|Publius Vergilius Maro|
A bust of Virgil, from the entrance to his tomb in Naples, Italy. Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the
|Born||October 15, 70 BCE|
Andes, Cisalpine Gaul
|Died||September 21, 19 BCE|
|Genres||Epic poetry, didactic poetry, pastoral poetry|
|Literary movement||Augustan poetry|
Publius Vergilius Maro (October 15, 70 BCE – September 21, 19 BCE), later called Virgilius, and known in English as Virgil or Vergil, was a classical Roman poet. Events 533 - Byzantine General Belisarius makes his formal entry into Carthage, having conquered it from the Year 70 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome August — In Rome, Cicero prosecutes Cisalpine Gaul ( Latin: Gallia Cisalpina, meaning " Gaul on this side of the Alps " was the Roman name for a geographical area (later Events 1217 - The Estonian tribal leader Lembitu of Lehola was killed in a battle against Teutonic Knights. Year 19 BC was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Brindisi can also refer to a song in which a company is exhorted to drink such as the "Tea-Cup Brindisi" in Gilbert and Sullivan 's " The Employment is a Contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. A poet is a person who writes Poetry. Etymology From the Ancient greek: ποιέω, poieō: "I make or compose" Nationality is a relationship between a Person and their State of Origin, Culture, association Affiliation and/or Loyalty The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial A literary genre is a category of literary composition Genres may be determined by Literary technique, tone, Content, or even (as in the case of fiction An epic is a lengthy Narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation Didacticism is an artistic philosophy that emphasizes instructional and informative qualities in Literature and other types of Art. Pastoral, as an adjective refers to the lifestyle of Shepherds and Pastoralists moving livestock around larger areas of land according to seasons and availability This is a list of modern literary movements: that is movements after the Renaissance. Augustan poetry is the poetry that flourished during the reign of Caesar Augustus as Emperor of Rome, most notably including the works of Virgil, Horace Homer ( Ancient Greek:, Homēros) is a legendary ancient Greek epic Poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the Callimachus ( Greek:, 310 BC/305 BC-240 BC was a native of the Greek colony of Cyrene, Libya. Quintus Ennius (239 - 169 BC was a writer during the period of the Roman Republic, and is often considered the father of Roman Poetry. Titus Lucretius Carus (ca 99 BC- ca 55 BC was a Roman Poet and Philosopher. Publius Ovidius Naso ( March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD was a Roman poet known to the English -speaking world as Ovid who wrote on many topics including Publius Papinius Statius (ca 45-96 was a Roman Poet of the Silver Age of Latin literature, born in Naples, Italy. The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation John Milton ( 9 December, 1608 – 8 November, 1674) was an English Poet, Prose Polemicist and Events 533 - Byzantine General Belisarius makes his formal entry into Carthage, having conquered it from the Year 70 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome August — In Rome, Cicero prosecutes Events 1217 - The Estonian tribal leader Lembitu of Lehola was killed in a battle against Teutonic Knights. Year 19 BC was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States He was the author of epics in three modes: the Bucolics (or Eclogues), the Georgics and the substantially completed Aeneid, the last being an epic poem in the heroic mode, which comprised twelve books (as opposed to 24 in each of the epic poems by Homer) and became the Roman Empire's national epic. The Bucolics (also called the Eclogues) is the first of the three major works of the Latin Poet Virgil. The Bucolics (also called the Eclogues) is the first of the three major works of the Latin Poet Virgil. The Georgics, published in 29 BCE, is the second major work by the Latin poet Virgil. For the group of nine Ancient Egyptian deities see Ennead. The Aeneid (əˈniːɪd in An epic is a lengthy Narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation A hero (from Greek grc ἥρως hērōs) in Greek mythology and Folklore, was originally a Demigod, the offspring of a mortal and Homer ( Ancient Greek:, Homēros) is a legendary ancient Greek epic Poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial A national epic is an epic poem or similar work which seeks or is believed to capture and express the essence or spirit of a particular Nation; not necessarily a
Legend has it that Virgil was born in the village of Andes, near Mantua in Cisalpine Gaul . Mantua (Màntova in the local dialect of Lombard language Mantua is a city in Lombardy, Italy and capital of the province of the Cisalpine Gaul ( Latin: Gallia Cisalpina, meaning " Gaul on this side of the Alps " was the Roman name for a geographical area (later Scholars suggest Etruscan or Umbrian descent by examining the linguistic or ethnic markers of the region. Analysis of his name has led to beliefs that he descended from earlier Roman colonists. Modern speculation ultimately is not supported by narrative evidence either from his own writings or his later biographers. Etymological fancy has noted that his cognomen MARO shares its letters anagrammatically with the twin themes of his epic: AMOR (love) and ROMA (Rome). The cognomen (plural cognomina) was originally the third name of an Ancient Roman in the Roman naming convention.
Again legend unsupported by independent data has it that Virgil received his first education when he was 5 years old and that he later went to Rome to study rhetoric, medicine, and astronomy, which he soon abandoned for philosophy; also that in this period, while in the school of Siro the Epicurean, he began to write poetry. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Rhetoric has had many definitions no simple definition can do it justice Medicine is the art and science of healing It encompasses a range of Health care practices evolved to maintain and restore Human Health by the Astronomy (from the Greek words astron (ἄστρον "star" and nomos (νόμος "law" is the scientific study Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Siro (or Syro) was an Epicurean philosopher who lived c 50 BC. A group of small works attributed to the youthful Virgil survive, but are largely considered spurious. One, the Catalepton, consists of fourteen short poems, some of which may be Virgil's, and another, a short narrative poem titled the Culex ("The Mosquito"), was attributed to Virgil as early as the 1st century CE. These dubious poems are sometimes referred to as the Appendix Vergiliana. The Appendix Vergiliana is a collection of writings traditionally ascribed as Juvenilia of Virgil, although there are general doubts as to their authorship
During the civil strife that killed the Roman Republic, when Julius Caesar had been assassinated in 44 BCE, the army led by his assassins Brutus and Cassius met defeat by Caesar's faction, including his chief lieutenant Mark Antony and his newly adopted son Octavian Caesar in 42 BCE in Greece near Philippi. Marcus Junius Brutus (85&ndash42 BC or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. For the Roman consul see Gaius Cassius Longinus (consul 171 BC. Marcus Antonius (in Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N ( c January 14 83 BC&ndash August 1, 30 BC known in English as Mark Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was Philippi (in Greek / Philippoi) was a city in eastern Macedonia, in northern Ancient Greece, founded by Philip II in 356 The victors paid off their soldiers with land expropriated from towns in northern Italy, supposedly including an estate near Mantua belonging to Virgil—again an inference from themes in his work and not supported by independent sources. Virgil dramatizes the contrasting feelings caused by the brutality of expropriation but also by the promise attaching to the youthful figure of Caesar's heir in the Bucolics in which he had worked out the mythic framework for life-long ambition to conquer Greek epic for Rome.
In themes the ten eclogues develop and vary epic song, relating it first to Roman power (ecl. 1), then to love, both pederastic (ecl. Pederasty or paederasty refers to an erotic relationship sexually expressed or not between an adolescent boy and an adult male outside his immediate family 2) and panerotic (ecl. 3), then again to Roman power and Caesar's heir imagined as authorizing Virgil to surpass Greek epic and refound tradition (ecll. An epic is a lengthy Narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation 4 and 5), shifting back to love then as a dynamic source considered apart from Rome (ecl. 6). Hence in the remaining eclogues Virgil withdraws from his newly minted Roman mythology and gradually constructs a new myth of his own poetics--he casts the remote Greek region of Arcadia, home of the god Pan, as the place of poetic origin itself. Roman mythology, or more appropriately Latin mythology, refers to the mythological beliefs of the Italic people inhabiting the region of Latium and its Arcadia or Arkadía ( Greek Αρκαδία is a region of Greece in the Peloponnesus. Pan ( Greek, Genitive) is the Greek god of shepherds and flocks of mountain wilds hunting and rustic music paein means to pasture In passing, he again rings changes on erotic themes, such as requited and unrequited pederastic and heterosexual passion, tragic love for elusive women or magical powers of song to retrieve an elusive boy. He concludes by establishing Arcadia as a poetic ideal that still resonates in Western literature and visual arts.
Readers often did and sometimes do identify the poet himself with various characters and their vicissitudes, whether gratitude by an old rustic to a new god (ecl. 1), frustrated love by a rustic singer for a distant boy (his master's pet, ecl. 2), or a master singer's claim to have composed several eclogues (ecl. 5). Modern scholars largely reject such efforts to garner biographical details from fictive texts preferring instead to interpret the diverse characters and themes as representing the poet's own contrastive perceptions of contemporary life and thought.
For example, according to an account by Suetonius preserved in the writings of Aelius Donatus, itself incorporated in a critical account by Servius, the Alexis of the Bucolics was based on a real-life beloved of Virgil. Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, commonly known as Suetonius (ca 69/75 &ndash after 130 was an equestrian and a historian during the Roman Empire. Aelius Donatus (fl late 4th century AD was a Roman Grammarian and teacher of Rhetoric. "Servius" redirects here For the Roman king see Servius Tullius. Allegedly, Virgil was fond of boys, with later commentary specifying that his love was patterned along the lines of chaste pederasty. The boy, a slave, was a gift from one of his patrons, Asinius Pollio. Gaius Asinius Pollio (sometimes wrongly called Pollius or Philo) (75 BC &ndash AD 4 was a Roman Orator, Poet  While some modern historians accept the story as credible, an opposing school of thought deems it a fabrication. 
Biographical reconstruction supposes that Virgil soon became part of the circle of Maecenas, Octavian's capable agent d'affaires who sought to counter sympathy for Mark Antony among the leading families by rallying Roman literary figures to Octavian's side. Caius Cilnius Maecenas (70 &ndash 8 BC was a confidant and political advisor to Octavian (who was to become the first Emperor of Rome as Caesar Augustus) as well It also appears that Virgil gained many connections with other leading literary figures of the time, including Horace and Varius Rufus (who later helped finish the Aeneid). Quintus Horatius Flaccus, ( Venosa, December 8, 65 BC - Rome, November 27, 8 BC known in the English-speaking world as Horace Lucius Varius Rufus (ca 74 - 14 BC Roman poet of the Augustan age After he had completed the Bucolics (so-called in homage to Greek Theocritus, who had been the first to write short epic poems taking herdsmen's life as their apparent theme — bucolic in Greek meaning "on care for cattle"), Virgil spent the ensuing years (perhaps 37–29 BCE) on the longer epic called Georgics (from Greek, "On Working the Earth", because farming is their apparent theme, in the tradition of Greek Hesiod), which he dedicated to Maecenas (source of the expression tempus fugit ["time flies"]). Theocritus ( Greek: Θεόκριτος the creator of Ancient Greek Bucolic Poetry, flourished in the 3rd century BC Hesiod ( Greek: Hesiodos) was an early Greek Poet and Rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BCE See also Tempus fugit " Tempus Fugit " is the seventeenth episode of the fourth season of television series The X-Files Virgil and Maecenas took turns reading the Georgics to Octavian upon his return from defeating Antony and his consort Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE. Cleopatra VII Philopator (in Greek, Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; January 69 BC &ndash 30 BC was a Hellenistic ruler of Egypt The Battle of Actium was the decisive engagement in the Final War of the Roman Republic between the forces of Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony In 27 BCE the Roman Senate conferred on Octavian the more than human title Augustus, well suited to Virgil's ambition to write an epic to challenge Homer, a Roman epic developed from the Caesarist mythology introduced in the Bucolics and incorporating now the Julian Caesars' family legend that traced their line back to a mythical Trojan prince who escaped the fall of Troy. The Roman Senate was a political institution in Ancient Rome. Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was An epic is a lengthy Narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation The Fall of Troy is a three-piece Progressive rock band from Mukilteo, Washington.
Virgil worked on the Aeneid during the last ten years of his life. Its first six books tell how the Trojan hero Aeneas escapes from the sacking of Troy and makes his way to Italy. Troy ( Greek: grc Τροία Troia, also, Ilion; Latin: Trōia, Īlium, Hittite: Wilusa or This article is about the Roman hero For other uses see Aeneas (disambiguation. On the voyage, a storm drives him to the coast of Carthage, which historically was Rome's deadliest foe. Carthage (Καρχηδών Karkhēdōn, Carthago from the Phoenician קרת חדשת phn-Latn Qart-ḥadašt meaning new town) refers The queen, Dido, welcomes the ancestor of the Romans, and under the influence of the gods falls deeply in love with him. Dido was according to Greek and Roman sources the founder and first Queen of Carthage (in modern-day Tunisia) Jupiter recalls Aeneas to his duty towards Rome, however, and he slips away from Carthage, leaving Dido to commit suicide, cursing Aeneas and calling down revenge in a symbolic anticipation of the fierce wars between Carthage and Rome. In Roman mythology, Jupiter was the king of the gods and the god of Sky and Thunder. On reaching Cumae, in Italy, Aeneas consults the Cumaean Sibyl, who conducts him through the Underworld and where Virgil imagines him meeting his father Anchises who reveals his son's Roman destiny to him. There is also a small modern Greek Euboean city called Κυμη, near the ruins of the ancient Cuma The ageless Cumaean Sibyl was the priestess presiding over the Apollonian Oracle at Cumae, a Greek colony located near Naples, In the study of Mythology and Religion, the underworld (gr κάτω κόσμος) is a generic term approximately equivalent to the lay term Afterlife In Greek mythology, Anchises was a son of Capys and Themiste (daughter of Ilus son of Tros or Hieromneme, a Naiad.
The six books (of "first writing") are modeled on Homer's Odyssey, but the last six are the Roman answer to the Iliad. The Odyssey ( Greek: Ὀδύσσεια or Odússeia) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer. The Iliad ( Greek: Ἰλιάς (Ancient Ιλιάδα (Modern is together with the Odyssey, one of two ancient Aeneas is betrothed to Lavinia, daughter of King Latinus, but Lavinia had already been promised to Turnus, the king of the Rutulians, who is roused to war by the Fury Allecto. In Roman mythology, Lavinia was the daughter of Latinus and Amata. Latinus or Latinos was a figure in both Greek and Roman Mythology. In Virgil 's Aeneid, Turnus was the King of the Rutuli, and the chief antagonist of the hero Aeneas. In Greek mythology the Erinyes (Ἐρινύες pl of Ἐρινύς lit Alecto ( Ancient Greek: Ἀληκτώ English translation: "the Implacable " is one of the Erinyes in Greek mythology. The Aeneid ends with a single combat between Aeneas and Turnus, whom Aeneas defeats and kills, spurning his plea for mercy.
Virgil traveled with Augustus to Greece. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία En route, Virgil caught a fever, from which he died in Brundisium harbor, leaving the Aeneid unfinished. Brindisi can also refer to a song in which a company is exhorted to drink such as the "Tea-Cup Brindisi" in Gilbert and Sullivan 's " The Augustus ordered Virgil's literary executors, Lucius Varius Rufus and Plotius Tucca, to disregard Virgil's own wish that the poem be burned, instead ordering it published with as few editorial changes as possible. Lucius Varius Rufus (ca 74 - 14 BC Roman poet of the Augustan age Plotius Tucca ( fl 35 BC was a Roman poet and a friend of Virgil 's As a result, the text of the Aeneid that exists may contain faults which Virgil was planning to correct before publication. However, the only obvious imperfections are a few lines of verse that are metrically unfinished (i. e. , not a complete line of dactylic hexameter). Dactylic Hexameter (also known as "heroic hexameter" is a form of meter in poetry or a rhythmic scheme Other alleged "imperfections" are subject to scholarly debate.
Incomplete or not, the Aeneid was immediately recognized as a masterpiece. It proclaimed the Imperial mission of the Roman Empire, while at the same time pitying Rome's victims and feeling their grief. Aeneas was considered to exemplify virtue and pietas (roughly translated as "piety", though the word is far more complex and has a sense of being duty-bound and respectful of divine will, family and homeland). Nevertheless, Aeneas struggles between doing what he wants as a man, and doing what he must as a virtuous hero. In the view of some modern critics, Aeneas' inner turmoil and shortcomings make him a more realistic character than the heroes of Homeric poetry, such as Odysseus. grc-Latn Odysseus or la Ulysses ( Greek grc-Latn Odysseus; Latin: la Ulixes or more commonly Ulysses) oʊˈdɪsiəs
Even as the Roman empire collapsed, literate men acknowledged that the Christianized Virgil was a master poet. Gregory of Tours read Virgil, whom he quotes in several places, along with some other Latin poets, though he cautions that "we ought not to relate their lying fables, lest we fall under sentence of eternal death". Saint Gregory of Tours ( November 30, c 538 &ndash November 17, 594) was a Gallo-Roman historian and bishop of Tours The Aeneid remained the central Latin literary text of the Middle Ages and retained its status as the grand epic of the Latin peoples, and of those who considered themselves to be of Roman provenance, such as the English. It also held religious importance as it describes the founding of the Holy City. Virgil was made palatable for his Christian audience also through a belief in his prophecy of Christ in his Fourth Eclogue. Cicero and other classical writers too were declared Christian due to similarities in moral thinking to Christianity. Surviving medieval collections of manuscripts containing Virgil's works include the Vergilius Augusteus, the Vergilius Vaticanus and the Vergilius Romanus. The Vergilius Augusteus is a manuscript from late antiquity, containing the works of the Roman author Virgil, written probably around the 4th The Vergilius Vaticanus ( Vatican, Biblioteca Apostolica, Cod The Vergilius Romanus ( Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica, Cod
Dante made Virgil his guide to Hell and the greater part of Purgatory in The Divine Comedy. Hell, according to many Religious beliefs, is a location in the Afterlife, which may be described as a place of suffering See also Intermediate state Limbo|Heaven|Sheol|Hades in Christianity|Hell in Christianity Purgatory, in the original sense is the condition or process of purification The Divine Comedy Dante also mentions Virgil in De vulgari eloquentia, along with Ovid, Lucan and Statius, as one of the four regulati poetae (ii, vi, 7). De vulgari eloquentia ( On Eloquence in the vernacular) is the title of an essay by Dante Alighieri, written in Latin and initially meant to consist Publius Ovidius Naso ( March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD was a Roman poet known to the English -speaking world as Ovid who wrote on many topics including Marcus Annaeus Lucanus ( November 3, 39 AD – April 30, 65 AD better known in English as Lucan, was a Roman Publius Papinius Statius (ca 45-96 was a Roman Poet of the Silver Age of Latin literature, born in Naples, Italy.
Virgil continues to be considered one of the greatest Latin poets.
In the Middle Ages, Virgil was considered a herald of Christianity for his Eclogue 4 verses (Perseus Project Ecl.4) concerning the birth of a boy, which were read as a prophecy of Jesus' nativity. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings The Perseus Project is a Digital library project of Tufts University that assembles digital collections of Humanities resources Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE)
Also during the Middle Ages, as Virgil was developed into a kind of magus, manuscripts of the Aeneid were used for divinatory bibliomancy, the Sortes Virgilianae, in which a line would be selected at random and interpreted in the context of a current situation (Compare the ancient Chinese I Ching). The Magi (singular Magus, from Latin via Greek μάγος; Old English: Mage; from Persian maguš and Kurdish Divination (from Latin divinare "to be inspired by a god" related to Divine, Diva and Deus) is the attempt of ascertaining Bibliomancy is the use of books in Divination. The method of employing sacred books (especially specific words and verses for 'magical medicine' for removing negative entities The Sortes Virgilianae or Sortes Vergilianae (Latin - Virgilian lots; singular - sors Vergiliana) is a form of Divination by Bibliomancy The I Ching ( Wade-Giles) or “Yì Jīng” ( Pinyin) also called “Classic of Changes” or “Book of Changes” is one of the oldest of the The Old Testament was sometimes used for similar arcane purposes. Even in the Welsh myth of Taliesin, the goddess Cerridwen is reading from the "Book of Pheryllt"—that is, Virgil. Welsh mythology, the remnants of the Mythology of the pre Christian Britons, has come down to us in much altered form in medieval Welsh manuscripts Taliesin (c 534 – c 599 (spelled as Taliessin in Alfred Lord Tennyson 's Idylls of the King and in some subsequent works was a Brythonic In Welsh medieval legend, Ceridwen was a magician mother of Taliesin, Morfran, and a beautiful daughter Crearwy (or Creirwy
In some legends, such as Virgilius the Sorcerer, the powers attributed to Virgil were far more extensive. Virgilus the Sorcerer is a Fairy tale. Andrew Lang included it in The Violet Fairy Book.
The tomb known as "Virgil's tomb" is found at the entrance of an ancient Roman tunnel (also known as "grotta vecchia") in the Parco di Virgilio in Piedigrotta, a district two miles from old Naples, near the Mergellina harbor, on the road heading north along the coast to Pozzuoli. Virgil's tomb (Italian Tomba di Virgilio) is a Roman burial vault dating back to the Augustan age located in Naples, southern Italy. Piedigrotta Literally "at the foot of the grotto" A section of the Mergellina quarter of Naples, Italy, so-called for the presence Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the Mergellina is a section of the city of Naples in the Campania region of Italy. Pozzuoli is a city of the Province of Naples, in the Italian region of Campania. The site called Parco Virgiliano is some distance further north along the coast. While Virgil was already the object of literary admiration and veneration before his death, in the following centuries his name became associated with miraculous powers, his tomb the destination of pilgrimages and veneration. The poet himself was said to have created the cave with the fierce power of his intense gaze.
It is said that the Chiesa della Santa Maria di Piedigrotta was erected by Church authorities to neutralize this adoration and "Christianize" the site. The historical phenomenon of Christianization (or Christianisation &mdash see spelling differences) the conversion of individuals to Christianity The tomb, however, is a tourist attraction, and still sports a tripod burner originally dedicated to Apollo, bearing witness to the beliefs held by Virgil.
In the Middle Ages Vergilius was frequently spelled Virgilius. There are two explanations commonly given for this alteration. One educes a false etymology associated with the word virgo ("maiden" in Latin) due to Virgil's excessively "maiden"-like (parthenias or παρθηνιας in Greek) modesty. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Alternatively, some argue that Vergilius was altered to Virgilius by analogy with the Latin virga ("wand") due to the magical or prophetic powers attributed to Virgil in the Middle Ages. In an attempt to reconcile his non-Christian background with the high regard in which medieval scholars held him, it was posited that some of his works metaphorically foretold the coming of Christ, hence making him a prophet of sorts. Christ is the English term for the Greek ( Khristós) meaning "the anointed " This view is defended by some scholars today, namely Richard F. Thomas of Harvard.
In Norman schools (following the French practice), the habit was to anglicize Latin names by dropping their Latin endings, hence Virgil. The Normans were the people who gave their names to Normandy, a region in northern France. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people
In the 19th century, some German-trained classicists in the United States suggested modification to Vergil, as it is closer to his original name, and is also the traditional German spelling. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. "Classical literature" redirects here For literature in Classical languages outside the Graeco-Roman sphere see Ancient literature. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Modern usage permits both, though the Oxford guide to style recommends Vergilius to avoid confusion with the 8th-century Irish grammarian Virgilius Maro Grammaticus. Hart's Rules for Compositors and Readers at the University Press Oxford is a reference book and Style guide published in England by Oxford University Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Virgilius Maro Grammaticus (Virgil the Grammarian is one of the most enigmatic of all medieval writers author of two pseudo-grammatical texts known as the Epitomae
Some post-Renaissance writers liked to affect the sobriquet "The Swan of Mantua". The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere A sobriquet is a Nickname or a fancy name usually a familiar name given by others as distinct from a Pseudonym assumed as a disguise but a nickname which is familiar
The article above was originally sourced from Nupedia and is open content. Open content, a Neologism coined by analogy with " Open source " describes any kind of Creative work published in a format that explicitly allows
|NAME||Vergilius Maro, Publius|
|DATE OF BIRTH||October 15, 70 BC|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Andes, North Italy|
|DATE OF DEATH||September 21, 19 BC|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Brundisium|
A poet is a person who writes Poetry. Etymology From the Ancient greek: ποιέω, poieō: "I make or compose" Events 533 - Byzantine General Belisarius makes his formal entry into Carthage, having conquered it from the Year 70 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome August — In Rome, Cicero prosecutes The Andes form the world's longest exposed Mountain range. They lie as a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. Related categories Central Italy Southern Italy Insular Italy Northeast Italy Events 1217 - The Estonian tribal leader Lembitu of Lehola was killed in a battle against Teutonic Knights. Year 19 BC was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Brindisi can also refer to a song in which a company is exhorted to drink such as the "Tea-Cup Brindisi" in Gilbert and Sullivan 's " The