea has officially been identified to have nuclear weapons. North Korea claims to possess Nuclear weapons and the CIA asserts that it has a substantial arsenal of Chemical weapons.
Fear of WMD, or of threats diminished by the possession of WMD, has long been used to catalyze public support for various WMD policies. They include mobilization of pro- and anti-WMD campaigners alike, and generation of popular political support. The term WMD may be used as a powerful buzzword, or to generate a culture of fear. Culture of fear is a term that refers to a perceived prevalence of Fear and Anxiety in public discourse and relationships and how this may affect the way people . It is also used ambiguously, particularly by not distinguishing among the different types of WMD. 
A television commercial called Daisy, promoting Democrat Lyndon Johnson's 1964 presidential candidacy, invoked the fear of a nuclear war and was an element in Johnson's subsequent election. A television advertisement or television commercial (often just commercial or advert (US or ad (UK is a span of television programming produced " Daisy," sometimes known as " Daisy Girl " or " Peace Little Girl," was a controversial campaign Television advertisement Please DO NOT flip the colors -->The United States presidential election of 1964 was one of the most lopsided presidential elections in the history of the United States
More recently, the threat of potential WMD in Iraq was used by George W. Bush to generate public support for the 2003 invasion of Iraq.  Broad reference to Iraqi WMD in general was seen as an element of Bush's arguments.  As Paul Wolfowitz explained: "For bureaucratic reasons, we settled on one issue, weapons of mass destruction, because it was the one reason everyone could agree on. " To date, however, Coalition forces have found mainly degraded artillery shells. Multi-National Force - Iraq (MNF-I, is a military command, led by the United States that is fighting the Iraq War against Iraqi insurgents or resistants On June 21, 2006, United States Senator Rick Santorum claimed that "We have found weapons of mass destruction in Iraq, chemical weapons. Richard John Santorum (born May 10, 1958) is a former United States Senator from the Commonwealth of " According to the Washington Post, he was referring to 500 such shells "that had been buried near the Iranian border, and then long forgotten, by Iraqi troops during their eight-year war with Iran, which ended in 1988. " That night, "intelligence officials reaffirmed that the shells were old and were not the suspected weapons of mass destruction sought in Iraq after the 2003 invasion. " The shells had been uncovered and reported on in 2004.  In 2004 Polish troops found 17 1980s-era rocket warheads, thwarting an attempt by militants to buy them at $5000 each. Some of the rockets contained extremely deteriorated nerve agent.  In 2003 an IAEA team removed 1. The International Atomic Energy Agency ( IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its 8 tonnes of low enriched uranium and 500 tonnes of natural uranium which had been stored under IAEA seal since 1991. Enriched uranium is a kind of Uranium in which the percent composition of Uranium-235 has been increased through the process of Isotope separation. Natural uranium (NU refers to refined Uranium with the same Isotopic ratio as found in nature 
In 2004 the Center for International and Security Studies at Maryland (CISSM) released a report examining the media’s coverage of WMD issues during three separate periods: India’s nuclear weapons tests in May 1998; the US announcement of evidence of a North Korean nuclear weapons program in October 2002; and revelations about Iran's nuclear program in May 2003. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness yield and explosive capability of Nuclear weapons Throughout the twentieth century most nations North Korea claims to possess Nuclear weapons and the CIA asserts that it has a substantial arsenal of Chemical weapons. The nuclear program of Iran was launched in the 1950s with the help of the United States as part of the Atoms for Peace program The CISSM report notes that poor coverage resulted less from political bias among the media than from tired journalistic conventions. Media bias in the United States The report’s major findings were that:
In a separate study published in 2005, a group of researchers assessed the effects reports and retractions in the media had on people’s memory regarding the search for WMD in Iraq during the 2003 Iraq War. In Psychology, memory is an organism's ability to store retain and subsequently retrieve information This article concerns the Iraqi government's use possession and alleged intention of acquiring more types of Weapons of mass destruction (WMD during the presidency of The study focused on populations in two coalition countries (Australia and USA) and one opposed to the war (Germany). The term coalition of the willing is a post-1990 political phrase used to describe military or military/humanitarian interventions for which the United Nations Security Council For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Results showed that US citizens generally did not correct initial misconceptions regarding WMD, even following disconfirmation; Australian and German citizens were more responsive to retractions. Dependence on the initial source of information led to a substantial minority of Americans exhibiting false memory that WMD were indeed discovered, while they were not. Confabulation, also known as false memory is the confusion of Imagination with Memory, and/or the confusion of true memories with false memories This led to three conclusions:
A poll conducted between June and September of 2003 asked people whether they thought WMD had been discovered in Iraq since the war ended. They were also asked which media sources they relied upon. Those who obtained their news primarily from Fox News were three times as likely to believe that evidence confirming WMD had been discovered in Iraq than those who relied on PBS and NPR for their news, and one third more likely than those who primarily watched CBS.
|Media source||Respondents believing evidence of WMD had been found in Iraq since the war ended|
Based on a series of polls taken from June-September 2003. CBS Broadcasting Inc ( CBS) is an American radio and Television network. The National Broadcasting Company ( NBC) is an American Television network headquartered in the GE Building in New York City's Cable News Network, usually referred to by its Initialism CNN, is a major English language Television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner The American Broadcasting Company ( ABC) is an American Television network. Printing is a process for reproducing text and image typically with ink on Paper using a printing press The Public Broadcasting Service ( PBS) is a Non-profit Public broadcasting Television service with 354 member TV stations in the 
In 2005 the Washington Post reported that US troops had raided a suspected chemical weapons factory.  In 2006 Fox News reported the claims of two Republican lawmakers that WMDs had been found in Iraq, based upon unclassified portions of a report by the National Ground Intelligence Center. The National Ground Intelligence Center (NGIC is part of the United States Army Intelligence and Security Command. Quoting from the report Senator Rick Santorum said "Since 2003, coalition forces have recovered approximately 500 weapons munitions which contain degraded mustard or sarin nerve agent". Richard John Santorum (born May 10, 1958) is a former United States Senator from the Commonwealth of Many news agencies, including Fox News, reported the conclusions of the CIA that, based upon the investigation of the Iraq Survey Group, WMDs have yet to be found in Iraq. near as long as it used to be several months ago It has been actively summarized and split into sub-articles and there is a dynamic talk page discussion of all The Iraq Survey Group (ISG was a fact-finding mission sent by the Multinational force in Iraq after the 2003 Invasion of Iraq to find the alleged Iraqi weapons 
From US Code Title 18. 2332a 
(2) the term “weapon of mass destruction” means— (A) any destructive device as defined in section 921 of this title; (B) any weapon that is designed or intended to cause death or serious bodily injury through the release, dissemination, or impact of toxic or poisonous chemicals, or their precursors; (C) any weapon involving a biological agent, toxin, or vector (as those terms are defined in section 178 of this title); or (D) any weapon that is designed to release radiation or radioactivity at a level dangerous to human life;
From Title 18. 921 
(4) The term “destructive device” means— (A) any explosive, incendiary, or poison gas— (i) bomb, (ii) grenade, (iii) rocket having a propellant charge of more than four ounces, (iv) missile having an explosive or incendiary charge of more than one-quarter ounce, (v) mine, or (vi) device similar to any of the devices described in the preceding clauses; (B) any type of weapon (other than a shotgun or a shotgun shell which the Attorney General finds is generally recognized as particularly suitable for sporting purposes) by whatever name known which will, or which may be readily converted to, expel a projectile by the action of an explosive or other propellant, and which has any barrel with a bore of more than one-half inch in diameter; and (C) any combination of parts either designed or intended for use in converting any device into any destructive device described in subparagraph (A) or (B) and from which a destructive device may be readily assembled. The term “destructive device” shall not include any device which is neither designed nor redesigned for use as a weapon; any device, although originally designed for use as a weapon, which is redesigned for use as a signaling, pyrotechnic, line throwing, safety, or similar device; surplus ordnance sold, loaned, or given by the Secretary of the Army pursuant to the provisions of section 4684 (2), 4685, or 4686 of title 10; or any other device which the Attorney General finds is not likely to be used as a weapon, is an antique, or is a rifle which the owner intends to use solely for sporting, recreational or cultural purposes.
From Title 18. 178 
(1) the term “biological agent” means any microorganism (including, but not limited to, bacteria, viruses, fungi, rickettsiae or protozoa), or infectious substance, or any naturally occurring, bioengineered or synthesized component of any such microorganism or infectious substance, capable of causing— (A) death, disease, or other biological malfunction in a human, an animal, a plant, or another living organism; (B) deterioration of food, water, equipment, supplies, or material of any kind; or (C) deleterious alteration of the environment;(2) the term “toxin” means the toxic material or product of plants, animals, microorganisms (including, but not limited to, bacteria, viruses, fungi, rickettsiae or protozoa), or infectious substances, or a recombinant or synthesized molecule, whatever their origin and method of production, and includes— (A) any poisonous substance or biological product that may be engineered as a result of biotechnology produced by a living organism; or (B) any poisonous isomer or biological product, homolog, or derivative of such a substance;(3) the term “delivery system” means— (A) any apparatus, equipment, device, or means of delivery specifically designed to deliver or disseminate a biological agent, toxin, or vector; or (B) any vector;(4) the term “vector” means a living organism, or molecule, including a recombinant or synthesized molecule, capable of carrying a biological agent or toxin to a host; and(5) the term “national of the United States” has the meaning prescribed in section 101(a)(22) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U. S. C. 1101 (a)(22)).
Based on this the sarin and mustard gas found DO classify as weapons of mass destruction.
Awareness and opinions of WMD have varied during the course of their history. Their threat is a source of unease, security and pride to different people. The anti-WMD movement is embodied most in nuclear disarmament, and led to the formation of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. Nuclear disarmament is the proposed dismantling of Nuclear weapons.
In 1998 University of New Mexico's Institute for Public Policy released their third report on US perceptions - including the general public, politicians and scientists - of nuclear weapons since the break up of the Soviet Union. The University of New Mexico ( UNM) is a Public University in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Risks of nuclear conflict, proliferation, and terrorism were seen as substantial. While maintenance of a nuclear US arsenal was considered above average in importance, there was widespread support for a reduction in the stockpile, and very little support for developing and testing new nuclear weapons.
Also in 1998, but after the UNM survey was conducted, nuclear weapons became an issue in India's election of March, in relation to political tensions with neighboring Pakistan. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and Prior to the election the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) announced it would “declare India a nuclear weapon state” after coming to power. The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP (भारतीय जनता पार्टी, Translation: Indian People's Party) founded in 1980 is a major Political BJP won the elections, and on May 14, three days after India tested nuclear weapons for the second time, a public opinion poll reported that a majority of Indians favored the country’s nuclear build-up.
On April 15, 2004, the Program on International Policy Attitudes (PIPA) reported that US citizens showed high levels of concern regarding WMD, and that preventing the spread of nuclear weapons should be "a very important US foreign policy goal", accomplished through multilateral arms control rather than the use of military threats. The Program on International Policy Attitudes (PIPA is an institution devoted to research on the public opinion of international politics Nuclear proliferation is a term now used to describe the spread of Nuclear weapons, fissile material and weapons-applicable nuclear technology and information to nations Multilateralism is a term in International relations that refers to multiple countries working in concert on a given issue A majority also believed the US should be more forthcoming with its biological research and its Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty commitment of nuclear arms reduction, and incorrectly thought the US was a party to various non-proliferation treaties. The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, also Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty ( NPT or NNPT) is a Treaty to limit the spread
A Russian opinion poll conducted on August 5, 2005 indicated half the population believes new nuclear powers have the right to possess nuclear weapons.  39% believes the Russian stockpile should be reduced, though not fully eliminated.
Weapons of mass destruction and their related impacts have been a mainstay of popular culture since the beginning of the Cold War, as both political commentary and humorous outlet. Popular culture (or pop culture) is the Culture — patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activities significance and importance — Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the
Nuclear weapons have been a central theme of movies since The Day the Earth Stood Still (1951); two of the most famous are Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb (1964) and Fail-Safe (1964). The Day the Earth Stood Still is a 1951 Black-and-white Science fiction film that tells the story of a humanoid alien visitor who comes Fail-Safe is a 1964 film directed by Sidney Lumet, based on the 1962 novel of the same name by Eugene Burdick and Harvey Biological weapons have also featured, as in Twelve Monkeys (1995). Twelve Monkeys is an Academy Award -nominated 1995 Science fiction film directed by Terry Gilliam and written by David Several early James Bond films involve a madman, most notably Ernst Stavro Blofeld of the fictional terrorist organization S.P.E.C.T.R.E., who intends to use either nuclear or biological weapons in the quest for world domination. James Bond 007 is a Fictional character created in 1953 by writer Ian Fleming, who featured him in twelve Novels and two Short story A spectre or specter is a (usually terrifying phantom, Apparition, or Ghost, or an unreal appearance World domination (sometimes world conquest, global domination, or Colloquially taking over the world) in which a single political authority This has been parodied in the Austin Powers series with Dr. Evil. The Austin Powers series is a series of Comedy films written and produced by and stars Mike Myers as the title character, directed by Jay Dr Evil (born Douglas "Dougie" Powers) is a fictional character played by Mike Myers, in the Austin Powers Film series
WMDs are a popular theme in science fiction. The seminal novel Dune discusses atomic weapons, and its sequel Dune Messiah employs one called a Stone Burner. Dune is a Science fiction novel written by Frank Herbert and published in 1965. Dune Messiah is a Science fiction novel by Frank Herbert, the second in a series of six novels Atomics is a term used to describe Nuclear weapons in the ''Dune'' universe created by Frank Herbert. In the Star Wars universe, the Death Star is a moveable, multi-use WMD (meaning that it, unlike most WMD missiles, can be used thousands of times. Star Wars is an epic Space opera franchise initially conceived by George Lucas during the 1970s and significantly expanded The Death Star is a Fictional Space station and Superweapon appearing in the Star Wars movies and expanded universe. ) In the Babylon 5 universe, WMDs have been used a number of times, most directly by the Earth Alliance (the Earth-Minbari War uses nuclear weapons), the Army of Light (the Shadow War, also nuclear), the Centauri (Narn-Centauri War, planetary bombardment with asteroids by mass drivers), as well as on their own planet on the Isle of Selini to rid themselves of the Shadows (nuclear), and the Drakh (biological warfare against Earth). Babylon 5 is an American science fiction television series created produced and largely written by J The Earth-Minbari War is a fictional war that formed a major part of the Back story of the Science fiction Television series For the unrelated novel series see Chronicles of the Shadow War. A mass driver or electromagnetic Catapult is a method of Non-rocket spacelaunch that would use a Linear motor to Accelerate The Drakh are a fictional alien race in the Babylon 5 universe During Season 4, Episode 1 (09/03/1997 Stardate: 51003. 7) of Star Trek: Voyager, Captain Janeway (Kate Mulgrew) consults with Borg representative Seven of Nine (Jeri Ryan) on how to destroy Species 8472. Kathryn Janeway, played by Kate Mulgrew, is a main character of the Television series Star Trek Voyager. Katherine Kiernan "Kate" Mulgrew (born April 29 1955 is a American Actress, most famous for her roles as Mary Ryan on Ryan's Hope Jeri Lynn Ryan (born February 22 1968 is an American actress known for her roles in Movies and Television. Species 8472 is a Fictional extraterrestrial race in the Science fiction Television series Star Trek Voyager that inhabits Janeway calls Seven of Nine's "multikinetic neutronic mine. Five million isoton yield" a "Weapon of Mass Destruction. " Following up on a statement from Tuvok (Tim Russ) that it would affect the entire Solar System destroying innocent worlds, Seven of Nine replies, "It would be efficient. Tuvok, a Vulcan played by Tim Russ, is a character on the television series Star Trek Voyager where he serves as the ship's chief of security Timothy Darrell Russ (born June 22, 1956) is an American Actor, Film director, Screenwriter, and Musician. The Solar System consists of the Sun and those celestial objects bound to it by Gravity. "
In the context of the lead-up to the invasion of Iraq under the guise of Saddam Hussein's alleged WMDs, the phrase became ubiquitous. Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti ( Arabic: ar صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي --> April 28 1937 &ndash December 30 A parody based on Internet Explorer's "404 Not Found" message was created, poking fun at the state of international affairs, and for a time was the #1 hit for the Google search "weapons of mass destruction". Windows Internet Explorer (formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer abbreviated MSIE) commonly abbreviated to IE, is a series of graphical The 404 or Not Found Error message is an HTTP standard response code indicating that the client was able to communicate with the server Google Inc is an American public corporation, earning revenue from advertising related to its Internet search, e-mail, online Similarly, at the annual Radio and Television Correspondents Dinner, February 24, 2004, George W. Bush joked about being unable to find WMD in Iraq, saying "Those weapons of mass destruction must be somewhere", while showing images of himself searching the White House for something. The Radio and Television Correspondents Association (RTCA is an American Journalism group best known for holding an annual dinner in Washington D George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. See also Executive Office of the President of the United States The White House, formerly known as the Executive Mansion, is the Official residence  In 2003 an easyJet advertising campaign attracted controversy with a billboard ad featuring a woman's breasts with the phrase "discover weapons of mass distraction". EasyJet Airline Company Limited, styled as easyJet, is a low cost airline based at London Luton Airport.
Sue Townsend continued her best-selling series of comic-political novels with the 2004 Adrian Mole and the Weapons of Mass Destruction. Susan Lillian "Sue" Townsend (born 2 April 1946) is a British Novelist, best known as the author of the Adrian Mole Adrian Albert Mole (born April 2, 1967) is the fictional Protagonist in a series of books by English author Sue Townsend. Published in 2004 by Penguin Books, Adrian Mole and the Weapons of Mass Destruction is Sue Townsend 's sixth full Adrian Mole novel The eponymous hero trusts Tony Blair implicitly, and writes to him asking for proof of the WMDs' existence, so he can get a refund from the travel agency where he had deposited some money for a holiday in Cyprus, since this island is now apparently no longer safe to travel to. Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía
The 2005 series of Doctor Who contained a double episode about an alien invasion in London. Doctor Who is a British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC. This article is about invasion by Extra-terrestrial beings as a theme for other uses of the term see Alien invasion (disambiguation. In one scene, when discussing whether an attack on the aliens' space craft was warranted, politicians claimed it was necessary because the aliens had "massive weapons of destruction" which could be deployed "within forty-five seconds" — a reference to Prime Minister Tony Blair's claim in the lead-up to the Iraq War that Saddam Hussein had WMDs could be deployed within 45 minutes. Anthony Charles Lynton "Tony" Blair (born 6 May 1953 is a British Politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2 May 1997 to The Iraq War, also known as the Second Gulf War, the Occupation of Iraq, or the War in Iraq, is an ongoing Military campaign Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti ( Arabic: ar صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي --> April 28 1937 &ndash December 30 Iraq's Weapons of Mass Destruction The Assessment of the British Government, also known as the September Dossier, was a document published by the United Kingdom In The Simpsons "Treehouse of Horror XVII", aliens Kang and Kodos, spoofing the Iraq War, claim that they had to invade, as Earth was working on "Weapons of Mass Disintegration. " Treehouse of Horror XVII " Plot The episode begins with a parody of Tales from the Crypt, with Mr " In the episode ("Rekognize") of Da Ali G Show, Ali mistakenly refers to WMDs as "BLTs" (an acronym for the popular American sandwich made of bacon, lettuce, and tomato), going so far as to ask if there was mustard gas in the BLTs. The following is a list of episodes for both the US and UK versions of Da Ali G Show. Da Ali G Show is the name of two related satirical TV series starring British comedian Sacha Baron Cohen and featuring the character The sulfur mustards, of which mustard gas ( Bis (2-chloroethyl sulfide is a member are a class of related Cytotoxic, Vesicant Chemical
In 2005, the Paranoia RPG published a collection of new Straight-style missions under the title "WMD". Paranoia is a humorous Role-playing game set Each mission revolved around a plot device with the initials WMD. A plot device is an element introduced into a story solely to advance or resolve the plot of the story At least one of the missions involved an actual device that might have been a WMD; but, in general they simply focussed on situations rife with a sense of stress, uncertainty and fear. The hit TV show 24 typically features a different weapon of mass destruction in each season: the second, fourth and sixth seasons feature nuclear weapons, the third features a weaponized virus, and the fifth, VX nerve gas, a chemical weapon of mass destruction. 24 is an Emmy and Golden Globe award-winning American action Drama Television series. VX (S--O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate is an extremely toxic substance whose sole application is as a Nerve agent. In the Nextwave comic book the Beyond Corporation© is testing out "Unusual Weapons of Mass Destruction" within the US, starting with a weapon called Fin Fang Foom. Nextwave was a farcical Superhero Comic book series by Warren Ellis and Stuart Immonen, published by Marvel The Beyond Corporation© is a fictional multinational corporation that appears in the Comic books published by Marvel Comics. Fin Fang Foom is an extraterrestrial Dragon that appears in the fictional Marvel Universe, typically as an opponent of Iron Man.
Weapons of Mass Destruction is the title of an album released by the rapper Xzibit in 2004, who also called a car featured on Pimp My Ride a WMD. Weapons of Mass Destruction is the fifth album by Rapper Xzibit, released December 14, 2004. Rapping (also known as emceeing, MCing, spitting, or just rhyming) is the Rhythmic spoken delivery of Rhymes wordplay and Alvin Nathaniel Joiner, better known by his Stage name Xzibit (pronounced as "exhibit" is an American rapper, Actor, and Pimp My Ride is a TV show produced by MTV. Each episode consists of taking one car in poor condition and restoring it as well as customizing Faithless released the album No Roots in 2004 which contained the single "Mass Destruction", whose lyrics describe negative traits such as fear, racism, greed and inaction as "weapons of mass destruction". Faithless is a British Electronica band While they are mostly famous for their dance songs (" Insomnia " " God Is A DJ " and No Roots is a music album by Faithless, released in 2004 It reached number one on the UK Albums Chart that year giving them their first number one 
Air America Radio occasionally broadcasts an advertisement for its announcers saying the network is fighting back against "Weapons of Mass Deception. Air America Radio (commonly abbreviated to AAR) "
However, the mocking of the term dates back well before the Iraq War, with Hugh Cook's 1992 fantasy novel The Witchlord and the Weaponmaster satirically mentioned that the avalanche is a terrible weapon of mass destruction, outlawed by civilised countries in the conduct of war. Hugh Cook (born 1956 is a cult Author whose works blend Fantasy and Science fiction. This article refers to the natural event For other uses see Avalanche (disambiguation An avalanche is an abrupt and rapid flow of snow often
In a 1955 episode of the radio comedy series Hancock's Half Hour entitled "The Chef That Died of Shame", there is a joke about a UN delegate wanting the hero's dumplings added to a list of "Banned Weapons of Mass Destruction". Hancock's Half Hour was a ground-breaking and influential BBC Radio comedy series of the 1950s starring Tony Hancock, with Sid James Dumplings are "piece of Dough, sometimes filled that cooked in liquid such as water or soup" or "sweetened dough wrapped around fruit such as an apple baked
See main article: Hazard symbol
|Chemical warfare symbol||N/A||N/A|
The international radioactivity symbol (also known as trefoil) first appeared in 1946, at the University of California, Berkeley Radiation Laboratory. Hazard symbols are easily recognizable symbols designed to warn about hazardous materials or locations A skull and crossbones is a Symbol consisting of a human Skull and two bones crossed together under the skull Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable Atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting ionizing particles and Radiation. Chemical warfare involves using the toxic properties of Chemical substances to kill injure or incapacitate an enemy. Trefoil (from Latin trifolium, "three-leaved plant" French trèfle, German Dreiblatt and Dreiblattbogen) is a graphic form composed The University of California Berkeley (also referred to as Cal, Berkeley and UC Berkeley) is a major research university located in Berkeley At the time, it was rendered as magenta, and was set on a blue background. Magenta is a purplish red Color evoked by lights with less power in yellowish-green Wavelengths than in blue and red wavelengths ( complements of magenta have Blue is a Colour, the Perception of which is evoked by  It is drawn with a central circle of radius R, the blades having an internal radius of 1. 5R and an external radius of 5R, and separated from each other by 60°. 
Developed by Dow Chemical company in the 1960s for their containment products. 
According to Charles Baldwin, an environmental-health engineer who contributed to its development:
|“||We wanted something that was memorable but meaningless, so we could educate people as to what it means.||”|
(how to draw it)
The symbol used today as the biohazard sign is in fact a Japanese family crest, or mon. ( plural mon) also,, and, are Japanese heraldic symbols Mon may refer to any symbol while It can be found on page 195 of the book "Japanese Design Motifs: 4,260 Illustrations of Japanese Crests" translated by Fumie Adachi and published by Dover.
Weapons of Mass Destruction was the 2001-2002 Debate Resolution (policy debate). In Policy debate, a resolution or topic is a normative statement which the affirmative team affirms and the negative team negates
"Resolved: The United States federal government should establish a foreign policy significantly limiting the use of weapons of mass destruction. (2001-2002)"