Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal of waste materials. Berkshire (ˈbɑːkʃə or /ˈbɑːkʃɪə/ say Baak-shuh/-sheer sometimes abbreviated to Berks) is a Home County in the South England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another Waste treatment refers to the activities required to ensure that Waste has the least practicable impact on the environment Recycling involves processing used materials into new products in order to prevent the waste of potentially useful materials reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials reduce WASTE is a Peer-to-peer and Friend-to-friend protocol and software application developed by Justin Frankel at Nullsoft in 2003 that features The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics. Health is a state of complete physical mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity See also Natural environment The '''biophysical''' environment is the symbiosis between the physical environment and the Biological Aesthetics or esthetics ( also spelled æsthetics) is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values sometimes called Waste management is also carried out to recover resources from it. Natural resources are naturally occurring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified ( natural) form Waste management can involve solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive substances, with different methods and fields of expertise for each. A solid' object is in the States of matter characterized by resistance to Deformation and changes of Volume. Liquid is one of the principal States of matter. A liquid is a Fluid that has the particles loose and can freely form a distinct surface at the boundaries of This page is about the physical properties of gas as a state of matter Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable Atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting ionizing particles and Radiation.
Waste management practices differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and rural areas, and for residential and industrial, producers. The term developed country, or advanced country, is used to categorize countries with developed Economies in which the tertiary and quaternary sectors Developing countries are countries that haven't reached Western-style standards of democratic government free market economy industrialization social programs and human rights guaranties Rural areas can be large and isolated (also referred to as "the country" and/or "the countryside over the course of time Within a urban area there is a tendency for land uses to Aggregate. For other uses of this term see Industry (disambiguation An industry (from Latin industrius, "diligent industrious" Management for non-hazardous residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility of local government authorities, while management for non-hazardous commercial and industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the generator. A hazard is a situation which poses a level of threat to Life, Health, Property or environment. Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a State.
Waste management methods vary widely between areas for many reasons, including type of waste material, nearby land uses, and the area available.
Disposing of waste in a landfill involves burying waste to dispose of it, and this remains a common practice in most countries. Historically, landfills were often established in disused quarries, mining voids or borrow pits. A quarry is a type of open-pit mine from which rock or Minerals are extracted Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body A borrow pit, also known as a sand box is a term used in Construction and Civil engineering. A properly-designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and relatively inexpensive method of disposing of waste materials. Older, poorly-designed or poorly-managed landfills can create a number of adverse environmental impacts such as wind-blown litter, attraction of vermin, and generation of liquid leachate. Litter is Waste disposed in the wrong place by Unlawful human action and can vary in size of incident occurrence or items Vermin is a term applied to various animal species regarded as pests or nuisances and especially to those associated with the carrying of Disease. Leachate is the liquid that drains or 'leaches' from a Landfill; it varies widely in composition regarding the age of the landfill and the type of Waste that Another common byproduct of landfills is gas (mostly composed of methane and carbon dioxide), which is produced as organic waste breaks down anaerobically. Methane is a Chemical compound with the molecular formula. It is the simplest Alkane, and the principal component of Natural gas. Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single Anaerobic digestion is a series of processes in which Microorganisms break down Biodegradable material in the absence of Oxygen. This gas can create odor problems, kill surface vegetation, and is a greenhouse gas. Greenhouse gases are gaseous constituents of the atmosphere bothnatural and anthropogenic that absorb and emit radiation at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of thermal infrared
Design characteristics of a modern landfill include methods to contain leachate such as clay or plastic lining material. Deposited waste is normally compacted to increase its density and stability, and covered to prevent attracting vermin (such as mice or rats). Vermin is a term applied to various animal species regarded as pests or nuisances and especially to those associated with the carrying of Disease. A mouse (plural mice) is a small Animal that belongs to one Rats are various medium sized long-tailed Rodents of the superfamily Muroidea Many landfills also have landfill gas extraction systems installed to extract the landfill gas. See also Natural gas, Biofuel Biogas typically refers to a Gas produced by the biological breakdown of Organic matter in the Gas is pumped out of the landfill using perforated pipes and flared off or burnt in a gas engine to generate electricity. In the UK a Gas engine means an engine running on gas such as Coal gas or Producer gas.
