The Walls of Constantinople are a series of stone walls that have surrounded and protected the city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey) since its founding as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire by Constantine the Great. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (27 February ca. 272 &ndash 22 May 337 commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine With numerous additions and modifications during their history, they were the last great fortification system of Antiquity, and one of the most complex and elaborate systems ever built. Fortifications are Military Constructions and Buildings designed for defense in Warfare Humans have constructed defensive works for
Initially built by Constantine the Great, the walls surrounded the new city on all sides, protecting it against attack from both sea and land. As the city grew, the famous double line of the Theodosian Walls was built in the 5th century. Although the other sections of the walls were less elaborate, when well manned, they were almost impregnable for any medieval besieger, saving the city, and the Byzantine Empire with it, during sieges from the Avars, Arabs, Rus', and Bulgars, among others (see Sieges of Constantinople). The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding Rus’ (Русь rusʲ Русичи Русы are an ancient people whose name survives in the cognates Russians, Rusyns, and Ruthenians The Bulgars (also Bolgars or proto-Bulgarians) were a seminomadic people probably of Turkic descent originally from Central Asia, There were at least 11 Sieges of Constantinople during the history of the Byzantine Empire. Only the advent of gunpowder siege cannons rendered the fortifications obsolete, resulting in the final siege and fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans on May 29th 1453. Gunpowder is a an explosive mixture of Sulfur, Charcoal and Potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre/saltpeter that burns rapidly producing volumes The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empire's capital by the Ottoman Empire on Tuesday May 29, 1453 (Julian Calendar The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian defeats the Sassanid army in the Battle of Ctesiphon, under the walls of the 
The walls were largely maintained intact during most of the Ottoman period, until sections began to be dismantled in the 19th century, as the city outgrew its medieval boundaries. Despite the subsequent lack of maintenance, many parts of the walls survived and are still standing today. A large-scale restoration programme has been under way in the past twenty years, which allows the visitor to appreciate their original appearance.
The original fortifications of the city were built in the 7th century BC, when it was founded as Byzantium by Greek colonists from Megara, led by the eponymous Byzas. The 7th century BC started the first day of 700 BC and ended the last day of 601 BC. This article is about the city See also Byzantine Empire. Byzantium ( Greek: Βυζάντιον Latin: la BYZANTIVM Colonies in antiquity were City-states founded from a mother- City Megara ( Greek:, "Big Houses" is an ancient city (pop In Greek legend Byzas ( Greek Βύζας Βύζαντας was the eponymous founder of Byzantium ( Greek Βυζάντιον the city later At the time the city consisted of an acropolis and little more. Acropolis (Gr akros akron edge extremity + polis city pl acropoleis Byzantium, despite being a prosperous trading post, was relatively unimportant during the Roman period, but featured prominently in the civil war between Septimius Severus and Pescennius Niger, holding out a Severan siege for three years (193-96 AD). Lucius Septimius Severus (or rarely Severus I) ( April 11 145 - February 4 211) was a Roman general and Roman Emperor Gaius Pescennius Niger (c 140&ndash194 was a Roman usurper from 193 to 194 As punishment, Severus had the strong walls demolished and the city deprived of its status.  However, soon after he rebuilt it, appreciating the city's strategic importance, and endowed it with many monuments and a new set of walls, increasing its area.
When Constantine the Great moved the capital of the Empire to Byzantium, which he refounded as Nova Roma, he greatly expanded the new city by building a new wall about 2. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial 8 km (15 stadia) westwards of the Severan wall and incorporating even more territory. The ancient Roman units of measurement were built on the Hellenic system with Egyptian, Hebrew, and Mesopotamian influences  Constantine's fortification consisted of a single wall, reinforced with towers at regular distances, which began to be constructed in 324 and was completed under Constantine II. Flavius Claudius Constantinus, known in English as Constantine II, (316 – 340 was Roman Emperor from 337 to 340 The approximate course of the wall is known, running from the area of the Plateia Gate of the Golden Horn sea walls to near the Gate of St. Aemilianus on the Propontis walls (see section on the Sea Walls below). The wall survived during much of the Byzantine period, even though it was replaced by the Theodosian Walls as the city's primary defence; it still stood when Justinian ascended the throne, but only the Old Golden Gate still survived to late Byzantine times, until destroyed by an earthquake in 1509. Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus ( Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ιουστινιανός; known in English as Justinian I or  Already by the early 5th century however, Constantinople had expanded outside the Constantinian Wall, in the extramural area known as the Exokionion. 
In 408, during the reign of Emperor Theodosius II, construction began on a new wall, about 1,500 m to the west of the old, which stretched for 5,630 meters between the Sea of Marmara and the suburb of Blachernae near the Golden Horn. The office of Roman Emperor underwent significant turbulence in the fourth and fifth centuries after assuming the trappings of Eastern despotism during the Dominate Flavius Theodosius ( 10 April, 401 – July 28, 450) called the Calligrapher, known in English as Theodosius II, was The Sea of Marmara ( Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίς, Bulgarian Blachernae (Βλαχερναί was a suburb in the northwestern section of Constantinople. The Golden Horn ( Turkish: Haliç or Altın Boynuz, Greek: Χρυσόν Κέρας – Chrysón Kéras is an inlet of the  The new wall, which, despite the fact that construction commenced when the Emperor was seven years old, became known as the Theodosian Wall (Greek Theodosianon Teichos). Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly The wall was built under the direction of Anthemius, the Praetorian prefect of the East, and completed in 413. Flavius Anthemius was a high-ranking official of the late Roman Empire. Praetorian prefect (Latin Praefectus praetorio) was the constant title of a high office in the Roman state that changed fundamentally in nature  The walls stretched for about 5. 5 km from south to north, from the Marble Tower, Turkish Mermer Kule (in Greek Pyrgos Vasileiou kai Kōnstantinou, "Tower of Basil and Constantine") on the Propontis coast to the Blachernae, ending at about the area of the Palace of the Porphyrogenitus (known in Turkish as Tekfur Saray), where they adjoined the later walls of Blachernae. Basil II, surnamed the Bulgar-slayer (Βασίλειος Β΄ Βουλγαροκτόνος Basileios II Boulgaroktonos, 958 &ndash December 15 1025 Constantine VIII ( Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Η΄ Kōnstantinos VIII) (960&ndash November 15, 1028) was Byzantine emperor The Sea of Marmara ( Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίς, Bulgarian The Palace of the Porphyrogenitus, also known as the Palace of Constantine Porphyrogenitus ( Tekfur Sarayı) which means "Palace of the Emperor" Turkish ( tr Türkçe IPA) is a language spoken by over 63 million people worldwide making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. New Rome now enclosed seven hills and justified the appellation Eptalofos, like Old Rome. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 On November 6, 447, however, a powerful earthquake destroyed large parts of the wall, and Theodosius II ordered the urban prefect Cyrus of Floros (sometimes referred to as Constantine) to supervise the urgent repairs, as the city was threatened at the time by Attila the Hun. Events 355 - Roman Emperor Constantius II promotes his cousin Julian to the rank of Caesar, entrusting him with Events By Place Eastern Roman Empire Battle of the Utus: Attila the Hun meets the Romans in an indecisive battle Cyrus employed the city's dēmoi (more widely known as "Circus factions") in the work, and succeeded in restoring the walls within 60 days, as testified in two inscriptions in Greek and Latin on the Mevlevihane Gate. The Hippodrome of Constantinople (Sultanahmet Meydanı At Meydanı was a horse-racing track that was the sporting and social centre of Constantinople, capital of  At the same time, a second outer wall was added, and a wide ditch opened in front of the walls. A ditch is usually defined as a small to moderate depression created to channel Water. 
The walls were built in two lines of defense, which adjoined the ditch. The main Inner Wall (Esō Teichos or Mega Teichos, "Great Wall") is a solid structure, 5 metres thick and 12 metres high. It is faced with carefully cut limestone blocks, while its core is filled with mortar made of lime and crushed bricks. Between seven and eleven bands of brick, ca. Roman brick is a type of Brick with nominal dimensions of 12" x 4" x 2" (30 cm x 10 cm x 5 cm making it longer and narrower (621 ratio than most 40 cm thick, traverse the structure, not only as a form of decoration, but also strengthening the cohesion of the structure by bonding the stone façade with the mortar core, and increasing endurance to earthquakes. An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth 's crust that creates Seismic waves Earthquakes are recorded with a Seismometer  The wall was strengthened with 96 towers, mainly square but also octagonal or hexagonal, 18-20 metres tall, and placed at intervals of 55 metres.  Each tower had a battlemented terrace on the top. Its interior was usually divided by a floor in two chambers. The lower chamber, which opened to the city, was used for storage, while the upper one could be entered from the wall's walkway, and had windows for view and for firing projectiles. Access to the wall was provided by large ramps along their side. 
The Outer Wall (Exō Teichos or Proteichisma) was built 15-20 metres from the main wall, creating a space between the two walls called perivolos. The Outer Wall was 2 metres thick at its base, and featured arched chambers on the level of the perivolos, crowned with a battlemented walkway, reaching a height of 8. 5 metres.  Access to the Outer Wall from the city was provided either through the main gates or through small posterns on the base of the Inner Wall's towers. A postern is a secondary Door or Gate, particularly in a Fortification such as a City wall or Castle Curtain wall. The Outer Wall likewise had 96 towers, square or crescent-shaped, situated midway between the Inner Wall's towers, and acting in supporting role to them.  They featured a room with windows on the level of the perivolos, crowned by a battlemented terrace, while their lower portions were either solid or featured small posterns, which allowed access to the outer terrace. 
The moat (souda) was situated at a distance of about 15 metres from the Outer Wall, creating a terrace called parateichion, where a paved road ran along the walls' length. The moat itself was about 20 metres wide and 10 metres deep, featuring a 1. 5 metre tall crenellated wall on the inner side, serving as a first line of defence. Crenellation (or crenelation, also known as castellation) is the name for the distinctive pattern that frames the tops of the walls of many medieval Castles Transverse walls in the moat allowed it to be flooded and retain water even while the walls followed the rise of the land. 
The wall contained 10 main gates, plus an unknown number of small posterns, which were usually walled up in the event of a siege. A postern is a secondary Door or Gate, particularly in a Fortification such as a City wall or Castle Curtain wall. The five public gates led across the moat on bridges, while the five so-called "Military Gates", known initially only by their numbers, led to the outer sections of the walls. In order, from south to north, these gates were:
The First Military Gate (Pylē tou Prōtou) or Gate of Christ, was named so because of the Chi-Rō Christogram above it. It is known today as the Tabak Kapı.
The Golden Gate (Greek Chrysē Pylē, Latin Porta Aurea, Turkish Altınkapı or Yaldızlıkapı), was the main state entrance into the capital, used especially for the occasions of a triumphal return of victorious emperors from battle. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. A Roman triumph ( la [[wikttriumphus triumphus]], Old Latin la triumpus, attested as the exclamation la TRIVMPE in the Carmen Arvale; via  The last such occasion was the entry of Michael VIII Palaiologos into the city on 15 August 1261, after its reconquest from the Latins. Michael VIII Palaiologos or Palaeologus ( Greek: Μιχαήλ Η΄ Παλαιολόγος Mikhaēl VIII Palaiologos) (1223 &ndash December 11 Events 778 - The Battle of Roncevaux Pass, at which Roland is killed The Latin Empire or Latin Empire of Constantinople (original Latin name Imperium Romaniae, " Empire of Romania " is the 
Originally, the Golden Gate was a triumphal arch, erected in ca. A triumphal arch is a structure in the shape of a monumental Archway, in theory built to celebrate a victory in war actually used to celebrate a ruler 388, during the reign of Theodosius I, to celebrate his victory over Magnus Maximus. Flavius Theodosius (January 11 347 – January 17 395 also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great ( Greek: Θεοδόσιος Α΄ Magnus Maximus (ca 335&ndash August 28, 388) also known as Maximianus, was an Hispanic usurper of the Western Roman Empire At that time it stood alone, well outside the Constantinian Wall, straddling the Via Egnatia. The Via Egnatia ( Greek:) was a road constructed by the Romans in the 2nd century BC.  It is architecturally elaborate, built of large square blocks of polished marble fitted together without cement, with three arches, and was decorated with numerous sculptures, including a bronze elephant-drawn quadriga on top, flanked by winged Victories. Marble is a nonfoliated Metamorphic rock resulting from the Metamorphism of Limestone, composed mostly of Calcite (a crystalline form of SpecialContributions/ --> A quadriga ( Latin quadri-, four and jungere, to yoke is a car In Roman mythology, Victoria was the personification/Goddess of victory  The gates themselves were plated in gold, whence the name derives. When the gate was incorporated into the Theodosian Walls, two great flanking towers of the same material were added, and after the Ottoman conquest, the Yedikule Fortress was erected behind the gate complex. Since the main Gates were usually kept closed, a small postern exists after the Fort, the Small Golden Gate (Mikra Chrysē Pylē), modern Yedikule Kapısı, which was used for everyday traffic.
The Golden Gate was emulated by the Kievan Rus', who built monumental city gates named "Golden Gate" at Kiev and Vladimir. Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Русь romanised: Kievskaya Rus', rusʲ also written as Kyivan Rus′ (Ки́ївська Русь or Kievan The Golden Gate of Kiev (Золоті ворота Zoloti vorota, literally 'golden gate' is a historic gateway in the ancient city walls of Kiev, the The Golden Gates of Vladimir (Zolotye Vorota Золотые ворота constructed between 1158 and 1164 are the only (albeit partially preserved instance of the
The Second Military Gate (Pylē tou Devterou) was the greatest of the military gates. Its is known today as Belgrade Gate (Belgrad Kapısı), after the Serbian artisans settled there by Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent after he conquered Belgrade in 1521. Belgrade (Београд Beograd is the Capital and largest city of Serbia. Suleiman I (سليمان Sulaymān, Süleyman almost always Kanuni Sultan Süleyman) ( 6 November 1494 5/ 6 September 1566
The Gate of the Spring (Porta tēs Pēgēs) was named so after a a monastery outside the Walls, the Zōodochos Pēgē ("Life-giving Spring"). The Life-giving Spring or Life-giving Font is both the Feast day of a historic church in Constantinople and an Icon of the Theotokos Also known as the Gate of Melantias (Porta Melantiados) or Selymbria Gate (Turkish Silivri Kapısı). Silivri is a district of Istanbul along the Sea of Marmara in Turkey, used mainly as holiday and weekend homes for residents of the city Turkish ( tr Türkçe IPA) is a language spoken by over 63 million people worldwide making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. It was through this gate that the forces of the Empire of Nicaea, under General Alexios Strategopoulos entered and retook the city from the Latins on 25 July 1261. The Empire of Nicaea ( Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Νίκαιας Turkish: İznik İmparatorluğu) was the largest of the Byzantine Alexios Strategopoulos ( was a Byzantine general during the reign of Michael VIII Palaiologos, rising to the rank of megas domestikos and Caesar Events 285 - Diocletian appoints Maximian as Caesar, co-ruler 
The Third Military Gate (Pylē tou Tritou) was at the section known as the "Sigma", and is walled up today.
The Gate of Rhegium (Pylē Rēgiou), modern Yeni Mevlevihane Kapısı, was named after the suburb of Rhegion. It was also called Pylē Rousiou ("Gate of the Reds"), because it had been repaired in 447 by the dēmos of the Reds (Rousioi).
The Fourth Military Gate (Pylē tou Tetartou) lies south of modern Millet Jaddesi.
