|Acid rain • Air Quality Index • Atmospheric dispersion modeling • Chlorofluorocarbon • Global dimming • Global warming • Haze • Indoor air quality • Ozone depletion • Particulate • Smog|
|Eutrophication • Hypoxia • Marine pollution • Ocean acidification • Oil spill • Ship pollution • Surface runoff • Thermal pollution • Wastewater • Waterborne diseases • Water quality • Water stagnation|
|Bioremediation • Herbicide • Pesticide • Soil Guideline Values (SGVs)|
|Actinides in the environment • Environmental radioactivity • Fission product • Nuclear fallout • Plutonium in the environment • Radiation poisoning • Radium in the environment • Uranium in the environment|
|Other types of pollution|
|Invasive species • Light pollution • Noise pollution • Radio spectrum pollution • Visual pollution|
|Montreal Protocol • Nitrogen Oxide Protocol • Kyoto Protocol • CLRTAP|
|DEFRA • EPA • Global Atmosphere Watch • Greenpeace • National Ambient Air Quality Standards|
|Environmental Science • Natural environment|
Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability disorder harm or discomfort to the physical systems or living organisms they are in Air pollution is the human introduction into the atmosphere of Chemicals Particulate matter, or Biological materials that cause harm or discomfort Acid rain is Rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually Acidic It has harmful effects on plants aquatic animals and infastructure The Air Quality Index ( AQI) is a standardized indicator of the Air Quality in a given location Atmospheric dispersion modeling is the mathematical simulation of how air pollutants disperse in the ambient atmosphere. The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides) are a group of Chemical compounds consisting of Alkanes such as Methane Global dimming is the gradual reduction in the amount of global direct Irradiance at the Earth 's surface that was observed for several decades after the start of systematic Global warming is the increase in the average measured temperature of the Haze is traditionally an atmospheric phenomenon where dust smoke and other dry particles obscure the clarity of the sky Indoor Air Quality (IAQ deals with the content of interior air that could affect health and comfort of building occupants Ozone depletion describes two distinct but related observations a slow steady decline of about 4 percent per decade in the total amount of Ozone in Earth's Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas Smog is a kind of Air pollution; the word "smog" is a Portmanteau of Smoke and Fog. Water pollution is the contamination of Water bodies such as Lakes Rivers Oceans and Groundwater caused by human activities Eutrophication is an increase in chemical Nutrients -- typically compounds containing Nitrogen or Phosphorus -- in an Ecosystem, and may occur For other uses of the term "hypoxia" see Hypoxia. Hypoxia or oxygen depletion is a phenomenon that occurs in aquatic environments Marine pollution is the harmful effect caused by the entry into the ocean of chemicals particles, or Plastic debris. For the fictional character see Oil Slick (Transformers. An oil spill is the release of a Liquid Petroleum Hydrocarbon into Ship pollution is the pollution of air and Water by Shipping. Surface runoff is a term used to describe when soil is infiltrated to full capacity and excess Water, from Rain, Snowmelt, or other sources flows Thermal pollution is a Temperature change in natural bodies of water caused by human influence Waterborne diseases are caused by Pathogenic Microorganisms which are directly transmitted when contaminated Drinking water is consumed Water quality is the physical chemical and biological characteristics of Water in relationship to a set of standards Water stagnation occurs when Water stops flowing Stagnant water can be a major Environmental hazard. Soil contamination is caused by the presence of man-made chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment Bioremediation can be defined as any process that uses Microorganisms Fungi, green plants or their Enzymes to return the natural environment altered A herbicide is used to kill unwanted Plants Selective herbicides kill specific targets while leaving the desired Crop relatively unharmed A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used to kill a pest. Radioactive contamination is the uncontrolled distribution of radioactive material in a given environment Actinides in the environment refer to the sources environmental behaviour and effects of Actinides in the environment. Environmental Radioactivity is the study of radioactive materials in the Human environment. Fission products are the atomic fragments left after a large nucleus fissions. Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a Nuclear explosion, so named because it "falls out" of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion Plutonium in the environment is an article which is part of the Actinides in the environment series Radiation poisoning, also called " radiation sickness " or a " creeping dose " is a form of damage to organ tissue due to excessive exposure to This is a subpage of Environmental radioactivity. Radium Radium in quack medicine See the story of Eben Byers for details of one very nasty case Uranium in the environment, this page is about the Science of Uranium in the environment and in animals (including humans Introduced species|Weed Invasive species is a phrase with several definitions Light pollution, also known as photopollution or luminous pollution, is excess or obtrusive Light created mainly by Humans Among other effects Noise pollution (or environmental noise) is displeasing human- or machine-created sound that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life Radio spectrum pollution is the straying of waves in the radio and Electromagnetic spectrums outside their allocations that cause problems for some activities Visual pollution is the term given to unattractive or unnatural (human-made visual elements of a vista a Landscape, or any other thing that a person might not want to For other similarly-named agreements see Montreal Convention (disambiguation. Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Concerning the Control of Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides or Their Transboundary Fluxes, opened for signature on The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the international Framework Convention on Climate Change with the objective of reducing Greenhouse gases in an effort The Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, often abbreviated as Air Pollution or CLRTAP, is intended to protect the human environment against Air This is a list of environmental organizations. See also Environmental organization Intergovernmental organizations International organizations The Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs ( Defra) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for environmental protection The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW is a worldwide system established by the World Meteorological Organization a United Nations agency to monitor trends in the Greenpeace, originally known as the Greenpeace Foundation, was founded in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada in 1972 The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS are standards established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency that apply for outdoor Air Environmental science is the study of interactions among physical chemical and biological components of the environment. See also Nature The natural environment, commonly referred to simply as the environment, is a terminology that is comprised of all living and Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. Anthropogenic effects processes objects or materials are those that are derived from Human activities as opposed to those occurring in Natural environments without It comprises liquid waste discharged by domestic residences, commercial properties, industry, and/or agriculture and can encompass a wide range of potential contaminants and concentrations. In the most common usage, it refers to the municipal wastewater that contains a broad spectrum of contaminants resulting from the mixing of wastewaters from different sources.
Sewage is correctly the subset of wastewater that is contaminated with faeces or urine, but is often used to mean any waste water. Feces, faeces, or fæces (see spelling differences) is a waste product from an animal's digestive tract expelled through the Anus Urine is a liquid waste product of the body secreted by the Kidneys by a process of filtration from Blood and Excreted through the Urethra. "Sewage" includes domestic, municipal, or industrial liquid waste products disposed of, usually via a pipe or sewer or similar structure, sometimes in a cesspool emptier. Sewage is the mainly liquid Waste containing some solids produced by humans which typically consists of washing water Feces, Urine, laundry waste and other WASTE is a Peer-to-peer and Friend-to-friend protocol and software application developed by Justin Frankel at Nullsoft in 2003 that features Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods through a pipe. A cesspool emptier is a type of specialized Tank truck which can suck contaminated water out of hollows such as Cesspools and Sewage tanks and
The physical infrastructure, including pipes, pumps, screens, channels etc. For information on Wikipedia project-related discussions see WikipediaVillage pump. used to convey sewage from its origin to the point of eventual treatment or disposal is termed sewerage.
Wastewater or sewage can come from (text in brackets indicates likely inclusions or contaminants) :-
The composition of wastewater varies widely. Paper is thin material mainly used for writing upon printing upon or packaging An oil is a substance that is in a viscous Liquid state ( "oily") at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer and is Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture This is a partial list of what it may contain:
Any oxidizable material present in a natural waterway or in an industrial wastewater will be oxidized both by biochemical (bacterial) or chemical processes. Wastewater quality indicators such as the Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and the Chemical oxygen demand (COD are essentially Laboratory Tests Redox (shorthand for reduction-oxidation reaction describes all Chemical reactions in which atoms have their Oxidation number ( Oxidation state Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living Organisms It deals with the Structure and function of cellular components such as The result is that the oxygen content of the water will be decreased. Basically, the reaction for biochemical oxidation may be written as:
Oxygen consumption by reducing chemicals such as sulfides and nitrites is typified as follows:
Since all natural waterways contain bacteria and nutrient, almost any waste compounds introduced into such waterways will initiate biochemical reactions (such as shown above). Inorganic chemistry is the branch of Chemistry concerned with the properties and behavior of Inorganic compounds This field covers all Chemical compounds Those biochemical reactions create what is measured in the laboratory as the Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Biochemical Oxygen Demand or Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD is a chemical procedure for determining how fast biological organisms use up oxygen in a body of water
Oxidizable chemicals (such as reducing chemicals) introduced into a natural water will similarly initiate chemical reactions (such as shown above). Those chemical reactions create what is measured in the laboratory as the Chemical oxygen demand (COD). In Environmental chemistry, the chemical oxygen demand ( COD) test is commonly used to indirectly measure the amount of Organic compounds in Water
Both the BOD and COD tests are a measure of the relative oxygen-depletion effect of a waste contaminant. Both have been widely adopted as a measure of pollution effect. The BOD test measures the oxygen demand of biodegradable pollutants whereas the COD test measures the oxygen demand of biogradable pollutants plus the oxygen demand of non-biodegradable oxidizable pollutants. Biodegradation is the process by which organic substances are broken down by the enzymes produced by living organisms
The so-called 5-day BOD measures the amount of oxygen consumed by biochemical oxidation of waste contaminants in a 5-day period. The total amount of oxygen consumed when the biochemical reaction is allowed to proceed to completion is called the Ultimate BOD. The Ultimate BOD is too time consuming, so the 5-day BOD has almost universally been adopted as a measure of relative pollution effect.
There are also many different COD tests. Perhaps, the most common is the 4-hour COD.
It should be emphasized that there is no generalized correlation between the 5-day BOD and the Ultimate BOD. Likewise, there is no generalized correlation between BOD and COD. It is possible to develop such correlations for a specific waste contaminant in a specific wastewater stream . . . but such correlations cannot be generalized for use with any other waste contaminants or wastewater streams.
The laboratory test procedures for the determining the above oxygen demands are detailed in the following sections of the "Standard Methods For the Examination Of Water and Wastewater" available at www.standardmethods.org:
In some urban areas, sewage is carried separately in sanitary sewers and runoff from streets is carried in storm drains. A sanitary sewer (also called especially in the UK a foul sewer) is a type of underground carriage system for transporting Sewage from houses or industry to A storm drain, storm sewer ( US) stormwater drain ( Australia and New Zealand) or surface water system ( UK) Access to either of these is typically through a manhole. A manhole (alternatively utility hole, maintenance hole or access chamber) is the top opening to an underground Utility vault used to house During high precipitation periods a sanitary sewer overflow can occur, causing potential public health and ecological damage. Sanitary sewer overflow (SSO is a condition whereby untreated Sewage is discharged into the environment prior to reaching treatment facilities thereby escaping Wastewater Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease prolonging life and promoting health through the organised efforts and informed choices of society organisations Ecology (from Greek grc οἶκος oikos, "house(hold" and grc -λογία -logia) is the scientific study of
Sewage may drain directly into major watersheds with minimal or no treatment. A drainage basin is an extent of Land where Water from Rain or Snow melt drains downhill into a body of water such as a River, When untreated, sewage can have serious impacts on the quality of an environment and on the health of people. Pathogens can cause a variety of illnesses. A pathogen (from Greek πάθος pathos "suffering passion" and γἰγνομαι (γεν- gignomai (gen- "I give birth to" infectious Some chemicals pose risks even at very low concentrations and can remain a threat for long periods of time because of bioaccumulation in animal or human tissue. Bioaccumulation occurs when an organism absorbs a toxic substance at a rate greater than that at ftudruinsubstance is lost
There are numerous processes that can be used to clean up waste waters depending on the type and extent of contamination. Sewage is the mainly liquid Waste containing some solids produced by humans which typically consists of washing water Feces, Urine, laundry waste and other Industrial wastewater treatment covers the mechanisms and processes used to treat waters that have been contaminated in some way by Anthropogenic industrial or commercial activities Most wastewater is treated in industrial-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) which may include physical, chemical and biological treatment processes. Sewage treatment, or domestic wastewater treatment, is the process of removing Contaminants from Wastewater, both Runoff ( Effluents However, the use of septic tanks and other On-Site Sewage Facilities (OSSF) is widespread in rural areas, serving up to one quarter of the homes in the U. Description A septic tank generally consists of tanks between the size of 1000 and 2000 gallons (4000 - 7500 litres which is connected to an inlet wastewater pipe at one end and On Site Sewage Facilities ( OSSF) are Wastewater systems designed to treat and dispose of effluent on the same property that produces the wastewater S. The most important aerobic treatment system is the activated sludge process, based on the maintenance and recirculation of a complex biomass composed by micro-organisms able to absorb and adsorb the organic matter carried in the wastewater. Anaerobic processes are widely applied in the treatment of industrial wastewaters and biological sludge. Some wastewater may be highly treated and reused as reclaimed water. Reclaimed water, sometimes called recycled water, is former Wastewater (sewage that has been treated to remove solids and certain impurities and then allowed For some waste waters ecological approaches using reed bed systems such as constructed wetlands may be appropriate. Ecology (from Greek grc οἶκος oikos, "house(hold" and grc -λογία -logia) is the scientific study of Reed beds are a natural habitat found in Floodplains waterlogged depressions and estuaries. A constructed wetland or wetpark is an artificial Marsh or Swamp, created for anthropogenic discharge such as Wastewater, Stormwater Modern systems include tertiary treatment by micro filtration or synthetic membranes. After membrane filtration, the treated wastewater is indistinguishable from waters of natural origin of drinking quality. Nitrates can be removed from wastewater by microbial denitrification, for which a small amount of methanol is typically added to provide the bacteria with a source of carbon. In Inorganic chemistry, a nitrate is a salt of Nitric acid with an Ion composed of one Nitrogen and three Oxygen atoms Denitrification is a microbially facilitated process of dissimilatory nitrate reduction that may ultimately produce molecular Nitrogen (N2 through a series of intermediate Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a Chemical compound Ozone Waste Water Treatment is also growing in popularity, and requires the use of an ozone generator, which decontaminates the water as Ozone bubbles percolate through the tank.
Disposal of wastewaters from an industrial plant is a difficult and costly problem. Most petroleum refineries, chemical and petrochemical plants have onsite facilities to treat their wastewaters so that the pollutant concentrations in the treated wastewater comply with the local and/or national regulations regarding disposal of wastewaters into community treatment plants or into rivers, lakes or oceans.
Treated wastewater can be reused as drinking water (Singapore), in industry (cooling towers), in artificial recharge of aquifers, in agriculture (70% of Israel's irrigated agriculture is based on highly purified wastewater) and in the rehabilitation of natural ecosystems (Florida's Everglades). Cooling towers are heat removal devices used to transfer process waste heat to the Atmosphere. Irrigation is an artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops Everglades is also the name of a city in Collier County Florida
The words "sewage" and "sewer" came from Old French essouier = "to drain", which came from Latin exaquāre. Old French was the Romance Dialect continuum spoken in territories which span roughly the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Their formal Latin antecedents are exaquāticum and exaquārium.