Vitis vinifera (Common Grape Vine) is a species of Vitis, native to the Mediterranean region, central Europe, and southwestern Asia, from Morocco and Spain north to southern Germany and east to northern Iran. Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for Vitis is a genus of about 60 species of vining plants in the Flowering plant family Vitaceae. The Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around and surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. 
It is a liana growing to 35 m tall, with flaky bark. The liana is any of various long-stemmed usually woody vines that are rooted in the soil at ground level and use trees as well as other means of vertical support to climb up to Bark, also known as periderm is the outermost layer of stems and Roots of Woody plants such as Trees It overlays the Wood and consists The leaves are alternate, palmately lobed, 5–20 cm long and broad. In Botany, a leaf is an above-ground Plant organ specialized for Photosynthesis. The fruit is a berry, known as a grape; in the wild species it is 6 mm diameter and ripens dark purple to blackish with a pale wax bloom; in cultivated plants it is usually much larger, up to 3 cm long, and can be green, red, or purple. The term fruit has different meanings dependent on context and the term is not synonymous in Food preparation and Biology. The word berry has two meanings one based on a botanical definition the other on common identification For the Tokyo University supercomputer see Gravity Pipe. GRAPE, or GRA phics P rogramming E nvironment is The species typically occurs in humid forests and streamsides.
The wild grape is often classified as V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris (in some classifications considered Vitis sylvestris), with V. vinifera subsp. vinifera restricted to cultivated forms. Domesticated vines have hermaphrodite flowers, but subsp. A hermaphrodite is an organism having both male and female reproductive organs sylvestris is dioecious (male and female flowers on separate plants) and pollination is required for fruit to develop. Plant sexuality covers the wide variety of Sexual reproduction systems found across the Plant kingdom Male (♂ refers to the sex of an organism or part of an organism which produces small mobile Gametes called spermatozoa. Female (♀ is the Sex of an Organism, or a part of an organism which produces ova (egg cells
Wild grapes were harvested by foragers and early farmers. The Harvesting of Wine Grapes is one of the most crucial steps in the process of Winemaking. For thousands of years, the fruit has been harvested for both medicinal and nutritional value; its history is intimately entwined with the history of wine. The term fruit has different meanings dependent on context and the term is not synonymous in Food preparation and Biology. Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice
Changes in pip shape (narrower in domesticated forms) and distribution point to domestication occurring about 3500-3000 BC, in southwest Asia or southern Transcaucasia (Armenia and Georgia). Cultivation of the domesticated grape spread to other parts of the Old World in pre-historic or early historic times. The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans Asians and Africans in the 15th century
Grapes followed European colonies around the world, coming to North America around the 1600s, and to Africa, South America and Australia. South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. In North America it formed hybrids with species from Vitis genus native to that region; some of these were intentional hybrids created to combat Phylloxera, an insect pest which affected the European grapevine to a much greater extent than North American ones and in fact managed to devastate European wine production in a matter of years. In Biology, hybrid has two meanings The first meaning is the result of interbreeding between two animals or plants of different taxa. This article is about the grape phylloxera For the Genus, see Phylloxera (genus. Insects ( Class Insecta) are a major group of Arthropods and the most diverse group of Animals on the Earth with over a million described Later North American rootstocks became widely used to graft V. vinifera cultivars so as to withstand the presence of phylloxera.
In North America, growing Vitis vinifera was limited mostly to the relatively mild West Coast starting in New Mexico and including California and The Pacific Northwest States. The " West Coast " " Western Seaboard " or " Pacific Seaboard " are terms for the westernmost coastal states of the Western United States California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. But due to the research of Konstantin Frank, it is now widely grown even in the harsher climate of New York State, western Michigan and southern Ontario. Dr Konstantin Frank (1897-1985 was a viticulturist and Winemaker in the Finger Lakes region of New York. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Michigan ( is a Midwestern state of the United States of America. Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec Dr. Helmut Becker's work in the early 1980s brought Vitis vinifera to the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia. Helmut Becker (1927-1990 German viticulturist was chief of the Geisenheim Grape Breeding Institute. The Okanagan (oʊkəˈnɑːɡən also known as the Okanagan Valley and sometimes as Okanagan Country is a region located in the Canadian province British Columbia (ˌbrɪtɨʃ kəˈlʌmbiə ( BC) ( (la Colombie-Britannique C
In March 2007, scientists from Australia's CSIRO working in the Cooperative Research Centre for Viticulture reported they found that "extremely rare and independent mutations in two genes [VvMYBA1 and VvMYBA2] [of red grapes] produced a single white grapevine that was the parent of almost all of the world's white grape varieties. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation ( CSIRO) is the national government body for scientific research in Australia. If only one gene had been mutated, most grapes would still be red and we would not have the more than 3000 white grape cultivars available today. "
Use of grapes is known to date back to Neolithic times, following the discovery of 7,000 year-old wine storage jars in present-day northern Iran in 1996. For the Tokyo University supercomputer see Gravity Pipe. GRAPE, or GRA phics P rogramming E nvironment is The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics.  Further evidence shows the Mesopotamians and Ancient Egyptians had vine plantations and wine-making skills. Mesopotamia (from the Greek meaning "land between the rivers" is an area geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers largely corresponding Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now Greek philosophers praised the healing powers of grapes both whole and in the form of wine. Ancient Greek philosophy focused on the role of Reason and Inquiry. Vitis vinifera cultivation and winemaking in China began during the Han Dynasty in the second century with the importation of the species from Ta-Yuan. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Winemaking, or vinification, is the production of Wine, starting with selection of the Grapes and ending with bottling the finished wine China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The Han Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. The Dayuan or Ta-Yuan ( lit “Great Yuan” were a people of Ferghana in Central Asia, described in the Chinese historical works of However, wild vine "mountain grapes" like Vitis thunbergii were being used for wine making before that time. 
Using the sap of grapevines, European folk healers sought to cure skin and eye diseases. Other historical uses include the leaves being used to stop bleeding, pain and inflammation of hemorrhoids. In Botany, a leaf is an above-ground Plant organ specialized for Photosynthesis. Hemorrhoids ( AmE) haemorrhoids ( BrE) emerods, or piles are varicosities or swelling and Inflammation For treating sore throats unripe grapes were used, and raisins were given as treatments for consumption (tuberculosis), constipation and thirst. Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or T u' b' erculosis Bacillus --> is a common Constipation, costiveness, or irregularity, is a condition of the Digestive system in which a person (or animal experiences hard Feces that Thirst is the craving for liquids resulting in the basic Instinct of humans or animals to Drink. For the treatment of cancer, cholera, smallpox, nausea, skin and eye infections as well as kidney and liver diseases, ripe grapes were used. Cancer (medical term Malignant Neoplasm) is a class of Diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious Gastroenteritis caused by the Bacterium Smallpox is an Infectious disease unique to humans caused by either of two virus variants named Variola major and Variola minor. Nausea ( Latin: Nausea, Greek:, " Sea-sickness " also called wamble) is the sensation of unease and discomfort The kidneys are complicated organs that have numerous biological roles The liver is a vital organ in the human body and is present in Vertebrates and some other animals
Seedless grape varieties were developed to appeal to consumers, but researchers are now discovering that many of the healthful properties of grapes may actually come from the seeds themselves.
Grapevine leaves are filled with minced meat (such as lamb or beef), rice and onions in the making of Balkan traditional Dolma. Dolma ( Greek:ντολμάς is a family of stuffed vegetable dishes in the cuisines of the former Ottoman Empire and surrounding regions including Turkey