Coordinates: 27°35′N 77°42′E / 27.58, 77.7 Vrindavan pronunciation (alternate spellings Vrindaban or Brindavan), or Vraj in Mathura district, Uttar Pradesh, India is a town on the site of an ancient forest which is believed to have been the region where the famous cowherd boy, Krishna, from Hindu scriptures spent his childhood days. Uttar Pradesh (उत्तर प्रदेश اتر پردیش pronounced, Translation: Northern Province) referred to as '''U India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. Indian Standard Time ( IST) is the time observed throughout India and Sri Lanka, with a Time offset of UTC+530. UTC+530 is the Timezone for Indian Standard Time Sri Lanka Time The geography of India is diverse with landscape ranging from snow-capped mountain ranges to deserts plains rainforests hills and plateaus The elevation of a Geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point often the mean sea level. A district is an administrative division of an Indian state or territory. Mathura District is a district of Uttar Pradesh state of northern India. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. Mathura District is a district of Uttar Pradesh state of northern India. Uttar Pradesh (उत्तर प्रदेश اتر پردیش pronounced, Translation: Northern Province) referred to as '''U India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Krishna (कृष्ण in Devanagari kṛṣṇa in IAST, ˈkr̩ʂɳə in classical Sanskrit is a deity worshiped across many traditions of Hinduism Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent.
It is about 15km away from Mathura city (said to be Krishna's birthplace), near the Agra-Delhi highway. Mathura ( IAST mathurā)( Hindi: मथुरा is a holy City in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Agra ( pronounced) (आगरा آگرا is a city on the banks of the Yamuna River in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, Delhi (दिल्ली ਦਿੱਲੀ دلی d̪ɪlːiː sometimes referred to as Dilli) is the second largest metropolis of India, with a population The town includes many hundreds of temples dedicated to the worship of Radha and Krishna and is considered sacred by a number of religious traditions such as Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Vaishnavism, and Hinduism in general. For Radha the mother of Karna from Mahabharata see Radha (Mahabharata Radha (Devanagari राधा IAST Rādhā is the principal SACRED was a Cubesat built by the Student Satellite Program of the University of Arizona. Gaudiya Vaishnavism (also known as Chaitanya Vaishnavism) is a Vaishnava religious movement founded by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486-1534 in India Vaishnavism is a tradition of Hinduism, distinguished from other schools by its worship of Vishnu or its associated avatars principally as Rama and Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent.
While in the past Vrindavan was considered as the beautifulest of forests in the whole of India (Kalidas)in the last 250 years it has been subjected to urbanization first by local Rajas and in recent decades by more and more apartment developers. At present the number of trees in the area are meager and the local wildlife, including peacocks, cows, monkeys and a variety of bird species have mostly been eliminated or are in severe danger of such. The term peafowl refers to Gallinaceous Birds classified within the genera Rheinardia Argusianus Afropavoand Pavo Cattle, colloquially referred to as cows, are domesticated Ungulates a member of the Subfamily Bovinae of the family A monkey is any member of either the New World monkeys or Old World monkeys two of the three groupings of Simian Primates the third group being Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs.
Kesi Ghat on the Yamuna
river. For the goddess of the river who is sometimes called Yamuna see Yami The Yamuna (Sanskrit यमुना
The ancient name of the city, 'Brindaban' is after its ancient groves of 'Brinda' Ocimum tenuiflorum or Tulsi with ban meaning a grove or a forest . Ocimum tenuiflorum (also known as Ocimum sanctum, Tulsi, Tulasī (तुलसी in Sanskrit and Hindi, ( Ocimum tenuiflorum (also known as Ocimum sanctum, Tulsi, Tulasī (तुलसी in Sanskrit and Hindi, ( Two small groves still exist Nidhivan and Seva kunj
Vrindavan has always remained as a part of the Hindu folklore, and a important Hindu pigrimage, in 1901 it had a population of 22,717 and one of its oldest surviving temples is the Govind Deo temple, built in 1590, the modern town is said to have been founded earlier, in the same century . Year 1901 ( MCMI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting
Madan Mohan temple
Vrindavan is often considered to be a holy place by majority of traditions of Krishnaism. Krishna (कृष्ण in Devanagari kṛṣṇa in IAST, ˈkr̩ʂɳə in classical Sanskrit is a deity worshiped across many traditions of Hinduism Radha Krishna ( IAST rādhā-kṛṣṇa, Sanskrit राधा कृष्ण is a Hindu Deity. Krishnaism is a term that is often used to describe a number of Hindu religious traditions that are among the Hindu denominations centered on devotion to Radha Its a center of Krishna worship and the area is including places like Govardhana and Gokula that are associated with Krishna from the time immemorial. Govardhan (गोवर्धन is a hill located near the town of Vrindavan in India, considered as Sacred by a number of traditions within Hinduism Gokula (गोकुला or Gokul Singh (गोकुल सिंह (died 1670 AD was a Jat chieftain of Sinsini Many millions of bhaktas or devotees of Radha Krishna visit these paces of pilgrimage every year and participate in a number of festivals that relate to the scenes from Krishna's life on Earth. Radha Krishna ( IAST rādhā-kṛṣṇa, Sanskrit राधा कृष्ण is a Hindu Deity. According to tradition and recorded evidence, Krishna was raised in the cowherding village of Gokul by his foster parents Nanda Maharaj and Yasoda. Krishna (कृष्ण in Devanagari kṛṣṇa in IAST, ˈkr̩ʂɳə in classical Sanskrit is a deity worshiped across many traditions of Hinduism WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> For the Jat chieftain see Gokula. According to Puranas Nanda ( Sanskrit: नंद was head of a tribe of cowherds referred as Holy Gwals. Yasoda ( Sanskrit: यशोदा was wife of Nanda within the Puranic texts of Hinduism. The Bhagavata Purana describes Krishna's early childhood pastimes in Vrindavan forest wherein he, his brother Balarama, and his cowherd friends stole butter, engaged in childhood pranks and fought with demons. The Bhagavata Purana (also known as Śrīmad Bhāgavatam, or simply Bhāgavatam) is one of the Puranic texts of Hindu literature Lila (Sanskrit लीला or Leela is a concept within Hinduism literally meaning "pastime" "sport" or "play" A forest is an area with a high density of Trees There are many definitions of a forest based on various criteria Balarama (बलराम Balarāma) also named Baladeva, Baldau, Balabhadra and Halayudha, is the elder brother of the divine In Hindi, Raksha means 'protection' This word is derived from the Sanskrit language Along with these activities, Krishna is also described as meeting and dancing with the local girls of Vrindavan village (and especially Radharani) who were known as gopis. For Radha the mother of Karna from Mahabharata see Radha (Mahabharata Radha (Devanagari राधा IAST Rādhā is the principal Gopi is a word of Sanskrit (गोपी origin meaning 'cow-herd girl' These pastimes were the source of inspiration for the famous Sanskrit poem, Gita Govinda, by the Orissan poet, Jayadeva (c. Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical The Gita Govinda (Sanskrit गीत गोविन्द ( Song of Govinda) is a work composed in the 12th century by the great poet Jayadeva of Puri Jayadeva ( Oriya: ଜୟେଦବ was a Sanskrit poet who lived in Orissa, circa 1200 AD 1200 AD).
The most popular temples include:
- The Madan Mohan Temple located near the Kali Ghat which was built by Kapur Ram Das of Multan. For Radha the mother of Karna from Mahabharata see Radha (Mahabharata Radha (Devanagari राधा IAST Rādhā is the principal Krishna (कृष्ण in Devanagari kṛṣṇa in IAST, ˈkr̩ʂɳə in classical Sanskrit is a deity worshiped across many traditions of Hinduism ( Urdu:, Punjabi ملتان، ਮੁਲਤਾਨ is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District This is the oldest existent temple in Vrindavan today. The temple is closely associated with the saint Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (also transliterated Caitanya, IAST caitanya mahāprabhu) ( Bengali চৈতন্য মহাপ্রভূ (1486 - The original image of Lord Madan Gopal was shifted from the shrine to Karauli in Rajasthan for safe keeping during Aurangzeb's rule. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Karauli (also formerly spelled Karoli or Kerowlee) is a town lying in the Indian state Aurangzeb ( (full title Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I Padshah Ghazi) ( November 4, Today, a replica of the image is worshiped at the temple.
- The Banke-Bihari Temple, built in 1862 is the most popular shrine at Vrindavan. The image of Banke-Bihari was discovered in Nidhi Vana by Swami Haridas, the great Krishna devotee, belonging to the Nimbarka sampradaya. Swami Haridas was a spiritual poet and musician. Credited with a large body of devotional compositions especially in the Dhrupad style he is also the founder of Nimbarka ( Sanskrit: श्री निम्बार्काचार्य Śrī Nimbārkācārya) is known for propagating the Vaishnava Theology
- The famous Radha Vallabh Temple set up by the Radha-Vallabh sampradaya, through Sri Hith Harivansh Mahaprabhu, has the crown of Radharani placed next to the Shri Krishna image in the sanctum.
- The Jaipur Temple which was built by Sawai Madho Singh II, the Maharaja of Jaipur in 1917, is a richly embellished and opulent temple. Jaipur ( Hindi: जयपुर also popularly known as the Pink City, is the capital of Rajasthan state, India. The fine hand - carved sandstone is of unparalleled workmanship. The temple is dedicated to Shri Radha Madhava.
- Sri Radha Raman Mandir constructed at the request of Gopala Bhatta Goswami around 1542 is one most exquisitely crafted and revered temples of Vrindavan, especially by the Goswamis. Gopala Bhatta Goswami (1503 - 1578 is one of the foremost disciples of the Vaishnava Saint, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, and a leading historical figure in the It still houses the original saligram deity of Krishna, alongside Radharani. Sila, (also spelt as Shila or Sheela) refers to a Vaishnava ( Hindu) Murti in the form of a spherical usually black-coloured stone 
- The Shahji Temple, another popular temple at Vrindavan, was designed and built in 1876 by a wealthy jeweller, Shah Kundan Lal of Lucknow. Lucknow is also a mansion in New Hampshire Lucknow ( लखनऊ لکھنؤ Lakhnaū) is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh The deities (images) at the temple are popularly known as the Chhote Radha Raman. Noted for its magnificent architecture and beautiful marble sculpture, the temple has twelve spiral columns each 15 feet high. The `Basanti Kamra' - the darbar hall is famed for its Belgian glass chandeliers and fine paintings.
- The Rangaji Temple, built in 1851 is dedicated to Lord Ranganatha or Rangaji depicted as Lord Vishnu in his sheshashayi pose, resting on the coils of the sacred Sesha Naga. For other meanings see Vishnu (disambiguation. Vishnu ( IAST viṣṇu Devanagari विष्णु (honorific In Hindu ( Vedic) tradition Shesha (Śeṣa in IAST transliteration Devanagari: शेष is the king of all nagas, one of the primal The temple built in the Dravidian style (as a replica of Srivilliputhur) has a tall gopuram (gateway), of six storeys and a gold - plated Dhwaja stambha, 50 feet high. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Srivilliputhur (Tamil ஸ்ரீவில்லிபுத்தூர் / திருவில்லிபுத்தூர் A water tank and a picturesque garden lie within the temple enclosure. The annual festival of Jal Vihar of the presiding deity is performed with great pomp and splendour at the tank. The temple is also famous for its `Brahmotsdav' celebration in March-April, more popularly known as the `Rath ka Mela'. The ten day long celebrations are marked by the pulling of the rath (the chariot car) by the devotees from the temple to the adjoining gardens. Temple cars are Chariots used to carry idols of Hindu gods. The car pulling is usually on festival days where many folks pull the cart The prayers within the temple are performed, following in the style of Andal, one of the twelve Vaishnava Saints of South India. Aandaal (ஆண்டாள் is a 10th century Tamil saint and one of the twelve Alvars (saints and the only woman Alvar of Vaishnavism.
- The Govind Deo (Govindaji) Temple was once a magnificent seven storeyed structure built in the form of a Greek cross. Govinda and Gopāla are Names of Krishna, referring to his youthful occupation as a Cowherd. It is said that the Emperor Akbar donated some of the red sandstone that had been brought for the Red Fort at Agra, for the construction of this temple. Akbar redirects here For other uses see Akbar (disambiguation Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar ( Jalāl ud-Dīn Muhammad Akbar Agra ( pronounced) (आगरा آگرا is a city on the banks of the Yamuna River in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, Built at the astronomical cost of one crore rupees in 1590 by his general Raja Man Singh, the temple combines western, Hindu and Muslim architectural elements in its structure. A crore is a unit in the Indian numbering system and was formerly a unit in the Persian numbering system still widely used in Bangladesh, India, Maldives Raja Shri Man Singh Ji Saheb ( Man Singh I) (May 9 1540- July 61614 was the Kacchwaha Rajah Saheb of Amber, a state later known as Jaipur. It was destroyed by Mughal ruler Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb ( (full title Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I Padshah Ghazi) ( November 4,
- The Sri Krishna-Balrama Temple built by the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) in a location known as 'Raman-Reti', is one of the most beautiful temples in Vrindavan today. The International Society for Krishna Consciousness ( ISKCON) also known as 'the Hare Krishna ' movement is one of several Vaishnava groups The principal deities of this temple are Krishna & Balaram, with Radha-Shyamasundar and Gaura-Nitai alongside. Gouranga (guˈrəŋgə is a term popularized by the Hare Krishna movement as a word meaning 'be happy' Nityananda ( Bangla: শ্রী নিত্যানন্দ (b 1474 CE a Vaishnava saint is famous as a primary religious figure within the Gaudiya Adjoining the temple is the samadhi of A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, the founder of ISKCON, built in pure white marble. Abhay Charanaravinda Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada ( Sanskrit:, abhaya-caraṇāravinda bhakti-vedānta svāmī prabhupāda, Bangla: অভয়চরনাবিন্দ
- The Radha Damodar Mandir Located at Seva Kunj, the Mandir was established in 1542 by Srila Jiva Goswami. The deities Sri Sri Radha Damodar are here. For Radha the mother of Karna from Mahabharata see Radha (Mahabharata Radha (Devanagari राधा IAST Rādhā is the principal The bhajan kutir of A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada is also situated at the Mandir.
Other sacred sites
Kusuma Sarovar bathing ghat, in the Vrindavan area
visit Swami Haridas
. Akbar redirects here For other uses see Akbar (disambiguation Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar ( Jalāl ud-Dīn Muhammad Akbar Tansen or Miyan Tansen or Ramtanu Pandey (1493 or 1506 &ndash 1586 or 1589 is considered among the greatest composer-musicians in Hindustani classical music Swami Haridas was a spiritual poet and musician. Credited with a large body of devotional compositions especially in the Dhrupad style he is also the founder of
Other places of interest include Seva Kunj, Kesi Ghat, Sriji Temple, Jugal Kishore Temple, Lal Babu Temple, Raj Ghat, Kusuma Sarovar, Meera-Bai Temple, Imli Tal, Kaliya Ghat, Raman Reti, Varaha Ghat and Chira Ghat, and across the river, a short boat-ride away is the samadhi shrine of Devraha Baba, a revered saint of the last century.
The Seva Kunj is where Lord Krishna once performed the Raaslila with Radha-Rani and the gopis and Nidhi Van where the divine couple rested. The samadhi of Swami Haridas, the guru of Tansen, is situated here. Swami Haridas was a spiritual poet and musician. Credited with a large body of devotional compositions especially in the Dhrupad style he is also the founder of Tansen or Miyan Tansen or Ramtanu Pandey (1493 or 1506 &ndash 1586 or 1589 is considered among the greatest composer-musicians in Hindustani classical music Every year, in his honour, Swami Haridas Sammelan is organized, in which all renowned musicians of India take part.
Another famous temple of Sri Vrindavan is Sri Kathia Baba Ka Sthan" at Gurukul Road , the mahanta of which is entitled as "brajobidehi mahanta" and the acharya of Swabhuram Dwara of Nimbarka sect, Sri Swami Rash Behari Das Kathia Babaji Maharaj. Kathia Baba - Contemporary group named after the founder and following the philosophy of Dvaitādvaita Vaishnava Vedanta. An acharya ( acariya in Pali) is an important religious teacher ( Guru) who teaches by his own example (from Sanskrit 'achara' behavior Nimbarka ( Sanskrit: श्री निम्बार्काचार्य Śrī Nimbārkācārya) is known for propagating the Vaishnava Theology
Vrindavan is located at 27.58° N 77.7° E. It has an average elevation of 170 metres (557 feet). The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit
As of 2001 India census, Vrindavan had a population of 56,618. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. A census is the procedure of acquiring information about every member of a given population Males constitute 56% of the population and females 44%. Vrindavan has an average literacy rate of 65%, higher than the national average of 59. 5%: male literacy is 73%, and female literacy is 55%. In Vrindavan, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age.
Vrindavan is also known as the City of Widows due to the large number of widows who move into the town and surrounding area after losing their husbands. According to some Hindu traditions, upper-caste widows may not remarry, so many of those abandoned by their families on the death of their husband make their way here. Castes are Hereditary systems of occupation, Endogamy, social culture, Social class, and Political power. WIDOW is a full-length Album recorded by British rock band Ritual released in 1983 There are an estimated 15,000 to 20,000 widows living on the streets, many of whom have spent over 30 years there. An organization called Guild of Service was formed to assist these deprived women and children. In 2000 the organization opened Amar Bari (My Home), a refuge for 120 Vrindavan widows, and a second shelter for 500 widows is expected to open.
- ^ Brindaban The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. The Hare Krishna Mantra, also referred to reverentially as the Maha Mantra ("Great Mantra" is a sixteen-word Vaishnava mantra made well Govardhan (गोवर्धन is a hill located near the town of Vrindavan in India, considered as Sacred by a number of traditions within Hinduism Srila Gaura Kisora dasa Babaji (1838 - 1915 CE is a well known figure from the Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition of Hinduism, and is regarded as a Mahatma This article is about a Hindu philosophical concept the original or absolute manifestation of God Radha Krishna ( IAST rādhā-kṛṣṇa, Sanskrit राधा कृष्ण is a Hindu Deity. The Imperial Gazetteer of India prepared by Sir William Wilson Hunter from 1881 onwards is an important historical reference book Year 1909 ( MCMIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting 9, p. 17.
- ^ Brindaban This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911 is a 29-volume reference work that marked the beginning of the Encyclopædia Britannica The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone .
- ^ KLOSTERMAIER, Klaus K. (2007). A Survey of Hinduism. State University of New York Press; 3 edition, p. 204. ISBN 0791470814. “The center of Krishna-worship has been for a long time Brajbhumi, the district of Mathura that embraces also Vrindavana, Govardhana, and Gokula, associated with Krishna from the time immemorial. Many millions of Krishna bhaktas visit these places ever year and participate in the numerous festivals that reenact scenes from Krshnas life on Earth”
- ^ Banke-Bihari Temple website
- ^ Radhavallabh Temple website
- ^ The history of Sri Radha Raman Temple
- ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Vrindavan
- ^ Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns. (Provisional). Census Commission of India. Retrieved on 2007-09-03. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 36 BC - In the Battle of Naulochus, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Admiral of Octavian, defeats Sextus Pompeius
- ^ CNN: India's widows live out sentence of shame, poverty. Cable News Network, usually referred to by its Initialism CNN, is a major English language Television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner Retrieved on 2007-03-25. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1199 - Richard I is wounded by a crossbow bolt while fighting France which leads to his death on April 6.
- ^ Catalyst Magazine: Moksha: the widows of Vrindavan. Retrieved on 2007-03-25. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1199 - Richard I is wounded by a crossbow bolt while fighting France which leads to his death on April 6.
- ^ a b Shunned from society, widows flock to city to die. Retrieved on 2007-07-05. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1295 - Scotland and France form an alliance the beginnings of the Auld Alliance, against England. (This article was criticized by several members of the South Asian Journalists Association for "generalizations and questionable assertions. " An article in the SAJA Forum documents several instances where, after such criticisms appeared, CNN quietly made changes in the online version of the article. Arun Venugopal, a reporter for WNYC, wrote, "On the SAJA Discussion list, a number of people across the political spectrum found that the story ascribed too much to 'tradition' rather than to more complex social realities. ")
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