The gate (Porta Agiou Rōmanou), named so after a nearby church, is called Topkapı, the "Cannon Gate" today, because of the great cannon (the "Basilic") that was placed opposite it during the last siege of Constantinople. The Great Turkish Bombard, also known as the Basilic, the Dardanelles Gun, the Hungarian Cannon, Muhammed's Great Gun and The Royal The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empire's capital by the Ottoman Empire on Tuesday May 29, 1453 (Julian Calendar Emperor Constantine XI established his command here, at the central and most threatened portion of the walls, the so-called Mesoteichion ("Middle Wall"). Constantine XI Palaiologos or Palaeologus ( Greek: Κωνσταντίνος ΙΑ' Δραγάσης Παλαιολόγος Kōnstantinos XI Dragasēs Palaiologos This was the stretch of walls between the Gate of St. Romanus and the Gate of Charisius, with a length of 1,250 metres. It was considered as the weakest part of the walls, because the ground descended towards the valley of the Lycus stream, and as a result the walls lay lower than the opposing slopes. It was here that Mehmed II had placed most of his artillery, and as a result, much of this portion of the walls lies still in ruins today.
The Fifth Military Gate (Pylē tou Pemptou) is called Hüjum Kapısı, the "Assault Gate", in Turkish, because there the decisive breakthrough was achieved on the morning of May 29, 1453. Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian defeats the Sassanid army in the Battle of Ctesiphon, under the walls of the
The gate (Porta Charisiou) is also known as Gate of Polyandrion (Porta Polyandriou) because it led to a cemetery outside the Walls. In Turkish known as Edirnekapı ("Adrianople Gate"), it is here where Mehmed II made his triumphal entry into the conquered city. Edirne (anc Hadrianopolis; Greek Adrianople; Slavic/Bulgarian Одрин, see also its other names) is a city in Thrace, the westernmost This gate stands on top of the sixth hill, and was the highest point of the city at 77 metres.
At the very end of the Theodosian Walls, near their junction with the Walls of Blachernae, is the postern called the Xylokerkos Porta or Kerkoporta, after a wooden circus (amphitheatre) that existed there. It was through this unattended or unlocked gate that thirty or so of the first Ottoman troops, led by a timarli Sipahi named Ulubatlı Hasan, entered the city in the early morning hours of Tuesday, 29 May 1453, raising their banner atop the tower, signifying the beginning of the rout of the defenders, and the fall of the city. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish A timariot (or timar holder timarlı in Turkish) was an irregular Cavalryman that served the Ottoman Sultan Sipahi ( Ottoman Turkish: ota سپاهی also transliterated as Spahi, Sepahi, and Spakh; traditionally rendered as Spahia Ulubatlı Hasan (1428 &ndash May 29, 1453) was a Timarli sipahi in the service of Sultan Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire who achieved Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian defeats the Sassanid army in the Battle of Ctesiphon, under the walls of the The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empire's capital by the Ottoman Empire on Tuesday May 29, 1453 (Julian Calendar A large plaque today marks the spot.
The impression made by the mighty Theodosian Walls on the Western Crusaders who encountered them can be seen in the 13th century Caernarfon Castle in Wales, built by Edward I of England as a royal residence, which is said to have been modelled on them. Caernarfon Castle (Castell Caernarfon was constructed at Caernarfon in Gwynedd, north-west Wales, by King Edward I of England, following his Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307 popularly known as Longshanks, was a King of England who achieved historical fame by conquering large parts of Wales and almost With the advent of siege cannons, however, the fortifications became obsolete, but their massive size still provided effective defence, as demonstrated during the Second Ottoman Siege in 1422. The First Full-scale Ottoman Siege of Constantinople took place in 1422 as a result of the Byzantine Emperor Manuel II 's attempts to interfere in the In the final siege, which led to the fall of the city to the Ottomans in 1453, the defenders, severely outnumbered, still managed to repeatedly counter Turkish attempts at undermining the walls, repulse several frontal attacks, and restore the damage from the siege cannons for almost two months. Finally, on 29 May, the decisive attack was launched, and when the Genoese general Giovanni Giustiniani was wounded and withdrew, causing a panic among the defenders, the walls were taken. Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian defeats the Sassanid army in the Battle of Ctesiphon, under the walls of the Giovanni Giustiniani Longo (Latin Ioannes Iustinianus Longus, died 1453 was a Genoese captain during the Middle Ages and Protostrator of the After the capture of the city, Mehmed had the walls repaired in short order among other massive public works projects, and they were kept in repair during the first centuries of Ottoman rule.
The first fortress behind the Golden Gate began being built during the reign of John I Tzimiskes and was completed under Manuel I Komnenos. John I Tzimiskes or Tzimisces, (Ιωάννης Α΄ Τζιμισκής Iōannēs I Tzimiskēs; Հովհաննես Ա Չմշկիկ Hovhannes Ayp Chmshgig For the eldest son of Andronikos I Komnenos and father of Alexios I of Trebizond, see Manuel Komnenos (born 1145. That fort (Kastellion) had five towers, and was hence also named Pentapyrgion. It was destroyed after the first fall of the city to the Fourth Crusade, and rebuilt only in 1350 by John VI Kantakouzenos. The Fourth Crusade (1202&ndash1204 was originally designed to conquer Muslim Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt. John VI Kantakouzenos or Cantacuzene ( Greek: Ιωάννης ΣΤ΄ Καντακουζηνός Iōannēs VI Kantakouzēnos) (c The new fort featured five octagonal towers, and together with the two marble towers of the Golden Gate, seven in total, becoming known as the Heptapyrgion ("Seven Towers"). In 1391 however, John V Palaiologos was forced to raze the fort by Sultan Bayezid I, who otherwise threatened to blind his son Manuel, whom he held captive. John V Palaiologos or Palaeologus ( Ιωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος, Iōannēs V Palaiologos) ( 18 June, 1332 &ndash Bayezid I ( Ottoman: بايزيد الأول Turkish: Beyazıt, nicknamed Yıldırım (Ottoman ییلدیرم "the Thunderbolt" Manuel II Palaiologos or Palaeologus ( Greek: Μανουήλ Β΄ Παλαιολόγος Manouēl II Palaiologos) ( June 27, 1350 Emperor John VIII Palaiologos attempted to rebuild it in 1434, but was thwarted by Sultan Murad II. John VIII Palaiologos or Palaeologus ( Greek Ιωάννης Η' Παλαιολόγος Iōannēs VIII Palaiologos) ( December 18 1392 Murad II ( June 1404 Amasya February 3, 1451, Edirne) ( Ottoman Turkish: مراد ثانى Murād-ı sānī
After the final capture of Constantinople, Sultan Mehmed II rebuilt the fort in 1457, again with seven towers (four on the Inner Theodosian Wall - towers eight to eleven - and three larger ones behind), as the Yedikule Hisar (Turkish for "Fortress of Seven Towers"). During much of the Ottoman era, it was used as a treasury and state prison. The ambassadors of states currently at war with the Porte were usually imprisoned there. Ottoman Porte (also Sublime Porte, High Porte, or in Ottoman Turkish, Bab-ı Ali) used to refer to the Divan (court Amongst its most notable prisoners was the young Sultan Osman II, who was imprisoned and executed there by the Janissaries in 1622. Sultan Osman II (also known as Genç Osman meaning Young Osman in Turkish) ( Ottoman Turkish عثمان ثانى ‘Osmān-i sānī The Janissaries (derived from Ottoman Turkish ينيچرى ( yeniçeri) meaning "new soldier" comprised Infantry units that formed 
During the Napoleonic Wars, the fortress was the prison of many French prisoners, including the writer and diplomat Francois Pouqueville who was detained there for more than two years (1799 to 1801) and who wrote an extensive description of the area. The Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815 involved Napoleon's French Empire and a shifting set of European allies and opposing coalitions François Charles Hugues Laurent Pouqueville was born in Le Merlerault, Normandie, France on the 4th of November in 1770 and died on the 20th of December 
In the northwestern corner of the city, the suburb of Blachernae with its important church of Panagia Vlacherniotissa was left out of the Theodosian walls. Panagia ( Greek: Παναγία All-holy) also transliterated Panayia or Panaghia, is one of the titles of Mary the mother of Jesus To defend it, in the face of the great Avar siege, a single wall was built, around 627, in the reign of Heraclius. See Sieges of Constantinople for other sieges The Siege of Constantinople in 626 AD by the Sassanid Empire ended in a decisive victory Heraclius, or Herakleios (Flavius Heraclius Augustus;) (c 575 - February 11, 641) was a Byzantine Emperor, who ruled the East In 814, Leo V the Armenian built a new wall in front of the Heraclean one to safeguard against Bulgarian raids. Leo V the Armenian ( Greek: Λέων Ε΄ Leōn V; Լեիոն Ե Leion Yech) (775 &ndash December 25, 820) was emperor The First Bulgarian Empire (Първo Българско царство Părvo Bălgarsko Tsarstvo) was a Medieval Bulgarian state founded in AD 632 In the 12th century, when Blachernae had become the favoured imperial residence, Manuel I Komnenos built a wall, starting from the end of the Theodosian Walls, to protect the imperial palaces, which was connected by a later wall (possibly under Isaac II Angelos) to the Heraclean wall. For the eldest son of Andronikos I Komnenos and father of Alexios I of Trebizond, see Manuel Komnenos (born 1145. Isaac II Angelos or Angelus ( Greek: Ισαάκιος Β’ Άγγελος Isaakios II Angelos) (September 1156 &ndash January 1204 was Byzantine  Despite all this, the defences of the Blachernae section remained weaker than at the Theodosian Walls, and it was here the Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade managed to penetrate them and first enter the city. The Fourth Crusade (1202&ndash1204 was originally designed to conquer Muslim Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt.
The Walls of Blachernae consist of four single walls built in different periods. Generally they are about 12-15 metres in height; thicker than the Theodosian Walls and with more closely spaced towers, while lacking a moat. The fortification begins at the end of the Theodosian Walls with the Komnenian Wall, connected by the Angelian wall to the Heraclean wall, which in turn is connected to the Sea Walls at the Golden Horn. The wall of Leo V lies in front of the Heraclean wall.
The wall of Manuel Komnenos is an architecturally-excellent fortification, extending for 220 m, with 9 towers, the small gate (paraportion) of St. Kallinikos between the second and third towers, and one gate after the sixth tower, the modern Eğri Kapı (the "Crooked Gate"), which is identified with the old Kaligaria Pylē, the "Gate of the Bootmakers' Quarter". The Eğri Kapı is so named because the road in front of it detours sharply around a tomb, which is supposed to belong to Hazret Hafiz, a companion of the Prophet Muhammad, who died there during the first Arab siege of the city. IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics The First Arab Siege of Constantinople in 674 was a major conflict of the Byzantine-Arab Wars, and was one of the numerous times Constantinople 's defences 
The Komnenian wall ends at the third tower from the gate, and the newer wall (from the late 12th century), architecturally much inferior, continues for ca. 400 metres. This wall has four square towers and a gate, the Gyrolimne Gate (from Argyrē Limnē, the "Silver Lake") between the second and third of them, now walled up, which led to the Blachernae Palace. Blachernae (Βλαχερναί was a suburb in the northwestern section of Constantinople.  The last stretch of the wall is adjoined by two structures: the Tower of Isaakios Angelos, built around 1188 as a residence for the Emperor, and the nearby building and tower known as Prisons of Anemas, dated to the 7th century but named after Michael Anemas, a general of Alexios I who was imprisoned there after a failed plot against the Emperor. Isaac II Angelos or Angelus ( Greek: Ισαάκιος Β’ Άγγελος Isaakios II Angelos) (September 1156 &ndash January 1204 was Byzantine Alexios I Komnenos, or Comnenus (Greek Αλέξιος Α' Κομνηνός (1048 &ndash August 15, 1118) Byzantine emperor (1081&ndash1118 
The wall of Heraclius begins from there and extends for about 100 metres to the Sea Walls. It has three strong hexagonal towers, and the Gate of Blachernae (Pylē Vlachernōn). The wall of Leo V complements it from the outside, forming a sort of rectangular fort, with an internal space of ca. 25 metres between the two walls. At the edge of the Leontian wall stands the Tower of St. Nicholas, originally built by Leo V and rebuilt by Emperor Romanus I Lecapenus. Saint Nicholas (Άγιος Νικόλαος, Agios Nikolaos, "victory of the people" is the common name for Nicholas of Myra, a Christian Saint Romanos I Lekapenos or Romanus I Lecapenus ( Greek: Ρωμανός Α΄ Λακαπήνος Rōmanos I Lakapēnos; Րոմանոս Ա Ղակապենոս The Leontian Wall is thinner and of inferior construction to the Heraclean, and features four small towers along with a now collapsed gate, which formed the outer counterpart of the Blachernae Gate. Since the Sea Walls at the Golden Horn were built at a distance from the shore, a wall extended from the end of the Land Walls to the shoreline, the so-called Vrakhiolion, erected at the same time as the main Heraclean wall, in 627. It had a single gate, the "Wooden Gate" (Xyloporta).
The land walls run through the suburbs of modern Istanbul, with a belt of parkland flanking their course. They are pierced at intervals by modern roads leading westwards out of the city. Many sections were restored during the 1980s, with financial support from UNESCO, but the restoration programme has been criticised for destroying historical evidence, focusing on superficial restoration, the use of inappropriate materials and poor quality of work. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 This became apparent in the 1999 earthquakes, when the restored sections collapsed while the original structure underneath remained intact. The 1999 İzmit Earthquake was an approximately 76 magnitude earthquake that struck northwestern Turkey on August 17, 1999  The threat posed by urban pollution, and the lack of a comprehensive restoration effort, prompted the World Monuments Fund to include them on its 2008 Watch List of the 100 Most Endangered Sites in the world. The World Monuments Fund (WMF is a New York -based private Non-profit organization dedicated to the preservation of historic Architecture and 
The sea walls enclosed the city on the sides of the Propontis (Sea of Marmara) and the gulf of the Golden Horn (Chrysoun Keras). The Golden Horn ( Turkish: Haliç or Altın Boynuz, Greek: Χρυσόν Κέρας – Chrysón Kéras is an inlet of the Although the original city of Byzantium certainly had sea walls, traces of which survive, the exact date for the construction of the medieval walls is a matter of debate. For long, the seaward walls were attributed to Constantine I, along with the construction of the main land wall.  However, the first actual reference to their construction is in 439. The same year, not incidentally, saw the fall of Carthage to the Vandals and the emergence of a naval threat in the Mediterranean, so Theodosius II ordered the then-Praetorian prefect of the East, Cyrus Panopolites, build walls to encompass the city. Praetorian prefect (Latin Praefectus praetorio) was the constant title of a high office in the Roman state that changed fundamentally in nature  Nevertheless, the walls are not specifically mentioned as extant until much later, around the year 700. 
The construction of the Sea Walls was similar to the Theodosian Walls, but of simpler construction. They were formed by a single wall, considerably lower than the land walls, with inner circuits in the locations of the harbours. Enemy access to the walls facing the Golden Horn was prevented by the presence of a heavy chain, installed by Emperor Leo III, supported by floating barrels and stretching across the mouth of the inlet. Leo III the Isaurian ' or the Syrian ' ( Greek: Λέων Γ΄ Leōn III) (c One end of this chain was fastened to the Tower of Eugenius, in the modern suburb of Sirkeci, and the other, in Galata, to a large, square tower, the basement of which was later turned into the Yeraltı (underground) Mosque. Sirkeci is an area in the Eminönü district of the city of Istanbul, Turkey. Galata or Galatae is a district in Istanbul, the largest city of Turkey. 