Incineration is a disposal method that involves combustion of waste material. Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of Exothermic chemical reactions between a Fuel and an Oxidant accompanied by the production of Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are sometimes described as "thermal treatment". Thermal treatment is a term given to any waste treatment technology that involves high temperatures in the processing of the waste feedstock Incinerators convert waste materials into heat, gas, steam, and ash. In Physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is Energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in Temperature This page is about the physical properties of gas as a state of matter Uses A Steam engine uses the expansion of steam in order to drive a Piston or Turbine to perform Mechanical work. Incineration is a waste treatment technology that involves the Combustion of organic materials and/or substances
Incineration is carried out both on a small scale by individuals, and on a large scale by industry. It is used to dispose of solid, liquid and gaseous waste. It is recognized as a practical method of disposing of certain hazardous waste materials (such as biological medical waste). The term hazardous waste comprises all toxic chemicals radioactive materials, and biologic or infectious waste. Medical waste, also known as clinical waste, normally refers to waste products that cannot be considered general waste produced from healthcare premises such as hospitals Incineration is a controversial method of waste disposal, due to issues such as emission of gaseous pollutants. Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability disorder harm or discomfort to the physical systems or living organisms they are in
Incineration is common in countries such as Japan where land is more scarce, as these facilities generally do not require as much area as landfills. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Waste-to-energy (WtE) or energy-from-waste (EfW) are broad terms for facilities that burn waste in a furnace or boiler to generate heat, steam and/or electricity. Waste-to-energy (WtE or energy-from-waste (EfW refers to any waste treatment that creates energy in the form of Electricity or Heat Combustion in an incinerator is not always perfect and there have been concerns about micro-pollutants in gaseous emissions from incinerator stacks. Particular concern has focussed on some very persistent organics such as Dioxins which may be created within the incinerator and which may have serious environmental consequences in the area immediately around the incinerator. Not to be confused with Dioxane or Digoxin. Dioxin is a heterocyclic, organic, antiaromatic compound
The process of extracting resources or value from waste is generally referred to as recycling, meaning to recover or reuse the material. Recycling involves processing used materials into new products in order to prevent the waste of potentially useful materials reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials reduce There are a number of different methods by which waste material is recycled: the raw materials may be extracted and reprocessed, or the calorific content of the waste may be converted to electricity. New methods of recycling are being developed continuously, and are described briefly below.
The popular meaning of ‘recycling’ in most developed countries refers to the widespread collection and reuse of everyday waste materials such as empty beverage containers. These are collected and sorted into common types so that the raw materials from which the items are made can be reprocessed into new products. Material for recycling may be collected separately from general waste using dedicated bins and collection vehicles, or sorted directly from mixed waste streams.
The most common consumer products recycled include aluminum beverage cans, steel food and aerosol cans, HDPE and PET bottles, glass bottles and jars, paperboard cartons, newspapers, magazines, and cardboard. WikipediaNaming Steel is an Alloy consisting mostly of Iron, with a Carbon content between 0 High-Density Polyethylene ( HDPE) or PolyEthylene High-Density ( PEHD) is a Polyethylene Thermoplastic made from Petroleum Recycling of PET Bottles is the collection sorting and processing of Bottles made out of PET in order to reuse the material out of which they are made Glass in the common sense refers to a Hard, Brittle, transparent Solid, such as that used for Windows many A newspaper is a written Publication containing News, information and Advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called Newsprint. Cardboard is a generic non-specific term for a heavy duty Paper based product Other types of plastic (PVC, LDPE, PP, and PS: see resin identification code) are also recyclable, although these are not as commonly collected. Properties LDPE is defined by a density range of 0910 - 0940 g/cm³ Polypropylene or polypropene ( PP) is a Thermoplastic Polymer, made by the Chemical industry and used in a wide variety of applications Polystyrene ˌpɒliˈstaɪriːn ( IUPAC Polyphenylethene is an aromatic Polymer made from the aromatic Monomer Styrene The symbols in the table below belong to the SPI resin identification coding system, developed by the Society of the Plastics Industry in 1988 These items are usually composed of a single type of material, making them relatively easy to recycle into new products. The recycling of complex products (such as computers and electronic equipment) is more difficult, due to the additional dismantling and separation required.
Waste materials that are organic in nature, such as plant material, food scraps, and paper products, can be recycled using biological composting and digestion processes to decompose the organic matter. Decomposition (or spoilage) refers to the break down of tissue of a formerly living Organism into simpler forms of matter The resulting organic material is then recycled as mulch or compost for agricultural or landscaping purposes. In Agriculture and Gardening, '''mulch''' is a protective cover placed over the Soil, primarily to modify the effects of the local Climate. Compost (ˈkɒmpɒst or US /ˈkɒmpoʊst/ also known as brown manure is the aerobically decomposed remnants of Organic matter. In addition, waste gas from the process (such as methane) can be captured and used for generating electricity. The intention of biological processing in waste management is to control and accelerate the natural process of decomposition of organic matter.
There are a large variety of composting and digestion methods and technologies varying in complexity from simple home compost heaps, to industrial-scale enclosed-vessel digestion of mixed domestic waste (see Mechanical biological treatment). A mechanical biological treatment system is a form of waste processing facility that combines a sorting facility with a form of biological treatment such as Composting or Methods of biological decomposition are differentiated as being aerobic or anaerobic methods, though hybrids of the two methods also exist. Anaerobic digestion is a series of processes in which Microorganisms break down Biodegradable material in the absence of Oxygen.
An example of waste management through composting is the Green Bin Program in Toronto, Canada, where household organic waste (such as kitchen scraps and plant cuttings) are collected in a dedicated container and then composted. Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario
The energy content of waste products can be harnessed directly by using them as a direct combustion fuel, or indirectly by processing them into another type of fuel. Waste-to-energy (WtE or energy-from-waste (EfW refers to any waste treatment that creates energy in the form of Electricity or Heat A mechanical biological treatment system is a form of waste processing facility that combines a sorting facility with a form of biological treatment such as Composting or Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Recycling through thermal treatment ranges from using waste as a fuel source for cooking or heating, to fuel for boilers to generate steam and electricity in a turbine. A boiler is a closed vessel in which Water or other Fluid is heated A turbine is a rotary Engine that extracts Energy from a Fluid flow Pyrolysis and gasification are two related forms of thermal treatment where waste materials are heated to high temperatures with limited oxygen availability. Pyrolysis is the Chemical decomposition of organic materials by heating in the absence of Oxygen or any other reagents except possibly Steam Gasification is a process that converts carbonaceous materials such as Coal, Petroleum, or Biomass, into Carbon monoxide and Hydrogen Oxygen (from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys (acid literally "sharp" from the taste of acids and -γενής (-genēs (producer literally begetteris the The process typically occurs in a sealed vessel under high pressure. Pressure (symbol 'p' is the force per unit Area applied to an object in a direction perpendicular to the surface Pyrolysis of solid waste converts the material into solid, liquid and gas products. The liquid and gas can be burnt to produce energy or refined into other products. The solid residue (char) can be further refined into products such as activated carbon. Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal or activated coal, is a form of Carbon that has been processed to make it extremely porous and thus to Gasification and advanced Plasma arc gasification are used to convert organic materials directly into a synthetic gas (syngas) composed of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Plasma Converter redirects here Plasma arc gasification is a waste treatment technology that uses high electrical energy and high temperature created Syngas (from syn thesis gas) is the name given to a gas mixture that contains varying amounts of Carbon monoxide and Hydrogen. Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO is a colorless odorless tasteless yet highly toxic Gas. Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 The gas is then burnt to produce electricity and steam. Uses A Steam engine uses the expansion of steam in order to drive a Piston or Turbine to perform Mechanical work.
An important method of waste management is the prevention of waste material being created, also known as waste reduction. Waste minimisation is the process and the policy of reducing the amount of waste produced by a person or a society Methods of avoidance include reuse of second-hand products, repairing broken items instead of buying new, designing products to be refillable or reusable (such as cotton instead of plastic shopping bags), encouraging consumers to avoid using disposable products (such as disposable cutlery), and designing products that use less material to achieve the same purpose (for example, lightweighting of beverage cans). Cutlery refers to any hand Implement used in preparing serving and especially eating Food in the Western world.
Waste collection methods vary widely between different countries and regions. Domestic waste collection services are often provided by local government authorities, or by private industry. Some areas, especially those in less developed countries, do not have a formal waste-collection system. Examples of waste handling systems include:
There are a number of concepts about waste management which vary in their usage between countries or regions. This is a list of waste management concepts: Best practicable environmental option (BPEO Eco-industrial park Extended Some of the most general, widely-used concepts include: