Latin: Universitas Vilnensis
Vilnius University (Lithuanian: Vilniaus Universitetas), formerly known as Vilnius State University, earlier - Stefan Batory University and before that Almae Academia et Universitas Vilnensis Societatis Jesu), is one of the oldest universities in Northern Europe and the largest university in Lithuania. Lithuanian ( lietuvių kalba) is the official state language of Lithuania and is recognised as one of the official languages of the European Union. This article is about the ruler of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the 16th century This is a list of the oldest extant universities in the world. A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects A listing of universities in Lithuania: See also List of universities in Estonia List of universities in Latvia
In 1568, the local nobility (szlachta) asked the Jesuits to open an academy either in Vilnius (Wilno) or Kaunas. The Lithuanian nobility was historically a legally privileged class in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania consisting of Lithuanian (from historical Nobility is a government-privileged title which may be either hereditary (see Hereditary titles) or for a lifetime Szlachta ( refers to the noble class in the Kingdom of Poland, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (since 1569 semi-federal semi-confederal The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order Kaunas ( ˈkoʊnəs is the second largest City in Lithuania and a former temporary capital. The following year Walerian Protasiewicz, the bishop of Vilnius, purchased several houses in the city centre and started the Vilnian Academy (Almae Academia et Universitas Vilnensis Societatis Jesu). Bishops of Vilnius (Vilna Wilno Diocese from 1388 and Archdiocese ( Archdiocese of Vilnius) from 1925 Initially, the Academy had three divisions: humanities, philosophy, and theology. In medieval universities, the trivium comprised the three subjects taught first Grammar, Logic, and Rhetoric. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Theology is the study of a god or the gods from a religious perspective The first students enrolled in the Academy in 1570. A university library was established in the same year; its books were mostly donated by the founder.
On April 1, 1579, Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland Stefan Batory, as a result of his recognition as the Grand Duke of Lithuania instead of Holy Roman Empire emperor Maximilian II, upgraded the academy and granted it equal rights with the Jagiellonian University of Kraków, creating the Almae Academia et Universitas Vilnensis Societatis Jesu. Events 527 - Byzantine Emperor Justin I names his nephew Justinian I as co-ruler and successor to the throne The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė old literary Lithuanian Didi Kunigiste Letuvos, Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje Poland, or at least its nucleus was ruled at various times either by książęta (Dukes(ca This article is about the ruler of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the 16th century The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in Maximilian II ( July 31, 1527 &ndash October 12, 1576) was king of Bohemia from 1562 king of Hungary and Croatia For several academies alternatively called "Krakow Academy" see Education in Kraków The Jagiellonian University (Uniwersytet Kraków, in English also spelled Krakow or Cracow (ˈkrækaʊ M-W: krăk'ou krāk'ō is one of the largest and oldest cities in Poland His edict was approved by Pope Gregory XIII's bull of October 30, 1579. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and Pope Gregory XIII (January 7 1502 &ndash April 10 1585 born Ugo Boncompagni, was Pope from 1572 to 1585 A Papal bull is a particular type of Letters patent or charter issued by a Pope. Events 637 - Antioch surrenders to the Muslim forces under Rashidun Caliphate after the Battle of Iron bridge. The first rector of the Academy was Piotr Skarga. The word rector ("ruler" from the Latin regere and Rector meaning "Teacher" In Latin has a number of different meanings but all of them indicate an academic Piotr Skarga (February 2 1536 – September 27 1612; actual name Piotr Powęski; referred to in some English sources as Peter Skarga) was a Polish He invited many scientists from various parts of Europe and expanded the library, with the sponsorship of many notable persons: Sigismund II Augustus of Poland, Bishop Walerian Protasewicz, and the Marshal of the Crown, Kazimierz Lew Sapieha. For other nobles of the same name please see Sigismund. Sigismund II Augustus I (Zygmunt II August Court Marshal redirects here For the military judicial process see Court Martial. See also Kazimierz Leon Sapieha (1697-1738. Kazimierz Leon Sapieha (Kazimieras Leonas Sapiega (1607-1656 was a nobleman of the
In 1575, Duke Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł and Elżbieta Ogińska sponsored a printing house for the academy, one of the first in the region. Prince Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł (Mykalojus Kristupas Radvila (1695&ndash1715 was a Lithuanian-Polish nobleman. The printing house issued books in Latin and Polish and the first surviving book in Lithuanian printed in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was in 1595. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Polish ( język polski, polszczyzna) is the Official language of Poland. Lithuanian ( lietuvių kalba) is the official state language of Lithuania and is recognised as one of the official languages of the European Union. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė old literary Lithuanian Didi Kunigiste Letuvos, Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje It was entitled Kathechismas, arba Mokslas kiekvienam krikščioniui privalus, and was authored by Mikalojus Daukša. Mikalojus Daukša (other possible spellings include Mikalojus Daugsza, Mikołaj Dauksza and Mikolay Dowksza after 1527 – February 16, 1613 in Varniai
The Academy's growth continued until the 17th century. The following era, known as The Deluge, led to a dramatic drop in both the number of students that matriculated, and in the quality of its programs. The Deluge ( Polish: Potop, full Polish name is Potop Szwedzki Deluge''' is the name commonly assigned in the History In the middle of the 18th century, educational authorities tried to restore the Academy. This led to the foundation of the first observatory in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, (the fourth such professional facility in Europe), in 1753, by Tomasz Żebrowski. An observatory is a location used for observing terrestrial and/or celestial events The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, officially the Commonwealth of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania also known as the Most Serene Republic The Commission of National Education (Komisja Edukacji Narodowej), the world's first ministry of education, took control of the Academy in 1773, and transformed it into a modern University. The Commission of National Education (Komisja Edukacji Narodowej abbreviated KEN) was the central educational authority in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, created A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects Thanks to the Rector of the Academy, Marcin Poczobutt-Odlanicki, the Academy was granted the status of Principal School (Szkoła Główna) in 1783. The word rector ("ruler" from the Latin regere and Rector meaning "Teacher" In Latin has a number of different meanings but all of them indicate an academic Marcin Odlanicki Poczobutt ( 30 October 1728 &ndash 7 February 1810) was a Polish - Lithuanian Astronomer, The Commission, the secular authority governing the academy after the dissolution of the Jesuit order, drew up a new statute. The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order The school was named Academia et Universitas Vilnensis.
After the Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Vilnius (Wilno) was annexed by the Russian Empire. The Partitions of Poland or Partitions of the Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth took place in the second half of the 18th century and ended the existence of the The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya However, the Commission of National Education retained control over the Academy until 1803, when Tsar Alexander I of Russia accepted the new statute and renamed the Academy to The Imperial University of Vilna (Императорскiй Виленскiй Университетъ). Alexander I of Russia ( Russian: Александр I Павлович / Aleksandr I Pavlovich (23 December 1777 – November 19 1825 served as Emperor of The institution was granted the rights to the administration of all educational facilities in the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė old literary Lithuanian Didi Kunigiste Letuvos, Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje Among the notable personae were the curator (governor) Adam Jerzy Czartoryski, and Rector Jan Śniadecki. Prince Adam Jerzy Czartoryski (also known in English as Adam George Czartoryski; January 14 1770 – July 15 1861 was a Polish noble, Statesman Jan Śniadecki (archaic John Sniadecki August 29, 1756 November 9, 1830) was a Polish Mathematician, Philosopher
The University flourished. By 1823, it was one of the largest in Europe; the number of students exceeded that of the Oxford University. The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the A number of students were arrested in 1823 for conspiracy against the Tsar (membership in Filomaci). In a political sense conspiracy refers to a group of persons united in the goal of usurping or overthrowing an established political power The Philomaths, or Philomath Society (Filomaci or Towarzystwo Filomatów; from the Greek philomathes, "lovers of knowledge" was a Among them was Adam Mickiewicz, who later became one of the most important poets of his time. Adam Bernard Mickiewicz (pronounced ] in Belarusian, Адам Міцкевіч; in Lithuanian, Adomas Bernardas Mickevičius; December In 1832, after the November Uprising, the University was closed by Tsar Nicholas I of Russia. The November Uprising (1830&ndash1831&mdashalso known as the Cadet Revolution &mdashwas an armed rebellion against the rule of the Russian Empire in Poland