However, after the Arab conquests of Syria and Egypt, followed later by Crete, the naval threat intensified further, prompting successive emperors to attend to them. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Crete ( Greek: Κρήτη transliteration: Krētē, modern transliteration Kriti) is the largest of the Greek islands and the They were renovated in the early 8th century under Tiberios III or Anastasios II, while Michael II initiated a wide-scale reconstruction, eventually carried out by his successor Theophilos, which increased their height. Tiberios III or Tiberius III ( Greek: Τιβέριος Γ' (d Anastasios II or Anastasius II (Ἀναστάσιος Β΄ (died 718 Byzantine emperor, from 713 to 715 Michael II the Amorian ( Greek: Μιχαήλ Β' Mikhaēl II) also called Traulos or Psellos (Τραυλός Ψηλλος Theophilos or Theophilus (Θεόφιλος (Greek translation of his name "Friend of God" ( 813 &ndash 20 January 842) was  During the siege of the city by the Fourth Crusade, the sea walls nonetheless proved to be a weak point in the city's defences, as the Venetians managed to storm them. 
Following this bitter experience, Michael VIII Palaiologos took particular care to heighten and strengthen the seaward walls after the recapture of the city in 1261, as he faced the further threat of a possible invasion by Charles d'Anjou. Michael VIII Palaiologos or Palaeologus ( Greek: Μιχαήλ Η΄ Παλαιολόγος Mikhaēl VIII Palaiologos) (1223 &ndash December 11 Charles I ( 21 March 1226 &ndash 7 January 1285) commonly called Charles of Anjou, was the King of Sicily by conquest
The wall of the Propontis was built almost at the shoreline, with the exception of harbours and quays, and had a height of 12-15 metres, with 10 gates, 3 small gates, 188 towers and a total length of almost 8460 metres, with further 1080 metres comprising the inner wall of the Vlanga harbour. Several sections of the wall were damaged during the construction of the Kennedy Caddesi coastal road in 1956-57.  From the Marble Tower to the cape of St. Demetrius at the edge of the ancient acropolis of the city (modern Sarayburnu, Seraglio Point), the wall's gates were:
The wall facing towards the Golden Horn, where in later times most seaborne traffic was conducted, stretched for a total length of 5,600 metres from the cape of St. Demetrius to the Blachernae, where it adjoined the Land Walls. Although much of the wall was demolished in the 1870s, during the construction of the railway line, its course and the position of most gates and towers is known with accuracy. It was built further inland, up to 40 metres from the shore, and was ca. 10 metres tall, with 17 gates and 110 towers. The gates were, in order:
During the whole existence of the Byzantine Empire, the garrison of the city was quite small: the imperial guards and the small city watch (the kerketon) under the urban prefect were the only permanent armed force available. Any threat to the city would have to be dealt with by the field armies in the provinces, before it could approach the city itself. In times of need, such as the earthquake of 447 or the raids by the Avars in the early 7th century, the general population would be conscripted and armed, or additional troops would be brought in from the provincial armies. 
In the early centuries, the imperial guard consisted of the units of the Excubitores and Scholae Palatinae. The Excubitors (Excubitores or Excubiti, literally "those out of bed" i The Scholae Palatinae (literally "Palatine Schools" in) were an elite military guard unit usually ascribed to the Roman Emperor Constantine In time, they declined to parade-ground troops, but in the 8th century the Emperors, faced with successive revolts by the thematic armies and pursuing deeply unpopular Iconoclastic policies, established the imperial tagmata for their own security. Iconoclasm, Greek for "image-breaking" is the deliberate destruction within a culture of the culture's own religious Icons and other symbols or monuments The tagma ( τάγμα, pl tagmata) is a term for a military unit of Battalion size Although the tagmata formed the core of imperial expeditionary armies and were often absent from the city, two of them, the Noumeroi and the Teicheiōtai remained permanently stationed in Constantinople, garrisoned around the Palace district or in various locations, such as disused churches, in the capital. The Byzantine Great Palace of Constantinople, (Μέγα Παλάτιον Turkish: Büyük Saray also known as the Sacred Palace ( Latin These units were never very numerous, numbering a few thousands at best, but they were complemented by several detachments stationed around the capital, in Thrace and Bithynia. Description Several major cities sat on the fertile shores of the Propontis (which is now known as Sea of Marmara) Nicomedia, Chalcedon, Cius 
The small size of the city's garrison was due to the uneasiness of Emperors and populace alike towards a permanent large military force, both for fear of a military uprising and because of the considerable financial burden its maintenance would entail. Furthermore, a large force was largely unnecessary, because of the inherent security provided by the city walls themselves. As historian John Haldon notes: "Providing the gates were secured and the defences provided with a skeleton force, the City was safe against even very large forces in the pre-gunpowder period. "
Several fortifications were built at various periods in the vicinity of Constantinople, and can be said to have formed an integrated defensive system along with the city's main walls. The first and greatest of these is the 56 km long Anastasian Wall (Greek Anastaseio Teichos or Makron Teichos, "Long Wall"), built in the mid-5th century as an outer defense to Constantinople, some 65 km westwards of the city. The Anastasian Wall (Anastasius Suru Αναστάσειο Τείχος or the Long Walls of Thrace ( Uzun Duvar, Μακρά It was 3. 30 m thick and over 5 m high, but its effectiveness was limited, and it was abandoned at some time in the 7th century for want of resources to maintain and men to man it. For centuries thereafter, its materials were used in local buildings, but several parts are still extant. 
In addition, between the Anastasian Wall and the city itself, there were several small towns and fortresses like Selymbria, Rhegion or the great suburb of Hebdomon ("Seventh", modern Bakırköy, so named from its distance of seven Roman miles from the city walls), the site of major military encampments. Location Bakırköy is a large densely populated Middle class Residential Suburb of İstanbul, Turkey on its A mile is a unit of Length, usually used to measure Distance, in a number of different systems including Imperial units United States Beyond the Long Walls, the towns of Bizye and Arcadiopolis covered the northern approaches. Vize (Βιζύη Виза is a town and district of Kırklareli Province in the Marmara region of Turkey. Lüleburgaz ( Thracian: Bergule, Bulgarian: Люлебургас, Greek: Αρκαδιούπολη / Arcadioupolis These localities were strategically situated along the main routes to the city, and formed the outer defences of Constantinople throughout its history, serving to muster forces, confront enemy invasions or at least buy time for the capital's defences to be brought in order.  It is notable that during the final Ottoman siege, several of them, such as Selymbria, surrendered only after the fall of Constantinople itself. In Asia Minor, their role was mirrored by the cities of Nicaea and Nicomedia, and the large field camp at Malagina. Nicomedia ( Greek: Νικομήδεια modern İzmit) was founded by Nicomedes I of Bithynia at the head of the Gulf of Astacus which opens 
Galata, then the suburb of Sykai, was fortified under Justinian, but the settlement declined and disappeared after the 7th century, leaving only the great tower (the kastellion tou Galatou) in modern Karaköy, that guarded the chain extending across the mouth of the Golden Horn. Galata or Galatae is a district in Istanbul, the largest city of Turkey. Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus ( Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ιουστινιανός; known in English as Justinian I or The old Tower of Galata ( Greek: Megalos Pyrgos, literally Great Tower) was a tower which stood on the north side of the Golden Horn in Constantinople After the sack of the city in 1204, Galata became a Venetian quarter, and later a Genoese extraterritorial colony, effectively outside Byzantine control. The Most Serene Republic of Genoa (Repubblica di Genova was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from the 11th century Extraterritoriality is the state of being exempt from the Jurisdiction of local law usually as the result of diplomatic negotiations Despite Byzantine opposition, the Genoese managed to surround their quarter with a moat, and by joining their castle-like houses with walls they created the first wall around the colony. The Galata Tower, then called Christea Turris ("Tower of Christ"), and another stretch of walls to its north were built in 1349. The Galata Tower ( Turkish: Galata Kulesi) also called Christea Turris ( Tower of Christ) by the Genoese and Megalos Further expansions followed in 1387, 1397 and 1404, enclosing an area larger than that originally allocated to them, stretching from the modern district of Azapkapı north to Şişhane, from there to Tophane and thence to Karaköy.  After the Ottoman conquest, the walls were maintained until the 1870s, when most were demolished to facilitate the expansion of the city.  Today only the Galata Tower, visible from most of historical Constantinople, remains intact, along with several smaller fragments. 
The twin forts of Anadoluhisarı and Rumelihisarı lie to the north of Constantinople, at the narrowest point of the Bosporus. Anadoluhisarı is a Fortress located in Istanbul, Turkey on the Anatolian ( Asian side of the Bosporus, which also gives Rumelihisarı is a Fortress located in Istanbul, Turkey, on a hill at the European side of the Bosporus just north of the The Bosporus or Bosphorus, also known as the Istanbul Strait, (İstanbul Boğazı (Βόσπορος is a Strait that forms the boundary between the They were built by the Ottomans to control this strategically vital waterway in preparation for their final assault on Constantinople. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Anadoluhisarı (Turkish for "Fortress of Anatolia"), also called Akçehisar and Güzelcehisar in earlier times, was constructed by Sultan Bayezid I in 1394, and initially consisted of just a 25 m high, roughly pentagonal watchtower surrounded by a wall. Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black Bayezid I ( Ottoman: بايزيد الأول Turkish: Beyazıt, nicknamed Yıldırım (Ottoman ییلدیرم "the Thunderbolt"  The much larger and elaborate Rumelihisarı ("Fortress of Rumeli") was built by Sultan Mehmed II in just over 4 months in 1452. Rumelia or Rumeli ( Turkish: Rumeli ("Land of the Romans" from Rum: "Greek" "Roman" and El It consists of three large and one small towers, connected by a wall reinforced with 13 small watchtowers. With cannons mounted on its main towers, the fort gave the Ottomans complete control of the passage of ships through Bosporus, a role evoked clearly in its original name, Boğazkesen ("cutter of the strait"). After the conquest of Constantinople, it served as a customs checkpoint and a prison, notably for the embassies of states that were at war with the Empire. After suffering extensive damage in the 1509 earthquake, it was repaired, and was used continuously until the late 19th century.