Location of Vilnius
|Municipality||Vilnius city municipality|
Vilnius city municipality
Vilnius district municipality
|Granted city rights||1387|
|- Total||401 km² (154. Flag The flag of Vilnius has the arms in the centre Wikipedia talkFeatured lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This list of countries, arranged alphabetically Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika is a Country in Eastern often referred to as Northern Europe or in the Lithuania can be divided into historical and cultural regions (called Ethnographic regions Wikipedia_talkFeatured_lists#Proposed_change_to_all_featured_lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->The territory of Lithuania Vilnius County (Vilniaus apskritis Okręg wileński is the largest of the 10 counties of Lithuania, located in the east of the country around the City Wikipedia_talkFeatured_lists#Proposed_change_to_all_featured_lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below --> Municipalities of Lithuania Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika is a Country in Eastern often referred to as Northern Europe or in the Vilnius County (Vilniaus apskritis Okręg wileński is the largest of the 10 counties of Lithuania, located in the east of the country around the City The Vilnius city municipality (Vilniaus miesto savivaldybė is one of 60 municipalities in Lithuania. Vilnius district municipality is one of 60 municipalities in Lithuania. Magdeburg Rights (Magdeburger Recht or Magdeburg Law were a set of German town laws regulating the degree of internal autonomy within cities and villages granted with Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of 8 sq mi)|
|- Total||542 809|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|- Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
Vilnius (alternative names) is the largest city and the capital of Lithuania, with a population of 553,904 (850,700 together with Vilnius County) as of December 2005. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. In Lithuania there are 103 cities (in Lithuanian: singular – miestas Plural – miestai Eastern European Time ( EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 Time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. UTC+2 corresponds to the following Time zones Eastern European Time Egypt Standard Time Central Africa Time Daylight saving time ( DST Eastern European Summer Time ( EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 Time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. UTC+3 is used in the following locations Moscow Time Eastern European Summer Time West Asian Summer Time A city is an Urban area with a large Population and a particular Administrative, Legal, or Historical status Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika is a Country in Eastern often referred to as Northern Europe or in the  It is the seat of the Vilnius city municipality and of the Vilnius district municipality. The Vilnius city municipality (Vilniaus miesto savivaldybė is one of 60 municipalities in Lithuania. Vilnius district municipality is one of 60 municipalities in Lithuania. It is also the capital of Vilnius County. Vilnius County (Vilniaus apskritis Okręg wileński is the largest of the 10 counties of Lithuania, located in the east of the country around the City; also known by
Vilnius has also been known by many names in different languages throughout its history. Most notable non-Lithuanian names for the city include: Polish: Wilno, Belarusian: Вiльня (Vilnia), German: Wilna, Latin: Vilna, Latvian: Viļņa, Yiddish: ווילנע (Vilne). Polish ( język polski, polszczyzna) is the Official language of Poland. The Belarusian language, or Belorussian,(беларуская мова BGN/PCGN: byelaruskaya mova, Scientific: belaruskaja mova The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Latvian language (latviešu valoda is the official state language of Latvia. Yiddish (yi [[wiktייִדיש ייִדיש]] yidish or yi [[wiktאידיש אידיש]] idish, literally "Jewish" is a nonterritorial High An older Russian name is Вильна / Вильно (Vilna/Vilno), although Вильнюс (Vil'njus) is now used. Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages The names Wilno and Vilna have also been used in older English and French language publications. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people The name Vilna is still used in Finnish language.
|"Legend has it that the Grand Duke of Lithuania, Gediminas, was hunting in the sacred forest near the Valley of Šventaragis. This article is about the history of Vilnius, the capital and largest city of Lithuania. Gediminas (ca 1275 – winter 1341 was the Monarch of medieval Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the title lt didysis kunigaikštis (вялікі князь Tired after the successful day's hunt, the Grand Duke settled in nearby for the night. He fell soundly asleep and began to dream. A huge Iron Wolf was standing on top a hill and the sound of hundreds of other wolves inside it filled all of the surrounding fields and woods. Upon awakening, the Duke asked the pagan priest Lizdeika to interpret the meaning of the dream. And the priest told him: "What is destined for the ruler and the State of Lithuania, is thus: the Iron Wolf represents a castle and a city which will be established by you on this site. The Vilnius Castle Complex ( Lithuanian: Vilniaus pilių kompleksas or Vilniaus pilys) is a group of defensive cultural and religious buildings on This city will be the capital of the Lithuanian lands and the dwelling of their rulers, and the glory of their deeds shall echo throughout the world"|
|The Legend of the Founding of Vilnius|
Some historians identify the city with Voruta, a legendary capital of Mindaugas who was crowned in 1253 as King of Lithuania. Voruta may have been the Capital city of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Lithuania during the reign of king Mindaugas in the Mindaugas (ˈmındoʊgʌs ca 1203 – 12 September 1263) was the first known Grand Duke of Lithuania, a title he gained ca King of Lithuania, the title of rulers of Lithuanian state recognised by the Pope. The city was first mentioned in written sources in 1323, in letters of Grand Duke Gediminas that were sent to German cities and invited Germans and members of the Jewish community to settle in the capital city. There are 6 surviving transcripts of letters of Gediminas written in 1323-1324 by Grand Duke Gediminas. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ In 1387, the city was granted city rights by Jogaila, one of Gediminas' successors. Magdeburg Rights (Magdeburger Recht or Magdeburg Law were a set of German town laws regulating the degree of internal autonomy within cities and villages granted with Jogaila, later Władysław II Jagiełło (b about 1362 d 1 June 1434 was Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland.
Between 1503 and 1522 the city was surrounded with walls that had nine city gates and three towers. Vilnius city wall was built between 1503 and 1522 It was a key element of the defensive system of Vilnius, and was paid for by the city's landowners A city gate is a Gate which is or was set within a City wall. Vilnius reached the peak of its development under the reign of Sigismund August, who moved his court there in 1544. For other nobles of the same name please see Sigismund. Sigismund II Augustus I (Zygmunt II August In the following centuries, Vilnius became a constantly growing and developing city. This growth was due in part to the establishment of Almae Academia et Universitas Vilnensis Societatis Jesu by the King Stephen Bathory in 1579. Vilnius University (Vilniaus Universitetas formerly known as Vilnius State University, earlier - Stefan Batory University and before that Almae This article is about the ruler of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the 16th century The university soon developed into one of the most important scientific and cultural centres of the region and the most notable scientific centre of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, officially the Commonwealth of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania also known as the Most Serene Republic Political, economic, and social activities were in full swing in the town. In 1769, the Rasos Cemetery, one of the oldest surviving cemeteries in the city, was founded. Rasos Cemetery (Rasų kapinės Cmentarz na Rossie is the oldest and most famous cemetery in the city of Vilnius, Lithuania. During its rapid development, the city was open to migrants from both abroad and far reaches of territories of Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Immigration refers to the movement of people among countries While the movement of people has existed throughout human history at various levels modern immigration implies long-term Each group made its unique contribution to the life of the city, and crafts, trade and science prospered. During the Russo-Polish War (1654–1667), Vilnius was occupied by Russia for several years. The Russo-Polish War of 1654–1667, also called the War for Ukraine, was the last major conflict between the Tsardom of Russia and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth The city was pillaged and burned, and its population was massacred. The city's growth lost its momentum for many years, but the population rebounded, and by the beginning of the 19th century city's population reached 20,000, making the city one of the largest in Northern Europe.
After the Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 15 April 1795, Vilnius was annexed by Russia and became the capital of a Vilna Governorate. The Partitions of Poland or Partitions of the Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth took place in the second half of the 18th century and ended the existence of the Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The Vilnа Governorate (1801-1840 often named Lithuania-Vilna Governorate) (Виленская губерния Vilenskaya guberniya, Vilniaus gubernija or During the Russian occupation the city walls were destroyed, and by 1805, only the Dawn Gate remained. Gate of Dawn (Aušros Vartai Ostra Brama Вострая Брама was built between 1503 and 1522 as a part of defensive fortifications for the In 1812, the city was seized by Napoleon on his push towards Moscow. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. The French invasion of Russia in 1812 was a turning point in the Napoleonic Wars. Following the November Uprising in 1831, Vilnius University was closed and Russian repressions halted the further development of the city. The November Uprising (1830&ndash1831&mdashalso known as the Cadet Revolution &mdashwas an armed rebellion against the rule of the Russian Empire in Poland Vilnius University (Vilniaus Universitetas formerly known as Vilnius State University, earlier - Stefan Batory University and before that Almae During the January Uprising in 1863 heavy fighting occurred within the city, but was brutally pacified by Mikhail Muravyov, nicknamed The Hangman by the population because of the number of executions he organized. The January Uprising ( Polish: powstanie styczniowe, Lithuanian: 1863 m Peace, in the modern usage is a concept defined by the ideal state of relationship as absence of hostility at the international level that of a War. Mikhail Nikolayevich Muravyov may refer to the following historical persons of the Imperial Russia. After the uprising, all civil liberties were withdrawn, and use of the Polish and Lithuanian languages was banned. Polish ( język polski, polszczyzna) is the Official language of Poland. Lithuanian ( lietuvių kalba) is the official state language of Lithuania and is recognised as one of the official languages of the European Union. in early 20th century Lithuanian speaking population constituted only a small minority then, with Polish, Jewish, and Russian speakers being most of the population of the city. 
During World War I, Vilnius — as with the rest of Lithuania — was occupied by the German Empire from 1915 until 1918. St Anne's Church (Šv Onos bažnyčia is a Roman Catholic church in Vilnius ' Old Town, on the right bank of the Vilnia River. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The German Empire is the name commonly used in English to describe Germany from 1871 to 1918 when it was a semi- Constitutional monarchy: beginning with the Unification The Act of Independence of Lithuania, that restored Lithuanian independence from any affiliation to any other nation was proclaimed in the city on February 16, 1918. The Act of Independence of Lithuania (Lietuvos Nepriklausomybės Aktas or Act of February 16 was signed by the Council of Lithuania on February 16 1918 proclaiming Events 1249 - Andrew of Longjumeau is dispatched by Louis IX of France as his ambassador to meet with the Khan of the Mongols Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common After the withdrawal of German forces, Lithuanian forces were forced to retreat by advancing Russian occupation forces. Vilnius changed hands many times: for a while it was controlled by Polish self-defence units, who didn't want the city to be occupied by Russian-Bolshevik forces. Lithuanian and Belarusian Self-Defence Samoobrona Litwy i Białorusi was a voluntary military formation ( Militia) composed primarily of Poles that was created in the The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists ( Большевик Большевист (singular, derived from bolshe, "more" were a faction Then the Polish Army regained control, then Soviet forces again. Polish Land Forces (Wojska Lądowe RP is a branch of Poland 's Armed Forces. A soviet (сове́т, "council" originally was a workers' local council in late Imperial Russia. Shortly after its defeat in the Battle of Warsaw (1920), the retreating Red Army ceded the city back to Lithuania by signing a peace treaty on July 12, 1920. The Battle of Warsaw (Russian Варшáвское сражéние Polish: Bitwa Warszawska sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula, Polish The Red Army ( Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия R aboche- K rest'yanskaya K rasnaya A rmiya Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika is a Country in Eastern often referred to as Northern Europe or in the The Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty, also known as the Moscow Peace Treaty, was signed between Lithuania and Soviet Russia on July 12 Events 1191 - Saladin 's garrison surrenders ending the two-year Siege of Acre. Year 1920 ( MCMXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920 of the Gregorian calendar On October 9 of the same year, the Polish Army under General Lucjan Żeligowski broke the treaty and seized Vilnius after a staged coup. Events 768 - Carloman I and Charlemagne are crowned Kings of The Franks. Lucjan Żeligowski (1865-1947 was a Polish General, and veteran of World War I, the Polish-Soviet War and World War II. Żeligowski's Mutiny (Bunt Żeligowskiego also żeligiada, Želigovskio maištas was a staged Mutiny led by Polish General Lucjan Żeligowski The city and its surroundings were proclaimed the separate state of Central Lithuania. On February 20, 1922 after elections, the whole area was annexed to Poland, with Vilnius as the capital of the Wilno Voivodship (Wilno being the name of Vilnius in Polish). Events 1472 - Orkney and Shetland are left by Norway to Scotland, due to a Dowry payment Year 1922 ( MCMXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. This article is about the voivodship of Poland in the interwar period Polish ( język polski, polszczyzna) is the Official language of Poland. The predominant languages of the city were still Polish and, to a lesser extent, Yiddish. Polish ( język polski, polszczyzna) is the Official language of Poland. Yiddish (yi [[wiktייִדיש ייִדיש]] yidish or yi [[wiktאידיש אידיש]] idish, literally "Jewish" is a nonterritorial High
In the meantime, for yet another time in its history, the city enjoyed a period of fast development. The Cathedral of the Theotokos in Vilnius is the main Orthodox Christian church of Lithuania. Vilnius University was reopened under the name Stefan Batory University and the city's infrastructure was improved significantly. Vilnius University (Vilniaus Universitetas formerly known as Vilnius State University, earlier - Stefan Batory University and before that Almae Infrastructure typically refers to the technical structures that support a society such as Roads Water supply, Wastewater, Power grids By 1931, the city had 195,000 inhabitants, making it the fifth largest city in Poland with vibrant industries, such as Elektrit, a factory of a popular make of radio receivers. Some dispute this picture of economic growth and point out that the standard of living in Vilnius at that time was considerably lower compared to that in other parts of contemporary Lithuania.
Following the secret protocol of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, on September 19, 1939, Vilnius was seized and annexed by the Soviet Union. Gediminas Tower is the only remaining functional part of the Upper Castle in Vilnius, Lithuania. Events 335 - Dalmatius is raised to the rank of Caesar by his uncle Constantine I. Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 There were plans to include the city and the region as a part of the Belarusian SSR, but eventually it was decided that Vilnius might be used as a way to exert significant influence on Lithuania. The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (abbreviated as Byelorussian SSR or BSSR) (Беларуская Савецкая Сацыялістычная Рэспубліка Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika is a Country in Eastern often referred to as Northern Europe or in the On October 10, 1939, after a Soviet ultimatum, the Lithuanian government accepted the presence of Soviet military bases in various parts of the country in exchange for restoring the city to Lithuania. Events 680 - Battle of Karbala: Shia Imam Husayn bin Ali, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad, is decapitated Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. An ultimatum (the last one is a Demand whose fulfillment is requested in a specified period of time and which is backed up by a threat to be followed through in case Etymology The word bases is first recorded in English language from c On October 28, 1939 the Red Army withdrew from the city to its suburbs (to Nowa Wilejka) and Vilnius was taken over by the Lithuanian Army. Events 306 - Maxentius is proclaimed Roman Emperor. 312 - Battle of Milvian Bridge: Constantine Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A parade took place on October 29, 1939 through the city center. Events 437 - Valentinian III, Western Roman Emperor, marries Licinia Eudoxia, daughter of his cousin Theodosius II Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Though the process of transferring the capital from Kaunas to Vilnius started soon after, the whole of Lithuania was occupied by the Soviet Union in June 1940 before the transfer was completed. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 A new Communist government was installed, with Vilnius as the capital of the newly created Lithuanian SSR. The Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic (Lietuvos Tarybų Socialistinė Respublika Литовская Советская Социалистическая Республика Up to 40,000 of the city's inhabitants were arrested by the NKVD and sent to gulags in the far eastern areas of the Soviet Union. The NKVD ( НКВД, ru Народный Комиссариат Внутренних Дел ''Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del'') or People's Commissariat The Gulag was the government agency that administered the penal labor camps of the Soviet Union. The Soviets devastated city industries, moving the Elektrit radio factory along with a part of its labor force to Minsk in Belarus, where it was renamed the Vyacheslav Molotov Radio Factory, after Stalin's Minister of Foreign Affairs. Minsk (Мінск mʲinsk Минск mʲinsk is the Capital and largest city in Belarus, situated on the Svislach and Niamiha rivers Belarus ( Belarusian Беларусь / Biełaruś is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the north and east Molotov redirects here For other uses see Molotov (disambiguation.
In June 1941, the city was occupied by Germany, when it invaded Lithuania as part of its campaign against the Soviet Union. Vilnius Cathedral (Vilniaus Šv Stanislovo ir Šv Vladislovo arkikatedra bazilika is the main Roman Catholic Cathedral of Lithuania. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Two ghettos were set up in the old town center for the large Jewish population — the smaller one of which was "liquidated" by October. The Old Town of Vilnius (Vilniaus senamiestis one of the largest surviving Medieval old towns in Northern Europe, has an area of 3 The larger ghetto lasted until 1943, though its population was regularly deported in what became known as "Aktionen". A failed ghetto uprising on September 1, 1943 organized by the Fareinigte Partizaner Organizacje (the United Partisan Organization, the first Jewish partisan unit in Nazi-occupied Europe), was followed by the final destruction of the ghetto. Ghetto uprisings were armed revolts by Jews and other groups incarcerated in Nazi Ghettos during World War II against the plans to deport the inhabitants Events 462 - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle. Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Fareinigte Partizaner Organizacje (" United Partisan Organization " referred to as FPO by its Yiddish initials was a Jewish About 95% of the 265,000-strong Jewish population of Lithuania was murdered by the German units and their local collaborators, many of them in Paneriai, about 10 km west of the old town centre. Paneriai (Ponary is a suburb of Vilnius, situated about 10 kilometres away from the city center
In July 1944 Vilnius was re-occupied by the Soviet Army and the Polish Armia Krajowa (see Operation Ostra Brama). Operation Ostra Brama was an armed conflict during World War II between the Polish Home Army and the Nazi German occupiers of The NKVD arrested the Polish soldiers. The NKVD ( НКВД, ru Народный Комиссариат Внутренних Дел ''Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del'') or People's Commissariat Vilnius was incorporated into the Soviet Union as the capital of the Lithuanian SSR shortly thereafter. The Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic (Lietuvos Tarybų Socialistinė Respublika Литовская Советская Социалистическая Республика Immediately after World War II, large numbers of Poles were expelled from Soviet-occupied Lithuania to Poland. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Coupled with migration of the Lithuanians into Vilnius, this development resulted in a change to the city demographics.
On March 11, 1990, the Supreme Council of the Lithuanian SSR announced its independence from the Soviet Union and restored the independent Republic of Lithuania. Events 1425 BC - Thutmose III, Pharaoh of Egypt, dies (according to the Low Chronology of the 18th Dynasty Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) Declaration of independence The Soviet became important political battleground when in late 1980s Lithuanians sought independence or at least autonomy from the Soviet Union Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika is a Country in Eastern often referred to as Northern Europe or in the The Soviets responded on January 9, 1991, by sending in troops. Events 475 - Byzantine Emperor Zeno is forced to flee his capital at Constantinople. Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. On January 13 during the Soviet Army attack on the State Radio and Television Building and the Vilnius TV Tower, at least fourteen civilians were killed and more than 700 were seriously injured. Events 532 - Nika riots in Constantinople. 888 - Odo Count of Paris becomes King of the Franks January 1991 events in LatviaThe January Events (Sausio įvykiai were a series of events that occurred from January 11–13 1991 in Vilnius, Lithuania. The Vilnius TV Tower (Vilniaus televizijos bokštas is a 3265 metre-high (1071 ft building in the Karoliniškės Microdistrict of Vilnius, Lithuania The Soviet Union finally recognized Lithuanian independence in August 1991.
Since then, Vilnius has been rapidly transformed and the town has emerged as a modern European city. Many of its older buildings have been renovated, and a business and commercial area is being developed into the New City Center, expected to become the city's main administrative and business district on the north side of the Neris river. Neris ( Ві́лія or Вя́льля Vialla) is a river arising in Belarus, flowing through Vilnius ( Lithuania) and becoming a tributary This area includes modern residential and retail space, with the municipality building and a 129-metre (423') Europa Tower as its most prominent building. A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly denotes a City, Town, or Village, or The Europa Tower (Europos bokštas is the tallest Skyscraper in the Baltic States and Lithuania 's tallest building While a number of modern business and retail centers have been built during recent years, many other projects are waiting to be implemented.
In 2009 Vilnius will be the capital of European Culture. Among the initiatives promoted by Lithuania for this event, the historical centre of the city has been restored and its main monuments have been renewed. 
Vilnius is situated in southeastern Lithuania (confluence of the Vilnia and Neris Rivers. Confluence, in Geography, describes the meeting of two or more Bodies of water. Vilnia (also Vilnelė; Вільня/Vilnia, 'vʲilʲnʲa Wilejka Wilenka is a River in Lithuania. Neris ( Ві́лія or Вя́льля Vialla) is a river arising in Belarus, flowing through Vilnius ( Lithuania) and becoming a tributary It is believed that Vilnius, like many other cities, was named after a crossing river, Vilnia.) at the
Lying close to Vilnius is a site some claim to be the Geographical Centre of Europe. The location of the geographical centre of Europe depends on the definition of the borders of Europe, mainly whether remote islands are included to define the Extreme
Vilnius' non-central location can be attributed to the changing shape of the nation's borders through the centuries; Vilnius was once not only culturally but also geographically at the center of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė old literary Lithuanian Didi Kunigiste Letuvos, Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje
Vilnius lies 312 kilometres (194 mi) from the Baltic Sea and Klaipėda, the chief Lithuanian seaport. The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand A mile is a unit of Length, usually used to measure Distance, in a number of different systems including Imperial units United States The Baltic Sea is a Brackish inland sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N Latitude and from 20°E to 26°E Longitude. Klaipėda ( ˈklaɪpɛdə Memel is a City in Lithuania situated at the mouth of the Curonian Lagoon where it flows into the Baltic Sea ||-||-|-||-||-||-||-||-||-|} A port is a facility for receiving Ships and transferring cargo Vilnius is connected by highways to other major Lithuanian cities, such as Kaunas (102 km/63 mi away), Šiauliai (214 km/133 mi away) and Panevėžys (135 km/84 mi away). Kaunas ( ˈkoʊnəs is the second largest City in Lithuania and a former temporary capital. Šiauliai ( ʃoʊˈleı Samogitian: Šiaulē, Latvian: Saule (historic and Šauļi (modern German: Schaulen Panevėžys ( pʌnɛvɛˈʒıs is the fifth largest city in Lithuania.
The current area of Vilnius is 402 square kilometres (155 sq mi). Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Buildings cover 20. 2% of the city and in the remaining areas, greenery (43. 9%) and waters (2. 1%) prevail.
The climate of Vilnius is considered as Humid Continental or Hemiboreal by Köppen climate classification. Continental climate is a Climate that is characterized by Winter Temperatures cold enough to support a fixed period of Snow cover each Year The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems It was developed by Wladimir Köppen, a German climatologist  The average annual temperature is +6. 1 °C (43 °F); in January the average temperature is −4. Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736 a German Physicist who proposed it in 1724 9 °C (23 °F), in July it is +17. 0 °C (62. 6 °F). The average precipitation is about 661 millimetres (26. In Meteorology, precipitation (also known as one class of hydrometeors, which are atmospheric water phenomena is any product of the condensation of atmospheric 0 in) per year. Inches redirects here To see the Les Savy Fav album see Inches.
Summers can be hot, with temperatures above thirty degrees Celsius throughout the day. Night-life in Vilnius is in full swing at this time of year, and outdoor bars and cafés become very popular during the daytime.
Winters can be very cold, with temperatures rarely reaching above freezing — temperatures below negative 25 degrees Celsius (-13 °F) are not unheard-of in January and February. Vilnius's rivers freeze over in particularly cold winters, and the lakes surrounding the city are almost always permanently frozen during this time of year. A popular pastime is ice-fishing, whereby fishermen drill holes in the ice and fish with baited hooks.
|Weather averages for Vilnius, Lithuania|
|Average high °C (°F)||-3. 5 (25. 7)||-1. 7 (28. 9)||3. 3 (37. 9)||10. 7 (51. 3)||18. 2 (64. 8)||21. 1 (70)||22. 1 (71. 8)||21. 6 (70. 9)||16. 4 (61. 5)||10. 2 (50. 4)||3. 5 (38. 3)||-0. 5 (31. 1)||10. 1 (50. 2)|
|Average low °C (°F)||-8. 7 (16. 3)||-7. 6 (18. 3)||-3. 8 (25. 2)||1. 6 (34. 9)||7. 5 (45. 5)||10. 8 (51. 4)||12. 3 (54. 1)||11. 5 (52. 7)||7. 7 (45. 9)||3. 4 (38. 1)||-0. 9 (30. 4)||-5. 2 (22. 6)||3. 4 (36. 4)|
|Precipitation mm (inches)||41 (1. In Meteorology, precipitation (also known as one class of hydrometeors, which are atmospheric water phenomena is any product of the condensation of atmospheric 61)||38 (1. 49)||39 (1. 53)||46 (1. 81)||62 (2. 44)||77 (3. 03)||78 (3. 07)||72 (2. 83)||65 (2. 56)||53 (2. 09)||57 (2. 24)||55 (2. 17)||683 (26. 9)|
|Source: The World Meteorological Organization Nov 2006|
According to the 2001 census by the Vilnius Regional Statistical Office, there were 542,287 inhabitants in the Vilnius city municipality, of which 57. A census is the procedure of acquiring information about every member of a given population The Vilnius city municipality (Vilniaus miesto savivaldybė is one of 60 municipalities in Lithuania. 8% were Lithuanians, 18. Lithuanians are the Baltic Ethnic group native to Lithuania, where they number a little over 3 million 7% Poles, 14% Russians, 4. The Polish people, or Poles, (Polacy) are a Western Slavic Ethnic group of Central Europe, living predominantly in Poland. The Russian people (Русские— Russkie) are an East Slavic Ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries 0% Belarusians, 1. Belarusians or Belorussians (Беларусы Biełarusy previously also spelled Belarussians, Byelorussians and Belorusians, also 3% Ukrainians and 0. Ukrainians (Українці Ukrayintsi,) are an East Slavic Ethnic group primarily living in Ukraine, or more broadly— Citizens 5% Jews; the remainder indicated other nationalities or refused to answer. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************
Vilnius is a cosmopolitan city with diverse architecture. The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of racial, cultural and ethnic diversity within the Demographics of a specified The term architecture (from Greek αρχιτεκτονικήarchitektoniki) can be used to mean a process a profession or documentation There are more than 40 churches in Vilnius. Restaurants, hotels and museums have sprouted since Lithuania declared independence, and young Vilnius residents are building the city's reputation for being the most hospitable in the world, as evidenced by an active participation in the Hospitality Club. A restaurant is a retail establishment that serves prepared Food to Customers. A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging usually on a short-term basis A museum is a "permanent institution in the service of society and of its development open to the public which acquires conserves researches communicates and exhibits the The Hospitality Club is an international Internet -based Hospitality service of 392304 members in 219 countries
Like most medieval towns, Vilnius was developed around its Town Hall. Vilnius Town Hall (Vilniaus rotušė is a historical Town hall in the square of the same name in the Old Town of Vilnius, Lithuania. The main artery, Pilies Street, links the royal palace and the Town Hall. Pilies Street (literally "Castle Street" Pilies gatvė is one of the main streets in the Old Town of Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania. Other streets meander through the palaces of feudal lords and landlords, churches, shops and craftsmen's workrooms. Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed Narrow, curved streets and intimate courtyards developed in the radial layout of medieval Vilnius. For alternative meanings of the word "court" see Court (disambiguation.
The Old Town, the historical centre of Vilnius, is one of the largest in Europe (3. The Old Town of Vilnius (Vilniaus senamiestis one of the largest surviving Medieval old towns in Northern Europe, has an area of 3 6 km²). The most valuable historic and cultural sites are concentrated here. The buildings in the old town — there are nearly 1,500 — were built over several centuries, creating a splendid blend of many different architectural styles. Although Vilnius is known as a Baroque city, there are examples of Gothic (e. Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc See also Gothic art Gothic architecture is a style of Architecture which flourished during the high and late medieval period. g. St Anne's Church), Renaissance, and other styles. St Anne's Church (Šv Onos bažnyčia is a Roman Catholic church in Vilnius ' Old Town, on the right bank of the Vilnia River. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere The main sights of the city are Gediminas Castle and Cathedral Square, symbols of the capital. Gediminas Tower is the only remaining functional part of the Upper Castle in Vilnius, Lithuania. Their combination is also a gateway to the historic centre of the capital. Owing to its uniqueness, the Old Town of Vilnius was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1994. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex In 1995, the first bronze cast of Frank Zappa in the world was installed near the center of Vilnius with the permission of the government. Bronze is any of a broad range of Copper alloys, usually with Tin as the main additive but sometimes with other elements such as Phosphorus Frank Vincent Zappa (December 21 1940 – December 4 1993 was an American Composer, Electric guitarist Record producer and Film director
On 2007 November 10 Jonas Mekas Visual Arts Center was opened by acclaimed avant-garde film-maker Jonas Mekas. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1444 - Battle of Varna: The crusading forces of King Vladislaus III of Varna (aka Ulaszlo I of Hungary and Wladyslaw The Jonas Mekas Visual Arts Center is an Avant-garde Arts centre in Vilnius, Lithuania. Avant-garde (avɑ̃gaʁd in French) means "advance guard" or "vanguard Jonas Mekas (jonɐs mækɐs born December 24, 1922 in the village of Semeniškiai, near Biržai) is a Lithuanian Filmmaker, writer First premiere exhibition futures The Avant-Garde: From Futurism to Fluxus. Futurism was an Art movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century Fluxus —a name taken from a Latin word meaning "to flow"—is an international network of artists composers and designers noted for blending different artistic media
Guggenheim-Hermitage museum will be built in Vilnius. Vilnius Guggenheim Hermitage Museum is a proposed art Museum in the city of Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania. The building is designed by Zaha Hadid. Zaha Hadid (زها حديد CBE (born October 31 1950 Baghdad, Iraq) is a notable British Iraqi deconstructivist Architect The museum will host: Guggenheim and Hermitage exhibitions, non commercial avant-garde cinema, library, museum of Lithuanian Jewish culture, collection of Jonas Mekas and Jurgis Mačiūnas. Lithuanian Jews (known in Yiddish and Yeshivish as Litvish (adjective or Litvaks (noun are Ashkenazi Jews with roots in the George Maciunas ( Jurgis Mačiūnas, pronounced ma-chew-nas; born Kaunas, Lithuania, November 8, 1931; died May 9
Vilnius is the major economic centre of Lithuania and one of the largest financial centres of the Baltic states. The Baltic states (Balti riigid Baltijas valstis Baltijos valstybės or Baltic countries are three countries in Northern Europe, all members of the Even though it is home to only 15% of Lithuania's population, it generates approximately 35% of Lithuania's GDP . Based on these indicators, its estimated GDP per capita, based on purchasing power parity, in 2005 is approximately $33,100, above the European Union average. The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in
Vilnius contributed over 4. 6 billion litas to the national budget in 2004. The litas ( ISO currency code LTL symbolized as Lt plural litai or litų) is the currency of Lithuania. That makes about 37% of the budget. Kaunas, the second largest city, contributed only 1. Kaunas ( ˈkoʊnəs is the second largest City in Lithuania and a former temporary capital. 5 billion. Vilnius received a return of 360 million litas in the budget, which is only 7. 7% of its contribution. This disparity caused some conflicts with the central government because of Vilnius' demand for a greater share of the funds it generated.
The city has many universities. The biggest are Vilnius University, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Mykolas Romeris University and Vilnius Pedagogical University. Vilnius University (Vilniaus Universitetas formerly known as Vilnius State University, earlier - Stefan Batory University and before that Almae Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (Vilniaus Gedimino Technikos Universitetas acronym- VGTU) is one of the two technical universities in Lithuania. Mykolas Romeris University (Mykolo Romerio universitetas or MRU) is a university in Vilnius, Lithuania, bearing the name of distinguished Lithuanian Vilnius Pedagogical University ( Lithuanian: Vilniaus pedagoginis universitetas or VPU short is a university in Vilnius, Lithuania Specialized higher schools with the university status are General Jonas Žemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania, Lithuanian Academy of Music and Theatre, Vilnius Academy of Fine Arts. The General Jonas Žemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania ( Generolo Jono Žemaičio Lietuvos karo akademija) is a state-sponsored institution of higher learning based in The Lithuanian Academy of Music and Theatre in Vilnius, Lithuania, is a state-supported conservatory that trains students in music theatre and multimedia The Vilnius Academy of Art (Vilniaus dailės akademija previously State Art Institute of Lithuania) in Vilnius, Lithuania, grants a variety of degrees
There is also the National M. K. Čiurlionis School of Art. National M K Čiurlionis School Of Art was founded in 1945 in Vilnius, Lithuania.
Martynas Mažvydas National Library of Lithuania has 6 912 266 physical units. The Martynas Mažvydas National Library of Lithuania (Nacionalinė Martyno Mažvydo biblioteka is the National library of Lithuania, situated on Gediminas
Vilnius is the Roman Catholic center of the country, with the main church institutions and Archdiocesan Cathedral located here. St Nicholas Church (Šv Mikalojaus bažnyčia is the oldest surviving church in Lithuania, built in the Old Town of the capital city Vilnius. There are quite a number of active and open churches in the city, along with small enclosed monasteries and religion schools. Church architecture includes Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque and Neoclassical styles, with important examples of each found in the Old Town. See also Gothic art Gothic architecture is a style of Architecture which flourished during the high and late medieval period. Renaissance architecture is the architecture of the period between the early 15th and early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe in which there was a Baroque architecture, starting in the early 17th century in Italy, took the humanist Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical Neoclassical architecture was an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century both as a reaction against the Rococo The Old Town of Vilnius (Vilniaus senamiestis one of the largest surviving Medieval old towns in Northern Europe, has an area of 3 Vilnius is considered one of the main centers of the Polish Baroque movement in ecclesiastical architecture. Polish baroque lasted from the late 16th century to the middle of the 18th century Additionally, Eastern Rite Catholicism has maintained a presence in Vilnius since the Union of Brest. This article refers to Eastern Churches in full communion with the Holy See Union of Brest ( Belarusian: Берасьцейская унія, Ukrainian: Берестейська унія, Unia brzeska refers to the The Baroque Basilian Gate is part of an Eastern Rite monastery.
Also, Vilnius has been home to an Eastern Orthodox Christian presence since the thirteenth century. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth A famous Russian Orthodox monastery, named for the Holy Spirit, is located near the Gate of Dawn. See also Eastern Orthodox Church Structure and organization The Slavic Orthodox Church is organized in a hierarchical structure Anthony John and Eustathius ( Eustathios Eustace; Russian Антоний Иоанн and Евстафий are saints and martyrs (died 1347 of the Russian Orthodox Gate of Dawn (Aušros Vartai Ostra Brama Вострая Брама was built between 1503 and 1522 as a part of defensive fortifications for the St. Paraskeva's Orthodox Church in the Old Town is the site of the baptism of Hannibal, the great-grandfather of Pushkin, by Tsar Peter the Great in 1705. Major-General Abram Petrovich Gannibal, also Hannibal or Ganibal or Ibrahim Hannibal or Abram Petrov, (1696 &ndash 14 May Major-General Abram Petrovich Gannibal, also Hannibal or Ganibal or Ibrahim Hannibal or Abram Petrov, (1696 &ndash 14 May Tsar csar and tzar redirect here For other uses see Tsar (disambiguation.
Many Old Believers, who split from the Russian Orthodox Church in 1667, settled in Lithuania. Introductory summary of origins In 1652 Nikon (1605 – 1681 Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church from 1652 to 1658 introduced a number of ritual and textual Today a Supreme Council of the Old Believers is based in Vilnius.
A number of Protestant and other Christian groups are represented in Vilnius, most notably the Lutheran Evangelicals and the Baptists. Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther Baptist is a term describing individuals belonging to a Baptist church or a Baptist denomination.
Once widely known as Yerushalayim De Lita (the "Jerusalem of Lithuania"), Vilnius once was comparable only to Jerusalem, Israel, as a world center for the study of the Torah, and for its large Jewish population. Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. term " Torah " ( Hebrew: תּוֹרָה "teaching" or "instruction" sometimes translated as "Law" most commonly refers to That is why one part of Vilnius was named Jeruzalė. At the end of the 19th century, the number of synagogues in Vilnius exceeded one hundred.  A major scholar of Judaism and Kabbalah centered in Vilnius was the famous Rabbi Eliyahu Kremer, also known as the Vilna Gaon. Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut Kabbalah (קַבָּלָה lit "receiving" is a discipline and school of thought discussing the mystical aspect of Judaism. Eliyahu ben Shlomo Zalman, known as the Vilna Gaon or Elijah of Vilna and simply by his Hebrew Acronym Gra (" G aon His students have significant influence among Orthodox Jews in Israel and around the globe. Jewish life in Vilnius was destroyed during the Holocaust; there is a memorial stone dedicated to victims of Nazi genocide located in the center of the former Jewish Ghetto — now Mėsinių Street. The Holocaust (from the Greek el ''ὁλόκαυστον'' (el-Latn holókauston holos, "completely" and kaustos, "burnt" also known as Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German The Vilna Ghetto or Vilnius Ghetto was one of the Jewish Ghettos established by Nazi Germany in the city of Vilnius during The
The Karaim are a Jewish sect who migrated to Lithuania from the Crimea to serve as a military elite unit in the thirteenth century. Although their numbers are very small, the Karaim are becoming more prominent since Lithuanian independence, and have restored their kenesa. Kenesa is the term for a Karaite or Persian Synagogue. The word derives from the Aramaic word for "assembly" (in Hebrew,
Islam came to Lithuania in the 14th century from Crimea and Kazan, through the Tatars. In Lithuania, unlike many other northern and western European countries Islam came long ago Crimea (kraɪˈmiːə or the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Крим Автономна Республіка Крим Avtonomna Respublika Krym; Крым Kazan (Каза́нь Казан tt Qazan) is the capital city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, and one of Russia's largest cities Tatars ( Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар sometimes spelled Tartars, are a Turkic -speaking ethnic group or multiple ethnic groups Tatars in Lithuania have maintained their religious practices: currently, about 3,000 Tatar Muslims live in Lithuania. The Lukiškės mosque of the Lithuanian Tatars was a prominent 19th century feature of suburban Vilnius, but was destroyed during the Soviet era.
The pre-Christian pagan religion of Lithuania, centered around the forces of nature as personified by deities such as Perkūnas (the Thunder God), is experiencing some increased interest. Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning "country dweller rustic" is a word used to refer to various religions and religious beliefs from across the world
Vilnius is the starting point of the Vilnius-Kaunas-Klaipėda motorway that runs across Lithuania and connects the three major cities. Kaunas ( ˈkoʊnəs is the second largest City in Lithuania and a former temporary capital. Klaipėda ( ˈklaɪpɛdə Memel is a City in Lithuania situated at the mouth of the Curonian Lagoon where it flows into the Baltic Sea Motorway is a term for both a type of Road and a classification or designation The Vilnius-Panevėžys motorway is a branch of the Via-Baltica. Panevėžys ( pʌnɛvɛˈʒıs is the fifth largest city in Lithuania. European route E67 is a Highway running from Prague in the Czech Republic to Helsinki in Finland by way of Poland Though the river Neris is navigable at this point, no regular water routes exist. Neris ( Ві́лія or Вя́льля Vialla) is a river arising in Belarus, flowing through Vilnius ( Lithuania) and becoming a tributary Vilnius International Airport serves most Lithuanian international flights to many major European destinations. Vilnius International Airport (Tarptautinis Vilniaus Oro Uostas is the largest civil airport in Lithuania. The Vilnius railway station is an important hub as well. "Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here For other uses see Railroad (disambiguation.
Vilnius has a well-developed public transportation system. There are over 60 bus and 19 trolleybus routes, the trolleybus network is one of the biggest in Europe. Over 250 buses and 260 trolleybuses transport about 500,000 passengers every workday. Students, elderly, and the disabled receive large discounts (up to 80%) on the tickets. A single ride ticket costs up to 1. 40 litas (0,41 EUR) while monthly tickets cost 40-60 litas (14,50-17,40 EUR). The litas ( ISO currency code LTL symbolized as Lt plural litai or litų) is the currency of Lithuania. The first regular bus routes were established in 1926, and the first trolleybus was introduced in 1956.
In the end of year 2007 a new electronic monthly ticket system was introduced. It is possible to buy an electronic card in shops and newspaper stands and fill it with an appropriate amount of money. The prices for the monthly e-ticket are the same as for the paper tickets. The monthly e-ticket cards are bought once and might be filled with an appropriate amount of money in various ways including the Internet. Currently the monthly e-ticket system co-exists with paper monthly tickets until August of 2008 when a new system for electronic one-time tickets will be introduced. 
The public transportation system is dominated by the brand new low-floor Volvo and Mercedes-Benz buses as well as Solaris trolleybuses. Volvo Buses is a Subsidiary and a business area of Volvo which became an independent division in 1968 Mercedes-Benz Buses has been making Buses since 1895 in Mannheim in Germany. Solaris Bus & Coach SA is a Bus, coach and Trolleybus manufacturer based in Bolechowo and Środa Wielkopolska near Poznań, Poland The new Solaris vehicles (built in Poland) are 15 m long three-axle vehicles. There are also plenty of the traditional Skoda vehicles built in Czech Republic still in service, and many of these have been extensively refurbished internally. All is a result of major improvements that started in 2003 when the first brand-new Mercedes-Benz buses were bought. In 2004, a contract was signed with Volvo Buses to buy 90 brand-new 7700 buses over the next 3 years. Volvo Buses is a Subsidiary and a business area of Volvo which became an independent division in 1968 Along with the official public transportation, there are also a number of private bus companies. They charge about the same as the municipal buses and sometimes follow the same routes. There are also a number of different routes, for example from various neighborhoods to the Gariūnai market. In addition there are about 400 share taxis that are usually faster but less comfortable and more expensive (3litas — 0. Types of vehicle Share taxis come in various Vehicle types including Minibuses Midibuses covered Pickup trucks Station wagons The litas ( ISO currency code LTL symbolized as Lt plural litai or litų) is the currency of Lithuania. 87 EUR) than regular buses.
There are also plans to build a rapid transit system, Vilnius Metro. A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway or metro(politan system is an electric passenger railway Vilnius Metro ( Lithuanian: Vilniaus metropolitenas) is a proposed Rapid transit system in the Lithuanian capital Vilnius.
Vilnius has 14 sister cities. In addition, agreements on cooperation have been signed with 16 other cities.
The city of Vilnius is made up of 21 elderates that are based on neighbourhoods:
A minor planet 3072 Vilnius discovered by Soviet astronomer Nikolai Stepanovich Chernykh in 1978 is named after the city. Minor planet is a term used since the 19th century to describe objects such as Asteroids that are in Orbit around the Sun but are not Planets is a Main belt Asteroid with an Orbital period of 12237406502 Days (3 The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Nikolay Stepanovich Chernykh (Николай Степанович Черных ( October 6 1931 – May 26, 2004) was a Soviet and