|Born||Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov|
April 22 [O.S. April 10] 1899
Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire
|Died||July 2, 1977 (aged 78)|
|Occupation||novelist, lepidopterist, professor|
|Literary movement||Modernism, Postmodernism|
|Notable work(s)||Lolita (1955)|
Pale Fire (1962)
Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (Russian: Влади́мир Влади́мирович Набо́ков, Russian pronunciation: [vlɐˈdʲimʲɪr nɐˈbokəf]) (April 22 [O.S. April 10] 1899, Saint Petersburg – July 2, 1977, Montreux) was a multilingual Russian-American novelist and short story writer. Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages Events 1500 - Portuguese Navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral becomes the first European to sight Brazil. Old Style (or OS) and New Style (or NS) are used in English language historical studies either to indicate that the start of the Julian year Events 879 - Louis III becomes King of the Western Franks. 1407 - the lama Year 1899 ( MDCCCXCIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Saint Petersburg ( tr: Sankt-Peterburg,) is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River Events 310 - Pope Miltiades is elected 626 - In fear of assassination Li Shimin ambushes and kills his rival Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays Montreux is a municipality in the district of Vevey in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story The short story is a literary genre of Fictional Prose Narrative that tends to be more concise and to the point than longer works of fiction such Nabokov wrote his first nine novels in Russian, then rose to international prominence as a master English prose stylist. Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States He also made significant contributions to entomology and had an interest in chess problems. Entomology (from Greek grc ἔντομος entomos, "that which is cut in pieces or engraved/segmented" hence "insect" and grc -λογία A chess problem, also called a chess composition, is a puzzle set by somebody using Chess pieces on a Chess board that presents the solver with
Nabokov's Lolita (1955) is frequently cited as his most important novel, and is his most widely known, exhibiting the love of intricate wordplay and descriptive detail that characterized all his works. Lolita (1955 is a Novel by Vladimir Nabokov, first written in English and published in 1955 in Paris, later translated by the author Word play is a Literary technique in which the nature of the words that are used become the main subject of the work .
The eldest son of Vladimir Dmitrievich Nabokov and his wife, née Elena Ivanovna Rukavishnikova, he was born to a rich and prominent Orthodox family of the untitled nobility of Saint Petersburg. Nabokov House is the house in Saint Petersburg with the modern street number of 47 Great Morskaya Street (Bol'shaia morskaia ulitsa 190000 Saint Petersburg ( tr: Sankt-Peterburg,) is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River Vladimir Dmitrievich Nabokov (Russian Владимир Дмитриевич Набоков ( 15 July 1870 – 28 March 1922) was a Russian The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world Saint Petersburg ( tr: Sankt-Peterburg,) is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River He spent his childhood and youth there and at the country estate Vyra near Siverskaya. Siversky (Си́верский is an Urban-type settlement in the Gatchinsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia. Nabokov's childhood, which he called "perfect," was remarkable in several ways. The family spoke Russian, English and French in their household, and Nabokov was trilingual from an early age. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people In fact, much to his father's patriotic chagrin, Nabokov could read and write English before he could Russian. In Speak, Memory Nabokov recalls numerous details of his privileged childhood, and his ability to recall in vivid detail memories of his past was a boon to him during his permanent exile, as well as providing a theme which echoes from his first book, Mary, all the way to later works such as Ada or Ardor: A Family Chronicle. Speak Memory (ISBN 0375405534 is an autobiographical memoir by writer Vladimir Nabokov. Mary (Машенька Mashen'ka is the debut Novel by Vladimir Nabokov, first published under Pen name V Ada or Ardor A Family Chronicle is a Novel by Vladimir Nabokov published in 1969. In 1916 Nabokov inherited the estate Rozhestveno, next to Vyra, from his uncle Vasiliy Ivanovich Rukavishnikov ("Uncle Ruka" in Speak, Memory), but lost it in the revolution one year later; this was the only house he would ever own.
The Nabokov family left Saint Petersburg in the wake of the 1917 Revolution for a friend's estate in the Crimea, where they remained for 18 months. Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli (Russian Франче́ско Бартоломе́о Растре́лли ( The February Revolution (Февральская революция in 1917 in Russia was the first stage of the Russian Revolution of 1917. Crimea (kraɪˈmiːə or the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Крим Автономна Республіка Крим Avtonomna Respublika Krym; Крым The family did not expect to be out of Saint Petersburg for very long, but in fact they would never return. In September of 1918, they moved to Livadia. After the withdrawal of the German Army (November 1918) and following the defeat of the White Army in early 1919, the Nabokovs left for exile in western Europe. The White movement (Beloie Dvijenie Белое движение whose military arm is known as the White Army (Belaia Armia Белая Армия or White Guard On April 2, 1919, the family left Sevastopol. They settled briefly in England, where Vladimir enrolled in Trinity College, Cambridge and studied Slavic and Romance languages. Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England. The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University) located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) a group of closely related Languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages, or Neolatin languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family comprising all His Cambridge experiences would later help him in the writing of the novel Glory. Glory is a Russian novel written by Vladimir Nabokov between 1930 and 1932 In 1920, his family moved to Berlin where his father set up the émigré newspaper Rul'. VN would follow to Berlin after his studies at Cambridge two years later.
In 1922, Nabokov's father was assassinated in Berlin by Russian monarchists as he tried to shelter their real target, Pavel Milyukov, a leader of the Constitutional Democratic Party-in-exile. Pavel Nikolayevich Milyukov ( Cyrillic: Павел Николаевич Милюков ( 15 January, 1859 - 31 March, 1943) a This episode of mistaken, violent death would echo again and again in the author's fiction, where characters would meet their deaths under mistaken terms. In Pale Fire, for example, the poet Shade is murdered accidentally when an assassin fires his weapon at a former king. Pale Fire (1962 is a Novel by Vladimir Nabokov. The novel is presented as a poem titled "Pale Fire" by John Shade, a fictional author Shortly after his father's death, his mother and sister moved to Prague. VN, however, stayed in Berlin where he became a recognized poet and writer within the émigré community and published under his pen name V. Sirin - it may signify an owl or a mythological bird - , a pseudonym he used for his Russian writings for about four decades. Sirin is a mythological creature of Russian legends with the head and chest of a beautiful woman and the body of a bird (usually an Owl) In Berlin, he also tutored and gave tennis lessons.
In 1922 Nabokov became engaged to Svetlana Siewert; the engagement was broken off in early 1923 as he had no steady job. In May 1923, he met Véra Evseyevna Slonim and married her in 1925. Véra Nabokov (January 5 1902 - April 7 1991 was the wife Muse, editor, and Translator of Vladimir Nabokov. Their only child, Dmitri, was born in 1934. Dmitri Vladimirovich Nabokov, born in Berlin on May 10 1934, is the only child of writer Vladimir Nabokov and his wife Véra (née Slonim
In 1936, when Vera lost her job due to the antisemitic environment, and the assassin of his father was appointed second-in-command of the Russian émigré group, Nabokov started to look for jobs in the English-speaking world. He left Germany with his family in 1937. He and his family moved to Paris, but also stayed during this journey at times at Prague, Cannes, Menton, Cap d'Antibes, and Frejus. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city In May 1940 the Nabokov family fled from the advancing German troops to the United States on board the Champlain.
The Nabokovs settled down in Manhattan and VN started a job at the American Museum of Natural History. The American Museum of Natural History ( AMNH) located on the Upper West Side, Manhattan, New York, USA is one of the largest and most In October he met Edmund Wilson, who introduced Nabokov's work to American editors, leading eventually to his recognition. Edmund Wilson ( May 8, 1895 &ndash June 12 1972) was an American Writer and
Nabokov came to Wellesley College in 1941 as resident lecturer in comparative literature. Wellesley College is a women's liberal arts college, in Wellesley Massachusetts, that opened in 1875 founded by Henry Fowle Durant The position, created specifically for him, provided an income and free time to write creatively and pursue his lepidoptery. A lepidopterist is a person who catches and collects studies or simply observes (see Butterfly watching) lepidopterans, members of an order encompassing Nabokov is remembered as the founder of Wellesley's Russian Department. His lecture series on major nineteenth-century Russian writers was hailed as "funny," "learned," and "brilliantly satirical. " The Nabokovs resided in Wellesley, Massachusetts during the 1941-42 academic year; they moved to Cambridge, Massachusetts in September 1942 and lived there until June 1948. Following a lecture tour through the United States, Nabokov returned to Wellesley for the 1944–45 academic year as a lecturer in Russian. He served through the 1947-48 term as Wellesley's one-man Russian Department, offering courses in Russian language and literature. His classes were popular, due as much to his unique teaching style as to the wartime interest in all things Russian. At the same time he was curator of lepidoptery at Harvard's Museum of Comparative Biology. A lepidopterist is a person who catches and collects studies or simply observes (see Butterfly watching) lepidopterans, members of an order encompassing After being encouraged by Morris Bishop, Nabokov left Wellesley in 1948 to teach Russian and European literature at Cornell University. Morris Gilbert Bishop ( April 15, 1893 &mdash November 20, 1973) was an American scholar historian biographer author and humorist In 1945, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States. Naturalization is the acquisition of Citizenship or Nationality by somebody who was not a citizen or national of that country when he or she was born
Nabokov wrote his novel Lolita while traveling on butterfly-collection trips in the western United States. Lolita (1955 is a Novel by Vladimir Nabokov, first written in English and published in 1955 in Paris, later translated by the author The Western United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American West or simply the West &mdashtraditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost (Nabokov never learned to drive, Vera acted as chauffeur; when VN attempted to burn unfinished drafts of Lolita, it was Vera who stopped him. He called her the best-humored woman he had ever known. Despite this, biographers - in particular, Stacy Shiff - have made it clear that he regularly strayed in his marriage. )  In June 1953 he and his family came to Ashland, Oregon, renting a house on Meade Street from Professor Taylor, head of the Southern Oregon College Department of Social Science. Ashland is a city in Jackson County, Oregon, United States, near Interstate 5 and the California Southern Oregon University (SOU is a public Liberal arts college located in Ashland, Oregon, United States. There he finished Lolita and began writing the novel Pnin. Lolita (1955 is a Novel by Vladimir Nabokov, first written in English and published in 1955 in Paris, later translated by the author For the Russian poet see Ivan Pnin. Pnin is the fourth Novel written in English by Vladimir Nabokov; it was published He roamed the nearby mountains looking for butterflies, and wrote a poem Lines Written in Oregon. On October 1, 1953, he and his family left for Ithaca, New York. Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela. Year 1953 ( MCMLIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The City of Ithaca (named for the Greek island of Ithaca) sits on the southern shore of Cayuga Lake, in Central New York 
After the great financial success of Lolita, Nabokov was able to return to Europe and devote himself exclusively to writing. Lolita (1955 is a Novel by Vladimir Nabokov, first written in English and published in 1955 in Paris, later translated by the author Also his son had gotten a position as an operatic bass at Reggio Emilia. For the city in the southern Italy See Reggio Calabria. For the basketball club "Bipop Carire Reggio Emilia" see Pallacanestro Reggiana. On October 1, 1961, he and Véra moved to the Montreux Palace Hotel in Montreux, Switzerland; he stayed there until the end of his life. Montreux is a municipality in the district of Vevey in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation From his sixth-floor quarters he conducted his business and took tours to the Alps, Corsica, and Sicily to hunt butterflies. In 1976 he was hospitalized with an undiagnosed fever; rehospitalized in Lausanne in 1977, he suffered from severe bronchial congestion, and died on July 2. His remains were cremated and are buried at the Clarens cemetery in Montreux. Montreux is a municipality in the district of Vevey in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland. 
At the time of his death, he was working on a novel titled The Original of Laura. The Original of Laura is a Novel that Vladimir Nabokov was writing at the time of his death in 1977 His wife Vera and son Dmitri were entrusted with Nabokov's literary executorship, and though he asked them to burn the manuscript, they were unable to destroy his final work. The incomplete manuscript, which is said to consist of around 125 handwritten index cards , has remained in a Swiss bank vault ever since. Only two people, Dmitri Nabokov and an unknown person, have access to the vault. Portions of the manuscript have been shown to Nabokov scholars. In April, 2008, Dmitri announced that he would publish the novel. 
Nabokov was born on April 10, 1899 according to the Julian calendar in use in Russia at that time. Events 879 - Louis III becomes King of the Western Franks. 1407 - the lama Year 1899 ( MDCCCXCIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Julian calendar, a reform of the Roman calendar, was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 Ab urbe condita The Gregorian equivalent is April 22, which is achieved by adding 12 days to the Julian date. The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used Calendar in the world today Events 1500 - Portuguese Navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral becomes the first European to sight Brazil. Some sources have incorrectly calculated a date of April 23, by inappropriately using the 13-day difference in the calendars that applied only after February 28, 1900. Events 215 BC - A temple is built on the Capitoline Hill dedicated to Venus Erycina to commemorate the Roman defeat at Events 202 BC - coronation ceremony of Liu Bang as Emperor Gaozu of Han takes place initiating four centuries of the Han Dynasty 's rule Year 1900 ( MCM) was an exceptional Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar In Speak, Memory Nabokov explains the cause of the error and confirms the correct date of April 22. Events 1500 - Portuguese Navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral becomes the first European to sight Brazil. But he himself celebrated his birthday on April 23, and stated in an interview with The New York Times, "That is also Shakespeare’s and Shirley Temple’s, so I have nothing to lose by saying I was born on the 23rd. "
Nabokov's first writings were in Russian, but he came to his greatest distinction in the English language. Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and For this achievement, he has been compared with Joseph Conrad; yet some view this as a dubious comparison, as Conrad composed only in English, never in his native Polish. Joseph Conrad (born Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski, 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924 was a Polish-born English novelist (Nabokov himself disdained the comparison for aesthetic reasons, lamenting to the critic Edmund Wilson, "I am too old to change Conradically" — which John Updike later called, "itself a jest of genius. Aesthetics or esthetics ( also spelled æsthetics) is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values sometimes called " Nabokov, in the very early fifties, offered the critic Edmund Wilson a pocket appraisal: "Conrad knew how to handle readymade English better than I; but I know better the other kind. He never sinks to the depths of my solecisms, but neither does he scale my verbal peaks. ")  Nabokov translated many of his own early works into English, sometimes in cooperation with his son Dmitri. His trilingual upbringing had a profound influence on his artistry. He has metaphorically described the transition from one language to another as the slow journey at night from one village to the next with only a candle for illumination. Nabokov himself translated two books he wrote in English into Russian, Conclusive Evidence, and Lolita. The first "translation" was made because of Nabokov's feeling of imperfection in the English version. Writing the book, he noted that he needed to translate his own memories into English, and to spend a lot of time explaining things which are well-known in Russia; then he decided to re-write the book once again, in his first native language, and after that he made the final version, Speak, Memory (Nabokov first wanted to name it "Speak, Mnemosyne"). Mnemosyne (Greek, nɪˈmɒzɪni or /nɪˈmɒsəni/ (sometimes confused with Mneme or compared with Memoria Nabokov was a proponent of individualism, and rejected concepts and ideologies that curtailed individual freedom and expression, such as totalitarianism in its various forms as well as Freud's psychoanalysis. Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a concept used to describe Political systems where a State regulates nearly every aspect of public and private Sigmund Freud (ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏt born Sigismund Shlomo Freud (May 6 1856 &ndash September 23 1939 was an Austrian Psychiatrist who founded Psychoanalysis is a body of ideas developed by Austrian physician Sigmund Freud and his followers which is devoted to the study of human psychological functioning and behavior  Poshlost, or as he transcribed it, poshlust, is disdained and frequently mocked in his works. Poshlost is an Untranslatable Russian word (пошлость defined as a kind of "petty evil or self-satisfied Vulgarity " (Alexandrov 
Nabokov is noted for his complex plots, clever word play, and use of alliteration. Alliteration is the repetition of the first Consonant sound in a phrase He gained both fame and notoriety with his novel Lolita (1955), which tells of a grown man's devouring passion for a twelve-year-old girl. This and his other novels, particularly Pale Fire (1962), won him a place among the greatest novelists of the 20th century. His longest novel, which met with a mixed response, is Ada (1969). Ada or Ardor A Family Chronicle is a Novel by Vladimir Nabokov published in 1969. He devoted more time to the composition of this novel than any of his others. Nabokov's fiction is characterized by its linguistic playfulness. For example, his short story "The Vane Sisters" is famous in part for its acrostic final paragraph, in which the first letters of each word spell out a message from beyond the grave. "The Vane Sisters" is the second to last Short story by Vladimir Nabokov, written in March of 1951 it is famous for providing one of the most extreme examples An acrostic (from the late Greek akróstichon, from ákros, "top" and stíchos, "verse" is a Poem or other Writing
Nabokov's stature as a literary critic is founded largely on his four-volume translation of and commentary on Aleksandr Pushkin's epic of the Russian soul, Eugene Onegin, published in 1964. Translation is the interpreting of the meaning of a text and the subsequent production of an equivalent text likewise called a " translation Eugene Onegin ( Russian: Евгений Онегин BGN/PCGN: Yevgeniy Onegin) is a Novel in verse written by Aleksandr Pushkin That commentary ended with an appendix titled Notes on Prosody which has developed a reputation of its own. The book Notes on Prosody by Bi-lingual Author Vladimir Nabokov compares differences in Iambic verse in the English and Russian languages It stemmed from his observation that while Pushkin's iambic tetrameters had been a part of Russian literature for a fairly short two centuries, they were clearly understood by the Russian prosodists. An iamb or iambus is a Metrical foot used in various types of Poetry. In Poetry, a tetrameter is a line of four metrical feet. The particular foot of course can vary as follows Anapestic tetrameter: This article is about literature from Russia For the song by Maxïmo Park, see Our Earthly Pleasures. On the other hand, he viewed the much older English iambic tetrameters as muddled and poorly documented. Iambic tetrameter is a meter in Poetry. It refers to a line consisting of four iambic feet. In his own words:
Nabokov's translation was the focus of a bitter polemic with Edmund Wilson and others; he had rendered the very precisely metered and rhyming novel in verse to (by his own admission) stumbling, non-rhymed prose. Edmund Wilson ( May 8, 1895 &ndash June 12 1972) was an American Writer and He argued that all verse translations of Onegin fatally betrayed the author's use of language; critics replied that failure to make the translation as beautifully styled as the original was a much greater betrayal.
Nabokov's Lectures on Literature at Cornell University where he was appointed an instructor in 1948, reveals his controversial ideas concerning art. He firmly believed that novels should not aim to teach and that readers should not merely empathise with characters but that a 'higher' aesthetic enjoyment should be attained, partly by paying great attention to details of style and structure. He detested what he saw as 'general ideas' in novels, and so when teaching Ulysses, for example, he would insist students keep an eye on where the characters were in Dublin (with the aid of a map) rather than teaching the complex Irish history that many critics see as being essential to an understanding of the novel. Ulysses is a novel by James Joyce, first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920
During his ten years at Cornell, Nabokov introduced undergraduates to the delights of great fiction, including the Bleak House of Charles Dickens in fifty-minute classroom lectures . Bleak House is the ninth Novel by Charles Dickens, published in twenty monthly installments between March 1852 and September 1853
Nabokov's detractors fault him for being an aesthete and for his over-attention to language and detail rather than character development. In his essay "Nabokov, or Nostalgia," Danilo Kiš wrote that Nabokov's is "a magnificent, complex, and sterile art. Danilo Kiš ( Serbian Cyrillic: Данило Киш) ( February 22, 1935 &ndash October 15, 1989) was a Yugoslavian " Russian poet Yvgeny Yevtushenko said in a Playboy interview that he could hear the clatter of surgical tools in VN's prose.
Not until glasnost did Nabokov's work become officially available in his native country. (Гла́сность)is literally defined as publicity and sometimes figuratively interpreted as "tipping a vase to let someone see into the vase but not the bottom of the vase" Gorbachev authorized a five-volume edition of his writing in 1988. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev ( Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachyov;; born 2 March 1931 in Privolnoye Stavropol Krai) is a Russian politician
Nabokov was a synesthete and described aspects of synesthesia in several of his works. Synesthesia (also spelled synæsthesia or synaesthesia, plural synesthesiae or synaesthesiae)—from the Ancient Greek (syn meaning "with" In his memoir Speak, Memory, he notes that his wife also exhibited synesthesia; like her husband, her mind's eye associated colors with particular letters. They discovered that Dmitri shared the trait, and moreover that the colors he associated with some letters were in some cases blends of his parents' hues—"which is as if genes were painting in aquarelle". History See also History of genetics The existence of genes was first suggested by Gregor Mendel (1822-1884 who in the 1860s studied inheritance Watercolor ( US) or Watercolour ( UK) (and "aquarelle" in French is a Painting method
Vladimir Nabokov's case of synesthesia can be described in more detail than merely the association of colors with particular letters. Synesthesia (also spelled synæsthesia or synaesthesia, plural synesthesiae or synaesthesiae)—from the Ancient Greek (syn meaning "with" For a synesthete letters are not simply associated with certain colors; they are colored. Nabokov frequently endowed his protagonists with a similar gift. In Bend Sinister Krug comments on his perception of the word "loyalty" as being like a golden fork lying out in the sun. Bend Sinister is a 1947 Dystopian Novel written by Vladimir Nabokov. In The Defense, Nabokov mentioned briefly how the main character's father, a writer, found he was unable to complete a novel that he planned to write, becoming lost in the fabricated storyline by "starting with colors. " Many other subtle references are made in Nabokov's writing that can be traced back to his synesthesia. Many of his characters have a distinct "sensory appetite" reminiscent of synesthesia.
His career as an entomologist was equally distinguished. Echinargus is a Butterfly Genus in the family Lycaenidae. The Lycaenidae are the second-largest family of butterflies, with about 6000 species worldwide whose members are also called gossamer-winged butterflies A genus (plural genera from Γένος Latin genus "descent family type gender" is a low-level Taxonomic Entomology (from Greek grc ἔντομος entomos, "that which is cut in pieces or engraved/segmented" hence "insect" and grc -λογία Throughout an extensive career of collecting he never learned to drive a car, and he depended on his wife Véra to take him to collecting sites. During the 1940s, as a research fellow in zoology, he was responsible for organizing the butterfly collection of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University. Zoology (from Greek ζῷον, zoon, "animal" + λόγος, " Logos " "knowledge" is the branch of His writings in this area were highly technical. This, combined with his specialty in the relatively unspectacular tribe Polyommatini of the family Lycaenidae, has left this facet of his life little explored by most admirers of his literary works. Polyommatini is a tribe of lycaenid Butterflies in the subfamily Polyommatinae. The Lycaenidae are the second-largest family of butterflies, with about 6000 species worldwide whose members are also called gossamer-winged butterflies He identified the Karner Blue. The Karner Blue, Lycaeides melissa samuelis, is a small blue Butterfly found in small areas of New Jersey, the Great Lakes region The genus Nabokovia was named after him in honor of this work, as were a number of butterfly and moth species (e. A genus (plural genera from Γένος Latin genus "descent family type gender" is a low-level Taxonomic Nabokovia is a Genus of butterflies, named by Arthus Francis Hemming in honour of Vladimir Nabokov, who extensively studied the In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank. g. many of the genera Madeleinea and Pseudolucia). Madeleinea is a Butterfly Genus in the family Lycaenidae. These Andean butterflies are very interesting from a 
The paleontologist and essayist Stephen Jay Gould discussed Nabokov's lepidoptery in an essay reprinted in his book I Have Landed. Stephen Jay Gould (September 10 1941 &ndash May 20 2002 was a prominent American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science Gould notes that Nabokov was occasionally a scientific "stick-in-the-mud"; for example, Nabokov never accepted that genetics or the counting of chromosomes could be a valid way to distinguish species of insects, and relied on the traditional (for lepidopterists) microscopic comparison of their genitalia. Genetics (from Ancient Greek grc-Latn genetikos, “genitive” and that from grc-Latn genesis, “origin” a discipline of Biology, is A chromosome is an organized structure of DNA and Protein that is found in cells. A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, as narrowly defined is any of the anatomical parts of the body which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute The Harvard Museum of Natural History, which now contains the Museum of Comparative Zoology, still possesses Nabokov's "genitalia cabinet", where the author stored his collection of male blue butterfly genitalia. The Harvard Museum of Natural History is a Natural history Museum on the grounds of Harvard University in Cambridge Massachusetts. ,  "Nabokov was a serious taxonomist," according to the museum staff writer Nancy Pick, author of The Rarest of the Rare: Stories Behind the Treasures at the Harvard Museum of Natural History. "He actually did quite a good job at distinguishing species that you would not think were different—by looking at their genitalia under a microscope six hours a day, seven days a week, until his eyesight was permanently impaired. " 
Many of Nabokov's fans have tried to ascribe literary value to his scientific papers, Gould notes. Conversely, others have claimed that his scientific work enriched his literary output. Gould advocates a third view, holding that the other two positions are examples of the post hoc ergo propter hoc logical fallacy. Post hoc ergo propter hoc, Latin for "after this therefore because (on account of this" is a logical fallacy (of the Questionable cause variety A fallacy is a component of an Argument which being demonstrably flawed in its Logic or form renders the argument invalid in whole Rather than assuming that either side of Nabokov's work caused or stimulated the other, Gould proposes that both stemmed from Nabokov's love of detail, contemplation and symmetry.
Nabokov spent considerable time during his exile on the composition of chess problems. A chess problem, also called a chess composition, is a puzzle set by somebody using Chess pieces on a Chess board that presents the solver with Such compositions he published in the Russian émigré press, Poems and Problems (18 chess compositions) and Speak, Memory (1 problem). Poems and Problems (ISBN 0-07-045724-7 is a book by Vladimir Nabokov published in 1969 Speak Memory (ISBN 0375405534 is an autobiographical memoir by writer Vladimir Nabokov. He describes the process of composing and constructing in his memoir: "The strain on the mind is formidable; the element of time drops out of one consciousness. . . " To him, the "originality, invention, conciseness, harmony, complexity, and splendid insincerity" of creating a chess problem was similar to that in any other art.
The critic James Wood argued that Nabokov's use of descriptive detail proved an "overpowering, and not always very fruitful, influence on two or three generations after him", including authors such as Martin Amis and John Updike. James Wood (born 1965 in Durham) is an English literary critic and Novelist. Martin Louis Amis (born 25 August 1949 is an English Novelist, Essayist and Short story Writer, the son of writer Kingsley John Hoyer Updike (born March 18 1932 in Reading, Pennsylvania) is an American Novelist, Poet, Short story  While a student at Cornell in the 1950s, Thomas Pynchon attended several of Nabokov's lectures; Pynchon later referred to Lolita in his novel The Crying of Lot 49 (1966), and may have been influenced by Nabokov's preference for actualism over realism. Thomas Ruggles Pynchon Jr (born May 8 1937 is an American writer based in New York City, noted for his dense and complex works of Fiction. The Crying of Lot 49 ( 1966) is a Novel by the Author Thomas Pynchon. In contemporary Analytic philosophy, actualism is a position on the ontological status of Possible worlds that holds that everything that exists (i  Of the authors who came to prominence during Nabokov's lifetime, John Banville, Don DeLillo, Salman Rushdie, and Edmund White were all influenced by Nabokov. John Banville (born 1945 is an Irish Novelist and Journalist. Don DeLillo (born November 20 1936 is an American author best known for his Novels which paint detailed portraits of American life in the late 20th and early 21st centuries Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie Kt (born 19 June 1947 is an Indian - British novelist and essayist Edmund Valentine White III (born January 13, 1940) is an American novelist short-story writer and critic
Several authors who came to prominence in the 1990s and 2000s have also cited Nabokov's work as a literary influence. Pulitzer Prize-winning novelist Michael Chabon listed Lolita and Pale Fire among the "books that, I thought, changed my life when I read them," and stated that "Nabokov's English combines aching lyricism with dispassionate precision in a way that seems to render every human emotion in all its intensity but never with an ounce of schmaltz or soggy language". The Pulitzer Prize, ˈpʊlɨtsɚ PULL-it-sər is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in Newspaper journalism, Michael Chabon (pron SHAY-bon (born May 24 1963 is an American author and "one of the most celebrated writers of his generation" according to the The Virginia  Pulitzer Prize winner Jeffrey Eugenides said that "Nabokov has always been and remains one of my favorite writers. Jeffrey Kent Eugenides (born March 8, 1960 in Detroit Michigan) is an American Pulitzer Prize He’s able to juggle ten balls where most people can juggle three or four. " T. Coraghessan Boyle said that "Nabokov's playfulness and the ravishing beauty of his prose are ongoing influences" on his writing, and Jhumpa Lahiri, Marisha Pessl, and Zadie Smith have also acknowledged Nabokov's influence. T Coraghessan Boyle (also known as TC Boyle, born Thomas John Boyle on December 2, 1948) is a U Jhumpa Lahiri ( IPA: /ˈdʒuːmpʌ lʌˈhɪəriː/ (born Nilanjana Sudeshna on 11 July 1967) ( Bengali: ঝুম্পা লাহিড়ী Marisha Pessl (born October 26, 1977) is an American writer best known for her debut novel Special Topics in Calamity Physics. Zadie Smith (born 25 October 1975 is an English Novelist. To date she has written three novels
Peter Medak's short television film, Nabokov on Kafka, is a dramatization of Nabokov's lectures on Franz Kafka's The Metamorphosis. Peter Medak (born December 23, 1937) is a Hungarian-born Film director of British and American Drama is the specific mode of Fiction represented in Performance. The Metamorphosis (Die Verwandlung is a Novella by Franz Kafka, first published in 1915 The part of Nabokov is played by Christopher Plummer. Arthur Christopher Orme Plummer, CC (born December 13 1929 is a Canadian Theater, Film and Television actor. Nabokov makes three cameo appearances, at widely scattered points in his life, in W. G. Sebald's The Emigrants. W G (Winfred Georg Maximilian Sebald ( May 18, 1944, Wertach im Allgäu &ndash December 14, 2001, Norfolk, England
Nabokov is mentioned in the lyrics to the 1980 pop song Don't Stand So Close to Me by the British rock band The Police. Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) " Don't Stand So Close to Me " is a 1980 song and hit single by the British rock band The Police. The Police were a three-piece rock band consisting of Sting ( vocals, Bass guitar) Andy Summers ( Guitar, 
|NAME||Nabokov, Vladimir Vladimirovich|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Russian-American novelist, lepidopterist, professor|
|DATE OF BIRTH||April 22 [O.S. April 10] 1899|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Saint Petersburg, Russia|
|DATE OF DEATH||July 2, 1977|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Montreux, Switzerland|