|William T. Cosgrave|
6 December 1922 – 9 March 1932
|Deputy||Kevin O'Higgins (1922–1927)|
Ernest Blythe (1927–1932)
|Preceded by||Newly Created Office|
|Succeeded by||Éamon de Valera|
|Born||6 June 1880|
|Died||16 November 1965 (aged 85)|
|Political party||Cumann na nGaedhael|
|President of The Republic|
|President of Dáil Éireann|
William Thomas Cosgrave (Irish: Liam Tomás Mac Cosgair; 6 June 1880 – 16 November 1965), known generally as W. Irish (ga ''Gaeilge'' is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish. Events 1508 - Maximilian I Holy Roman Emperor, is defeated in Friulia by Venetian forces; he is forced to sign a three-year Year 1880 ( MDCCCLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Events 534 - A second and final revision of the Codex Justinianus is published Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. T. Cosgrave, was an Irish politician who succeeded Michael Collins as Chairman of the Irish Provisional Government from August to December 1922. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Michael John ("Mick" Collins (Mícheál Seán Ó Coileáin 16 October 1890 &ndash 22 August 1922 was an Irish revolutionary leader, Minister for The provisional Government of Southern Ireland was the Provisional government for the administration of Southern Ireland between 16 January 1922 and 6 December 1922 He served as the first President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State from 1922 to 1932. The President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State ( Irish: Uachtarán ar Ard-Chomhairle Shaorstát Éireann) was the Head of government or prime The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann (1922&ndash1937 was the state established as a Dominion on 6 December 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, signed by
William Thomas Cosgrave, or W. T. as he was generally known, was born at 174 James's St, Dublin in 1880. Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. He was educated at the Christian Brothers School at Malahide Road, Marino, before entering his father's publican's business. The Congregation of Christian Brothers (officially in Latin: Congregatio Fratrum Christianorum) is a world-wide community of religious brothers within Cosgrave first became politically active when he attended the first Sinn Féin convention in 1905. Sinn Féin () is a political party in Ireland. The current party led by Gerry Adams was formed following a split in January 1970
He was a Sinn Féin councillor on Dublin Corporation from 1909 until 1922 and joined the Irish Volunteers in 1913. Dublin Corporation (Bardas Bhaile Átha Cliath known by generations of Dubliners simply as The Corpo, is the former name given to the city government and its administrative The Irish Volunteers ( Óglaigh na hÉireann) was a military organisation established in 1913 by Irish nationalists. Cosgrave played an active role in the Easter Rising of 1916 serving under Eamonn Ceannt at the South Dublin Union. The Easter Rising (Éirí Amach na Cásca was a rebellion staged in Ireland in Easter Week, 1916 Éamonn Ceannt (born Edward Thomas Kent ( 21 September, 1881 &ndash 8 May, 1916) was an Irish Nationalist and Following the rebellion Cosgrave was sentenced to death, however this was later commuted to penal servitude for life and he was interned in Frongoch, Wales. Penal labour or penal servitude is a form of Unfree labour. The term may refer to two different notions labour as a form of punishment and labour as a form of occupation The Village of Frongoch is located in Gwynedd, North Wales. It lies close to the Market town of Bala, on the A4212 road While in prison Cosgrave won a seat for Sinn Féin in the 1917 Kilkenny by-election. Sinn Féin () is a political party in Ireland. The current party led by Gerry Adams was formed following a split in January 1970 Kilkenny City was a former United Kingdom Parliament constituency in Ireland returning one MP
He again won an Irish seat in the 1918 General Election, serving as MP for Carlow-Kilkenny. The Irish general election of 1918 was that part of the 1918 United Kingdom general election that took place in Ireland. A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a Parliament. Carlow-Kilkenny is a Constituency represented in Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Irish parliament or Oireachtas. He was released from prison in 1918 under a general amnesty and took part in the soon to be established Dáil Éireann. ga '''Dáil Éireann''' ( English House of Representatives of Ireland) is the principal chamber of the Oireachtas (Irish parliament On 24 June 1919 Cosgrave married Louisa Flanagan in Dublin. Events 972 - Battle of Cedynia, the first documented victory of Polish forces takes place Year 1919 ( MCMXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
Sinn Féin proved to be the big winner of the election in Ireland, capturing 73 Irish seats, 25 uncontested. Its manifesto promised abstentionism from the House of Commons in Westminster. Abstentionism is standing for Election to a Deliberative assembly while refusing to take up any seats won or otherwise participate in the assembly's business The House of Commons' is the Lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also comprises the Sovereign and the House of Lords On 21 January 1919, Sinn Féin's MPs who were not imprisoned assembled in the Round Room of the Mansion House in Dublin and formed themselves into an Assembly of Ireland, known in the Irish language as Dáil Éireann. Events 1189 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade. Year 1919 ( MCMXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Mansion House ( on Dawson Street Dublin, is the Official residence of the Lord Mayor of Dublin and has been since 1715 Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. Irish (ga ''Gaeilge'' is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish. The First Dáil (An Chéad Dáil was Dáil Éireann as it convened from 1919&ndash1921 Cathal Brugha became Príomh Aire (First or Prime Minister), also called President of Dáil Éireann. Cathal Brugha ( pronounced bˠɾˠuː born Charles William St The President of Dáil Éireann was the leader of the revolutionary Irish Republic of 1919&ndash1921
In April 1919 Brugha resigned and Éamon de Valera, the Sinn Féin leader, who had just escaped from prison with the help of Michael Collins, assumed the premiership instead. Éamon de Valera (ˈeɪmən dɛvəˈlɛrə (born Edward George de Valera) (14 October 1882 &ndash 29 August 1975 was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century The new government and state, known as the Irish Republic, claimed a right to govern the island of Ireland. The Irish Republic ( Irish: Poblacht na hÉireann or Saorstát Éireann) was a unilaterally declared independent state of Ireland proclaimed It also declared UDI, that is, a declaration of independence which remained until the end of the Republic unrecognised by any other world state except the Russian Republic under Lenin. This article is about declarations of independence in general
Though one of the most politically experienced of Sinn Féin's MPs (by now called Teachtaí Dála), Cosgrave was not among the major leadership of the party. A Teachta Dála (ˈtʲaxtə ˈdɑːlə is a member of Dáil Éireann, the lower chamber of the Oireachtas (Parliament of the Republic of Ireland. Nevertheless he was appointed to Éamon de Valera's cabinet as Minister for Local Government, his close friendship with de Valera (nicknamed Dev) being one of the reasons he was chosen. His chief task as Minister was the job of organising the non-cooperation of the people with the British authorities and establishing an alternative system of government. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927 Cosgrave was very successful in his role at the Department of Local Government.
In 1920 he oversaw elections to local councils in which the new system of proportional representation was used. Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation or PR is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes Sinn Féin gained control of 28 of the 33 local councils. These councils then cut their links to the British, and pledged loyalty to the Sinn Féin Department of Local Government, under Cosgrave.
Cosgrave broke with Éamon de Valera over the issue of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921. The Anglo-Irish Treaty (An Conradh Angla-Éireannach officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a Treaty To de Valera and almost half of the Sinn Féin TDs, the treaty betrayed "the republic" by proposing to replace it with dominion status akin to the position of Canada or Australia within the British Empire. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power.
To a majority however, republican status remained for the moment an unattainable goal, with the republic unrecognised internationally. Dominion status offered, in the words of Michael Collins "the freedom to achieve freedom. Michael John ("Mick" Collins (Mícheál Seán Ó Coileáin 16 October 1890 &ndash 22 August 1922 was an Irish revolutionary leader, Minister for " At the cabinet meeting in Dublin held to consider the Treaty immediately after it had been signed, Cosgrave agreed with Collins and with Arthur Griffith, de Valera's predecessor as leader of Sinn Féin and the chairman of the delegation which included Collins that had negotiated the Treaty. Arthur Griffith (Art Ó Gríobhtha 31 March 1872 &ndash 12 August 1922 was the founder and third leader of Sinn Féin. After the Dáil voted by 64 to 57 to approve the Treaty in January, 1922, De Valera resigned the presidency (which in August 1922 had been upgraded from a prime ministerial President of Dáil Éireann to a full head of state, called President of the Irish Republic). President of the Republic was the title given to the head of the Irish ministry or Aireacht in August 1921 by an amendment to the Dáil Constitution, which replaced De Valera was replaced as president by Griffith. Collins, in accordance with the Treaty, formed a Provisional Government which included Cosgrave.
The months following the acceptance of the Treaty saw a gradual progression to civil war. The split in Sinn Féin gradually deepened and the majority of the IRA hardened against accepting anything less than a full republic. Collins and de Valera tried desperately to find a middle course and formed a Pact whereby Sinn Féin fought a General Election in June with a common slate of candidates. Despite this Pact, the electorate voted heavily in favour of pro-Treaty parties. On the day of the election, the draft Free State Constitution was published and rejected by the Anti-Treatyites as it was clearly not a republican document. This precipitated a choice being made by Collins to maintain the Treaty position and the support of the British Government, and accordingly to suppress the Republican opposition that had seized the Four Courts in Dublin. The Civil War started on June 28, 1922, and the IRA was decisively defeated in the field over the following two months, being largely pinned back to Munster. Munster ( Irish: An Mhumhain, ənˈvuːnʲ Cúige Mumhan or Mumha) is the southernmost of the four Provinces of Ireland. In August 1922, both Griffith and Collins died in quick succession; the former died of natural causes, the latter a few days later through an assassin's bullet. With de Valera now on the fringes as the leader of the Anti-Treaty forces in the Civil War, the new dominion (which was in the process of being created but which would not legally come into being until December 1922) had lost all its most senior figures. The Irish Civil War ( June 28 1922 &ndash May 24 1923) pitted supporters of the Anglo-Irish Treaty against its opponents
Though it had the option of going for General Richard Mulcahy, Collins' successor as Commander-in-Chief of the National Army, the pro-Treaty leadership opted for Cosgrave, in part due to his democratic credentials as a long-time politician. Richard James Mulcahy (Risteárd Séamus Ó Maolchatha (10 May 1886 &ndash 16 December 1971 was an Irish politician, Army general and Commander in Having previously held the Local Government and Finance portfolios he became simultaneously President of Dáil Éireann (Griffith had returned his office to its pre-August 1922 name) and Chairman of the Provisional Government. The Chairman of the Provisional Government of Southern Ireland was a transitional post established in January 1922 lasting until the creation of the Irish Free State When, on 6 December 1922, the Irish Free State came into being, Cosgrave became its first prime minister, called President of the Executive Council. Events 1060 - Béla I of Hungary is crowned king of Hungary 1240 - Mongol invasion of Rus: Kiev Year 1922 ( MCMXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann (1922&ndash1937 was the state established as a Dominion on 6 December 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, signed by
W. T. Cosgrave was a small, quiet man, and at 42 was the oldest member of the Cabinet. He had not sought the leadership of the new country but once it was his he made good use of it. One of his chief priorities was to hold the new country together and to prove that the Irish could govern themselves. Some historians have noted that he lacked vision as a leader and was surrounded by men who were more capable than himself. However, over his ten years as President he provided the emerging Irish state with an able leader who had a sound judgement on the matters of state that the new country was facing.
As head of the Free State government during the Civil War, he was ruthless in what he saw as defence of the state against his former republican comrades. Although he actually disagreed with the use of the death penalty in principle, in October 1922 he enacted a Public Safety Bill, which allowed for the execution of anyone who was captured bearing arms against the state or aiding armed attacks on state forces. Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. He told the Dáil on September 27, 1922, "although I have always objected to the death penalty, there is no other way that I know of in which ordered conditions can be restored in this country, or any security obtained for our troops, or to give our troops any confidence in us as a government". Events 489 - Odoacer attacks Theodoric at the Battle of Verona and is defeated again Year 1922 ( MCMXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Cosgrave's position was that a guerrilla war could drag on indefinitely, making the achievement of law and order and establishing the Free State impossible, if harsh action was not taken.
By many he was never forgiven for the execution without trial of republican prisoners during the civil war. Irish republicanism (Poblachtánachas is an ideology based on the Irish nationalist belief that all of Ireland should be a single independent Republic In all 77 republicans were executed by the Free State between November 1922 and the end of the war in May 1923, including Robert Erskine Childers, Liam Mellowes and Rory O'Connor, far more than the 14 IRA Volunteers the British executed in the War of Independence. Robert Erskine Childers DSC (25 June 1870&ndash24 November 1922 was an author and Irish nationalist who was executed by the authorities of the nascent Liam Mellows (25 May 1895 – 8 December 1922 often spelled 'Liam Mellowes' was an Irish Nationalist and Sinn Féin politician Rory O'Connor (1883 - 1922 was an Irish republican activist He is best remembered for his role in the Irish Civil War 1922-1923 which led to his execution The Irish War of Independence (or Tan War, or Anglo-Irish War, Irish: Cogadh na Saoirse) from January 1919 to July 1921 was a guerrilla The Republican side, for their part, attacked pro-Treaty politicians and their homes and families. Cosgrave's family home was burned down by Anti-Treaty fighters and an uncle of his was shot dead . (See also Executions during the Irish Civil War)
In April 1923 the Pro-Treaty Sinn Féin members organised a new political party called Cumann na nGaedhael with Cosgrave as leader. The executions during the Irish Civil War took place during the guerrilla phase of the Irish Civil War (October 1922 – May 1923 This phase of the war was bitter and both Sinn Féin () is a political party in Ireland. The current party led by Gerry Adams was formed following a split in January 1970 Cumann na nGaedhael (ˈkʊmən nə ˈŋɰeːɫ "Society of the Gaels" sometimes spelt Cumann na nGaedheal, was an Irish language name given The following month the civil war was brought to an end, when the remaining Anti-Treaty IRA guerrillas announced a ceasefire and dumped their arms.
In the first few years in power Cosgrave's new government faced a number of problems. Firstly, the government attempted to reduce the size of the Irish Army. The Irish Army ( Arm na hÉireann) is the main branch of the Irish Defence Forces ( Óglaigh na hÉireann) During the civil war it had grown to over 55,000 men which, now that the civil war was over, was far too large and far too costly to maintain. However, some army officers challenged the authority of the government to cut the size of the Army. The officers, mostly Pro-Treaty IRA men, were angry that the government was not doing enough to help to create a republic and also there would be massive unemployment.
In March 1924 more layoffs were expected and the army officers, Major-General Liam Tobin and Colonel Charles Dalton sent an ultimatum to the government demanding an end to the mobilisation. Kevin O'Higgins, the Minister for Justice, who was also acting-President for Cosgrave while he was in hospital, moved to resolve the so-called "Army Mutiny". Kevin Christopher O'Higgins (Caoimhín Críostóir Ó hUigín 7 June 1892 &ndash 10 July 1927 was an Irish politician who served as Vice-President of the Executive Council Richard Mulcahy, the Minister for Defence, resigned and O'Higgins was victorious in a very public power struggle within Cumann na nGaedhael. Richard James Mulcahy (Risteárd Séamus Ó Maolchatha (10 May 1886 &ndash 16 December 1971 was an Irish politician, Army general and Commander in The crisis within the army was solved but the government was divided.
In 1924 the British and Irish governments agreed to attend the "Boundary Commission" to redraw the border which partitioned Ireland between the Irish Free State and Northern Ireland. The Boundary Commission was established by the Anglo-Irish Treaty that ended the Anglo-Irish War in 1921 The Partition of Ireland took place on 3 May 1921 under the Government of Ireland Act 1920. The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann (1922&ndash1937 was the state established as a Dominion on 6 December 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, signed by Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of The Free State's representative was Eoin MacNeill, a respected scholar and Minister for Education. Eoin MacNeill ( Eoin Mac Néill, 15 May 1867&ndash15 October 1945 was an Irish scholar nationalist revolutionary and politician The Free State expected to gain much territory in heavily Catholic and republican parts of counties Londonderry, Fermanagh, Tyrone, and Armagh, as the British government had indicated during the treaty negotiations that the wishes of the nationalist inhabitants along the border would be taken into account. County Fermanagh (fɚr'mænɘ Contae Fhear Manach or Fear Manach ('Men of Monach'in Irish) is the westernmost of the six counties that form Northern County Armagh ( Contae Ard Mhacha in Irish - from the height of Macha) is a county in Ulster in the north east of Ireland However, after months of secret negotiations a newspaper reported that there would be little change to the border and the Free State would actually lose territory in Donegal. County Donegal (ˌdʌnəˈgɔːl Irish: Contae Dhún na nGall. MacNeill resigned from the commission and the government for not reporting to Cosgrave on the details of the commission. Cosgrave immediately went to London for a meeting with the British Prime Minister and the Prime Minister of Northern Ireland, where they agreed to let the border remain as it was, and in return the Free State did not have to pay its pro-rata share of the Imperial debt. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the political leader of the United Kingdom The Prime Minister of Northern Ireland was the De facto head of the Government of Northern Ireland. In the Dáil debate on 7 December Cosgrave stated: "I had only one figure in my mind and that was a huge nought. That was the figure I strove to get, and I got it. "
Although Cosgrave and his government accepted dominion status for the Irish Free State, they did not trust the British to respect this new independence. These suspicions would later prove justified. The government embarked on fairly radical foreign initiatives. In 1923 the Irish Free State became a member of the League of Nations, in spite of British protests. The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann (1922&ndash1937 was the state established as a Dominion on 6 December 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, signed by The League of Nations was an International organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920 The Free State became the first British Commonwealth country to have a separate or non-British representative in Washington, D.C.. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D The new state also exchanged diplomats with many other European nations.
The Anglo-Irish Treaty itself also gave the Irish much more freedom than many other dominions. The Oath of Allegiance in Ireland was much less royalist than in Canada or Australia. An oath of allegiance is an Oath whereby a subject or Citizen acknowledges his/her duty of Allegiance and swears loyalty to his Monarch Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment preservation or restoration of a Monarchy as a Form of government in a nation Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The king's representative in Ireland was Irish, unlike the other dominions, and although the head of state was the king, power was derived from the Irish people and not him. There were also questions raised about the word "treaty". The British claimed it was an internal affair while the Irish saw it as an international agreement between two independent states, a point which was accepted by the League of Nations. The League of Nations was an International organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920
During the ten years that Cosgrave and Cumann na nGaedhael were in power they adopted a conservative economic policy. Taxation was kept as low as possible and the budget was balanced to avoid borrowing. The Irish currency remained linked to the British currency, resulting in the overvaluation of the Irish pound. Free trade was advocated as opposed to protection, but moderate tariffs were introduced on some items.
The new government decided to concentrate on developing agriculture, while doing little to help the industrial sector. Agriculture responded well with stricter quality control being introduced and the passing of a Land Act to help farmers buy their farms. Also, the Irish Sugar Company and the Agricultural Credit Corporation were established to encourage growth. Greencore Group plc () is a Food company in Ireland It was established by the Irish Government in 1991 to take over Irish Sugar the ACCBank plc is a Commercial bank in Ireland that focuses on Agriculture and SME lending However, the economic depression that hit in the 1930s soon undid the good work of Cosgrave and his ministers. Industry was seen as secondary to agriculture and little was done to improve it. The loss of the north-east of Ireland had a bad effect on the country as a whole. However, the Electricity Supply Board, with the first national grid in Europe, was established to provide employment and electricity to the new state. The Electricity Supply Board (ESB (Bord Soláthair an Leictreachais (sometimes called ESB Ireland to differentiate it from US utilities is a semi-state electricity
In June, 1927, a General Election was held in which de Valera's new party, Fianna Fáil, won many seats on an abstentionist platform. In July, the Minister for Justice, Kevin O'Higgins, was assassinated on his way home from Sunday Mass by the IRA. Cosgrave had legislation passed to force Fianna Fáil to take their seats in the Dáil and this proved successful with de Valera and his party entering the Dáil.
A general election was not necessary until the end of 1932, however, Cosgrave called one for February of that year. The Irish general election of 1932 was held on 16 February 1932 just over two weeks after the dissolution of the Dáil on 29 January There was growing unrest in the country and a fresh mandate was needed for an important Commonwealth meeting in the summer. Cumann na nGaedhael fought the election on its record of providing ten years of honest government and political and economic stability. Instead of developing new policies the party played the "red card" by portraying the new party, Fianna Fáil, as communists. Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party (Fianna Fáil – An Páirtí Poblachtánach shortened to Fianna Fáil ( is currently the largest Political party in the Fianna Fáil offered the electorate a fresh and popular manifesto of social reform. Unable to compete with this Cosgrave and his party lost the election, and a minority Fianna Fáil government came to power.
Following the general election Cosgrave assumed the nominal role of Leader of the Opposition. The Leader of the Opposition (Ceannaire an Fhreasúra in the Republic of Ireland is the politician who at least in theory leads the Parliamentary Opposition bloc Fianna Fáil were expected to have a short tenure in government, however, this turned out to be a sixteen year period of rule by the new party. In 1933 three groups, Cumann na nGaedhael, the National Centre Party and the National Guard came together to form a new political force, Fine Gael - the United Ireland Party. Cumann na nGaedhael (ˈkʊmən nə ˈŋɰeːɫ "Society of the Gaels" sometimes spelt Cumann na nGaedheal, was an Irish language name given The National Centre Party, initially know as the National Farmers and Ratepayers League was a short-lived political party in the Irish Free State. The Army Comrades Association (ACA later named National Guard and better known by their nickname The Blueshirts (Na Léinte Gorma were an Fine Gael – The United Ireland Party, shortened to Fine Gael (ˌfina gail meaning Family of the Irish or Tribe of the Irish, is the second largest Cosgrave became the first parliamentary leader of the new party, serving until his retirement in 1944. During that period the new party failed to win a general election. Cosgrave retired as leader of the party and from politics in 1944.
An effective and good chairman rather than a colourful or charismatic leader, he led the new state during the more turbulent period of its history, when the legislation necessary for the foundation of a stable independent Irish polity needed to be pushed through. Cosgrave's governments in particular played a crucial role in the evolution of the British Empire into the British Commonwealth, with fundamental changes to the concept of the role of the Crown, the governor-generalship and the British Government within the Commonwealth. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power.
In overseeing the establishment of the formal institutions of the state his performance as its first political leader may have been undervalued. In an era when democratic governments formed in the aftermath of the First World War were moving away from democracy and towards dictatorships, the Free State under Cosgrave remained unambiguously democratic, a fact shown by his handing over of power to his one-time friend, then rival, Éamon de Valera, when de Valera's Fianna Fáil won the 1932 general election, in the process killing off talk within the Irish Army of staging a coup to keep Cosgrave in power and de Valera out of it. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All
Perhaps the best endorsement made of Cosgrave came from his old rival, with whom he was reconciled before his death, Éamon de Valera. De Valera once in 1932 and later close to his own death, made two major comments. To an interviewer, when asked what was his biggest mistake, he said without a pause, "not accepting the Treaty". To his own son, Vivion, weeks after taking power in 1932 and reading the files on the actions of Cosgrave's governments in relation to its work in the Commonwealth, he said of Cosgrave and Cosgrave's ministers ". Vivion de Valera (13 December 1910 – 16 February 1982 was an Irish scientist businessman Lawyer, and politician . . when we got in and saw the files. . . they did a magnificent job, Viv. They did a magnificent job. "
William T. Cosgrave died on 16 November 1965, aged 85. Events 534 - A second and final revision of the Codex Justinianus is published Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. The Fianna Fáil government under Seán Lemass awarded him the honour of a state funeral, which was attended by the cabinet, the leaders of all the main Irish political parties, and Éamon de Valera, then President of Ireland. Seán Francis Lemass (15 July 1899 &ndash 11 May 1971 was an Irish Fianna Fáil politician and third Taoiseach of Ireland from 1959 until 1966 State funerals in the Republic of Ireland have taken place on the following occasions since 1921 (This list is incomplete Protocol Lying The Government of Ireland (Rialtas na hÉireann n̪ˠə ˈheːɾʲən̪ˠ is the Cabinet that exercises executive authority in Ireland. The President of Ireland (Uachtarán na hÉireann n̪ˠə ˈheːɾʲən̪ˠ is the Head of state of Ireland. He is buried in Goldenbridge Cemetery in Inchicore. Inchicore ( is a southern inner suburb of Dublin, Ireland, south of the River Liffey and west of the city centre in the Dublin 8 postal district
Cosgrave's son, Liam, succeeded his father as a TD in 1944 and went on to become leader of Fine Gael from 1965 to 1977 and Taoiseach from 1973 to 1977. Liam Cosgrave ( Irish name: Liam Mac Cosgair; born 13 April 1920 served as the Taoiseach of Ireland between 1973 and 1977 and is the son of A Teachta Dála (ˈtʲaxtə ˈdɑːlə is a member of Dáil Éireann, the lower chamber of the Oireachtas (Parliament of the Republic of Ireland. Fine Gael – The United Ireland Party, shortened to Fine Gael (ˌfina gail meaning Family of the Irish or Tribe of the Irish, is the second largest The Taoiseach (ˈtiːʃəx in English t̪ˠiːʃʲəx (plural Taoisigh ( or) in Irish) also referred to as An Taoiseach ( t̪ˠiːʃʲəx is the the W. T. 's grandson, also called Liam also served as a TD and as Senator. Liam Thomas Cosgrave (born 30 April 1956 is a former Fine Gael politician in the Republic of Ireland. Seanad Éireann (ɕan̪ˠad̪ˠ erʲan̪ˠ English Senate of Ireland) also known unofficially as the Senate, is the Upper house of the Oireachtas
The following governments were led by Cosgrave:
Newly Created Office
|Minister for Local Government|
|Minister for Finance|
|President of Dáil Éireann|
Office of President of the Executive Council
|Chairman of the Provisional Government|
Office of Chairman of the Provisional Government
|President of the Executice Council|
Éamon de Valera
Leader of Pro-Treaty Sinn Féin
|Leader of Cumann na nGaedhael|
Leader of Fine Gael
Parliamentary Leader of Cumann na nGaedhael
|Parliamentary Leader of Fine Gael|
|Leader of Fine Gael|