Two of the faculties were turned into separate schools: the Medical and Surgical Academy (Akademia Medyko-Chirurgiczna) and the Roman Catholic Academy (Rzymsko-Katolicka Akademia Duchowna), but those were soon banned as well. The repression that followed the failed uprising included banning both the Polish and Lithuanian languages, and all education in those languages was halted. Polish ( język polski, polszczyzna) is the Official language of Poland. Lithuanian ( lietuvių kalba) is the official state language of Lithuania and is recognised as one of the official languages of the European Union. Finally, most of the property of the University was confiscated and sent to Russia (mostly to St. Petersburg). Saint Petersburg ( tr: Sankt-Peterburg,) is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River
After the Republic of Central Lithuania area was annexed by Poland, the Vilnian Academy was renamed Stefan Batory University (Uniwersytet Stefana Batorego) on August 20, 1919, by the act of Józef Piłsudski. "Central Lithuania" redirects here This is an article about a former state This article is about the ruler of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the 16th century Events 636 - Battle of Yarmouk: Arab forces led by Khalid ibn al-Walid take control of Syria and Palestine Year 1919 ( MCMXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The University quickly recovered and gained international prestige, largely because of the presence of notable scientists such as Władysław Tatarkiewicz, Marian Zdziechowski, and Henryk Niewodniczański. Władysław Tatarkiewicz tatarˈkʲevitʂ}} Warsaw, April 3, 1886 &ndash April 4, 1980, Warsaw) was a Polish Marian Zdziechowski ( April 30, 1861 in Nowosiółki, Mińszczyzna – October 5, 1938 in Wilno) was a Polish Henryk Niewodniczański (born 10 December 1900 Vilnius - 20 December 1968 Cracow) was a Polish Physicist, professor at the Jagiellonian Among the students of the University at that time was future Nobel prize winner Czesław Miłosz. The Nobel Prize (Nobelpriset (Nobelprisen is a Swedish prize established in the 1895 will of Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel; it was first awarded in Peace, Literature Czesław Miłosz; ( June 30, 1911 — August 14, 2004) was a Polish Poet, prose writer and Translator The University grew quickly, thanks to government grants and private donations.
In 1938 the University had:
The University's international students included 212 Russians, 94 Belarusians, 85 Lithuanians, 28 Ukrainians and 13 Germans. Year 1938 ( MCMXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Russian people (Русские— Russkie) are an East Slavic Ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries Belarusians or Belorussians (Беларусы Biełarusy previously also spelled Belarussians, Byelorussians and Belorusians, also Lithuanians are the Baltic Ethnic group native to Lithuania, where they number a little over 3 million Ukrainians (Українці Ukrayintsi,) are an East Slavic Ethnic group primarily living in Ukraine, or more broadly— Citizens The German people (Deutsche are an Ethnic group, in the sense of sharing a common German culture, descent and speaking the German language as
Following the Invasion of Poland (1939) the University was closed. The Invasion of Poland (1939 precipitated World War II. It was carried out by Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, and a small German-allied The city was soon occupied by the Soviet Union. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Most of the professors returned to the university after the hostilities ended, and most of the faculties were reopened on October 1, 1939. Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela. Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. On October 28, Vilnius was transferred to Lithuania which considered the previous eighteen years as an occupation by Poland of its capital. Events 306 - Maxentius is proclaimed Roman Emperor. 312 - Battle of Milvian Bridge: Constantine Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika is a Country in Eastern often referred to as Northern Europe or in the  The University was closed on December 15, and all staff and students dismissed. In its place the new university, named Vilniaus Universitetas, was created. The new University Charter specified that Vilnius University was to be governed according to the statute of the Vytautas Magnus University of Kaunas, and that Lithuanian language programs and faculties would be established. Vytautas Magnus University (VMU (Vytauto Didžiojo Universitetas(VDU is a public university in Kaunas, Lithuania. Lithuanian language was named as the official language of the university. Lithuanian ( lietuvių kalba) is the official state language of Lithuania and is recognised as one of the official languages of the European Union. Law and Social Sciences, Humanities, Medical, Theological, Mathematical-Life sciences faculties continued to work underground . Soon after the annexation of Lithuania by the Soviet Union, most of the Polish and Lithuanian professors who were deemed reactionary were arrested and sent to prisons and gulags in Russia and Kazakhstan. The occupation of the Baltic states refers to the occupation of the Baltic states ( Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) first by the The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Reactionary (also reactionist) is a derogatory term usually used by the Left wing in regards to movements which oppose radical change in society and seeks a return The Gulag was the government agency that administered the penal labor camps of the Soviet Union. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Kazakhstan, also Kazakstan ( Қазақстан, Qazaqstan, qɑzɑqˈstɑn Казахстан, Kazakhstán,) officially the
