A water tower, watershed, or elevated water tower is a very large elevated tower. The Water Tower of Louisville Kentucky, is the oldest ornamental water tower in the world having been built before the more famous Chicago Water Tower. Constructed for the purpose of holding a supply of water at a height sufficient to pressurize a water supply distribution system. Water supply is the process of self-provision or provision by third parties of water of various qualities to different users Pressurization occurs through the elevation of water; for every 2. 34 feet of elevation 1 PSI (pounds of pressure per square inch) is produced. 100 feet of elevation (@2. 34=1PSI) produces 42. 6 PSI of pressure, which is enough pressure to operate and provide for most domestic water pressure and distribution system requirements.
Many water towers were constructed during the industrial revolution and some of these are now considered architectural landmarks and monuments and may not be demolished. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the The term architecture (from Greek αρχιτεκτονικήarchitektoniki) can be used to mean a process a profession or documentation Originally a landmark literally meant a Geographic Feature used by explorers and A monument is a structure either explicitly created to commemorate a person or important event or which has become important to a social group as a part of their remembrance of past Some are converted to apartments or exclusive penthouses. A penthouse apartment or penthouse is an Apartment or Condominium that is on one of the highest floors of an Apartment building or condominium
In certain areas, such as New York City, smaller water towers are constructed for individual buildings. The City of New York The view from the roofs of New York include hundreds of water towers.
A variety of materials are used to construct the typical water tower; steel, and reinforced or prestressed concrete are the most often utilized with wood, fiberglsas even brick in use today. Steel is an Alloy consisting mostly of Iron, with a Carbon content between 0 Reinforced concrete is Concrete in which reinforcement bars (" Rebars quot or fibers have been incorporated to strengthen a material that would otherwise be Prestressed concrete is a method for overcoming the Concrete 's natural weakness in tension. A brick is a block of Ceramic material used in Masonry construction laid using mortar. The tower is usually spherical, cylindrical, or an ellipsoid, and has a minimum height of approximately 20 feet and a minimum of (12feet) in diameter. "Globose" redirects here See also Globose nucleus. A sphere (from Greek σφαίρα - sphaira, "globe A cylinder is one of the most basic curvilinear geometric shapes the Surface formed by the points at a fixed distance from a given Straight line, the axis An ellipsoid is a type of quadric surface that is a higher dimensional analogue of an Ellipse. A standard water tower has a typically has a height of approximately 120 feet (40 metres). Most water towers made of these materials will then have an interior coating to protect the water from the effects of the containment material.
The users of the water supply (a town, factory, or just a building) need to have water pressure to maintain the safety of the water supply. Shooter's Hill (or Shooters Hill) is a place and an electoral ward in the London Borough of Greenwich in south-east London. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. If a water supply is not pressurized sufficiently, several things can happen:
The height of the tower provides the hydrostatic pressure for the water supply system, and it may be supplemented with a pump. Fluid statics (also called hydrostatics) is the Science of Fluids at rest and is a sub-field within Fluid mechanics. For information on Wikipedia project-related discussions see WikipediaVillage pump. The volume of the reservoir and diameter of the piping provide and sustain flow rate. A reservoir is most broadly a place or hollow vessel where Fluid is kept in Reserve, for later use Geometry, a diameter of a Circle is any straight Line segment that passes through the center of the circle and whose Endpoints are on the However, relying on a pump to provide pressure is expensive; to keep up with varying demand, the pump would have to be sized to meet peak demands. During low demands jockey pumps are used to meet these lower water flow rate requirements. The feed from these pumps and a water tower first go to a hydropneumatic tank. This tank is use to provide consistent pressure with either a force (PSI) generated by pump or the water tower's hydrostatic force; this is where the water meets the citizens' demand for a constantly varying output pressure. The water tower reduces the need for cycling pumps and thus the need for an expensive pump control system, as this system would have to be sized sufficiently to give the same pressure at high flow rates. For information on Wikipedia project-related discussions see WikipediaVillage pump.
Very high flow rates are needed when fighting fires. With a water tower present, pumps can be sized for average demand, not peak demand; the water tower can provide water pressure during the day and pumps will refill the water tower when demands are lower.
Water towers can be surrounded by ornate coverings including fancy brickwork, a large ivy-covered trellis or they can be simply painted. Brickwork Masonry is produced when a Bricklayer uses Bricks and mortar to build up structures such as Walls Bridges and Hedera (English name ivy, plural ivies) is a genus of 15 species of climbing or ground-creeping Evergreen woody plants in the family A trellis is a structure usually made from interwoven pieces of wood bamboo or metal that is often made to support a Climbing plant or plants Some city water towers have the name of the city painted in large letters on the roof, as a navigational aid to aviators. Navigation is the process of reading and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another Sometimes the decoration can be humorous, as Granger, Iowa has two water towers, labeled HOT and COLD. Granger is a city in Dallas and Polk counties in the US state of Iowa. The House in the Clouds in Thorpeness was built to resemble a house in order to disguise the eyesore, whilst the lower floors were used for accommodation. The House in the Clouds is a Water tower at Thorpeness, Suffolk, UK Thorpeness is a village in the county of Suffolk, England. It is part of the parish of Aldringham cum Thorpe and is within the Suffolk Coast and When the town was connected to the mains water supply, the tank was dismantled and converted to additional living space.
Sapp Bros. truck stops use a water tower with a handle and spout -- looking like a coffee pot -- as the company logo. Many of their facilities have decorated actual water towers (presumably non-functional) on-site.
The first and original "Mushroom" -- Svampen in Swedish -- was built in Örebro in Sweden in the early 1950s and later copies were built around the world including Saudi-Arabia and Kuwait. Örebro is a city in Närke in central Sweden. Örebro is the seat of Örebro Municipality and the capital of Örebro County. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation.
Many small towns in the United States use their water towers to advertise local tourism, their local high school sports teams, or other locally notable factoids (see images below). The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
Water towers are very common in India, where the electricity supply is erratic in most places. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country
In many countries, water towers have been taken out of the water supply system and replaced by pumps alone. Water towers are often regarded to be the monuments of civil engineering. Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design construction and maintenance of the physical and naturally built Some are rejuvenated and converted to serve modern purposes. A good example of the latter is Wieża Ciśnień in Wroclaw, Poland. Wieża Ciśnień is a Water tower situated in Borek the district of Krzyki that is the southern borough of Wrocław, Poland. Wrocław (Breslau Vratislav Vratislavia or Wratislavia Yiddish: ברעסלוי) is the chief City of the historical region of Lower Silesia Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland
Historically those railroads that made use of the steam locomotives required a means of replenishing the locomotive's water reservoirs. A steam locomotive is a Locomotive powered by Steam. The term usually refers to its use on Railways but can also refer to a "road locomotive" Water Towers were common along the railroad. Filling these reservoirs was most commonly achieved by means of a water tower feeding one or more water cranes, usually located at stations and locomotive sheds. A water crane is a device used for delivering a large volume of Water into the tank or tender of a Steam locomotive.
Some water towers are also used as observation towers. There are even water towers with restaurants, such as the Goldbergturm in Sindelfingen, Germany. The Goldbergturm is a 51 metre high Water tower on the Goldberg ( gold mountain) at in Sindelfingen, Germany. Sindelfingen is a town in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. It is also common to use water towers as the location of transmission mechanisms in the UHF range with small power, for instance for closed rural broadcasting service, portable radio, or cellular telephone service. In Telecommunications transmission is the process of sending propagating and receiving an analogue or digital information signal over a physical point-to-point or
Last but not least, watertowers can be transformed into homes for adventurous and creative people like Wasserturm Utscheid Buscht in Rheinland Pfalz close to the Luxemburg border. Watertower Utscheid
In the 1800s, New York City required that all buildings higher than 6 stories be equipped with a rooftop water tower. The City of New York The City of New York This was necessary to prevent the need for excessively high pressures at lower elevations, which could burst pipes. In modern times, the towers have become fashionable in some circles. As of 2006, the neighborhood of Tribeca requires water towers on all buildings, whether or not they are being used. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. TriBeCa is a Neighborhood in Lower Manhattan, New York in the United States. Two companies in New York build water towers, both of which are family businesses in operation since the 1800s. A family business is a business in which one or more members of one or more families have a significant ownership interest and significant commitments toward the business’ overall well-being  The original water tower builders were barrel makers who expanded their craft to meet a modern need as buildings in the city grew taller in height. Even today, no sealant is used to hold the water in. Tank walls are held together with cables but leak through every gap when first filled. As the wood swells, the gaps close and become impermeable. 
The rooftop water towers store 5,000 to 10,000 gallons of water until it is needed in the building below. The upper portion of water is skimmed off the top for everyday use while the water in the bottom of the tank is held in reserve to fight fire. When the water drops below a certain level, a pressure switch, level switch or float valve will actuate a pump or open a public water line, to refill the water tower. 
Famous water towers in the United States include:
Famous water towers in the UK include:
Famous water towers in Slovenia include:
The local water tower at Grandview in Hampton, Virginia. Vladimir Grigoryevich Shukhov (Владимир Григорьевич Шухов ( - February 2 1939) was a Russian Engineer - Polymath Hyperboloid structures are Architectural structures designed with Hyperboloid Geometry. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Year 1896 ( MDCCCXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Hampton is an Independent city in Virginia, and therefore not part of any Virginia county
Brick-built water tower in Kimberley, Nottinghamshire, UK. Kimberley is a Town in Nottinghamshire, England, lying 6 miles northwest of Nottingham along the A610
Water tower at Saint-Parize-Le-Chatel, France.
Unique water tower in the shape of a ketchup bottle, Collinsville, Illinois (This is also the world's largest ketchup bottle. Ketchup (also spelled catsup or catchup) also known as tomato ketchup, tomato sauce, red sauce, Tommy sauce, Collinsville is a city located mainly in Madison County, and partially in St )
Water tower - Gödöllő, Hungary
Water Tower - Gyöngyös, Hungary
The Peachoid water tower in Gaffney, South Carolina, United States, built in 1981
The Kuwait Towers in Kuwait City, built in 1979
The old and new water towers in Nicollet, Minnesota
Water tower in Melbourne, Florida
Water tower in Claxton, Georgia
Water tower in Blaine, Minnesota
Former Darwin RAAF control and water tower. Tonwell is a small village in Bengeo Rural parish Hertfordshire. Hertfordshire (ˈhɑːtfədʃə(r, abbreviated Herts) is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in the East region of The Kuwait Towers are three towers of reinforced Concrete in Kuwait City. Nicollet is a city in Nicollet County, Minnesota, United States. Melbourne is a city in Brevard County Florida, United States. Claxton is a city in Evans County, Georgia, United States. The population was 2276 at the 2000 census Blaine is a city in Anoka and Ramsey counties in the US state of Minnesota. Salina (pronounced /səˈlaɪnə/) is a city in and the County seat of Saline County, Kansas, United States. Auburn Tigers is the name given to Auburn University athletic teams Auburn is a city in Lee County, Alabama, United States. It is the largest city in eastern Alabama with a 2007 population of 54348 Alabama (formally the State of Alabama;) is a State located in the southern region of the United States of America. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. RAAF Base Darwin is a Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF base located in the city of Darwin Northern Territory.