The city was occupied by Germany in 1941, and all institutions of higher education for non-Germans were closed. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. However, the remaining Polish professors organized a system of secret education with lectures and exams held in private flats. This article covers the topic of underground education in Poland (Tajne szkolnictwo or pl tajne komplety) during World War II The diplomas of the underground Universities were accepted by many Polish Universities after the War. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including In 1944, many of the students took part in Operation Ostra Brama. Operation Ostra Brama was an armed conflict during World War II between the Polish Home Army and the Nazi German occupiers of The majority of the them were later arrested by the NKVD and deported to the Soviet Union. The NKVD ( НКВД, ru Народный Комиссариат Внутренних Дел ''Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del'') or People's Commissariat The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991
Together with the expulsion of the Germans in 1945-1948, the remnants of faculty and students of Polish heritage that survived the war were expelled from the city, as the entire Polish population of Kresy were ordered to relocate to the Regained Territories. The expulsion of Germans after World War II was the Forced migration and Ethnic cleansing of German nationals ( Reichsdeutsche) and ethnic The term Kresy, meaning Outskirts or Borderlands, was first used to define the Polish eastern frontier Recovered or Regained Territories (Ziemie Odzyskane was the official term used by the Polish post-war authorities to denote those territories which were transferred Many of them joined various universities in Poland. In order not to lose contact with each other, the professors decided to transfer whole faculties. After 1945, most of the mathematicians, humanists and biologists joined the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, while a number of the medical faculty formed the core of the newly-founded Medical University of Gdańsk. Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu UMK is one of the most respected universities in Poland. Medical University of Gdańsk is located in Gdańsk, Poland. It was founded in 1945. The Toruń university is often considered to be the successor to the Polish traditions of the Stefan Batory university. Toruń Lublin Voivodeship Toruń (Thorn Torń Thorunium see also other names) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula River with population
In 1955 the University was named after Vincas Kapsukas. Vincas Mickevičius-Kapsukas (Būdviečiai Vilkaviškis district, &mdash Moscow, 17 December 1935) was a Lithuanian political After it had been awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labour in 1971 and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1979, its full name until 1990 was Vilnius Order of the Red Banner of Labour and Order of Friendship of Peoples V. History The Red Banner of Labour began as an order of the Russian SFSR on See also Order of Friendship Kapsukas State University.  Though restrained by the Soviet system, Vilnius University grew and gained significance and developed its own, Lithuanian identity. Vilnius University began to free itself from Soviet ideology in 1988, thanks to the policy of glasnost. (Гла́сность)is literally defined as publicity and sometimes figuratively interpreted as "tipping a vase to let someone see into the vase but not the bottom of the vase"
On March 11, 1990, Lithuania declared independence, and the University regained autonomy. Events 1425 BC - Thutmose III, Pharaoh of Egypt, dies (according to the Low Chronology of the 18th Dynasty Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika is a Country in Eastern often referred to as Northern Europe or in the Since 1991, Vilnius University has been a signatory to the Magna Charta of the European Universities. The University is a member of the European University Association (EUA) and the Conference of Baltic University Rectors. See also EURODOC ESIB ENQA EAIE
In modern times, the University still offers studies with an internationally recognized content. The litas ( ISO currency code LTL symbolized as Lt plural litai or litų) is the currency of Lithuania. Commemorative coins are coins that were issued to commemorate some particular event or issue
As of January 1, 2007, there were 23,255 students studying at Vilnius University. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
The current University Rector is Professor Benediktas Juodka of the Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
The University, specifically the courtyard, was featured in the American TV series the Amazing Race
There are 12 faculties:
The university has a number of semi-autonomous institutes:
There are also several study and research centers at Vilnius University:
A complete list of research projects may be found at . The Amazing Race 12 was the twelfth installment of the six-time Emmy Award winning reality television show The Amazing Race. Recent and ongoing projects at Vilnius University include: