Vietnamese art is art created in Vietnam or by Vietnamese artists, from ancient times to the present. Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially
Vietnamese art has a long and rich history, the earliest examples of which date back as far as the Stone Age around 8,000 BCE. The Stone Age is a broad prehistoric time period during which Humans widely used stone for toolmaking
With the millennium of Chinese domination starting in the 2nd century BC, Vietnamese art undoubtedly absorbed many Chinese influences, which would continue even following independence from China in the 10th century AD. The history of Vietnam begins around 2700 years ago Successive dynasties based in China ruled Vietnam directly for most of the period from 111 BC until 938 The 2nd century BC started the first day of 200 BC and ended the last day of 101 BC. However, Vietnamese art has always retained many distinctively Vietnamese characteristics.
By the 19th century, the influence of French art took hold in Vietnam, having a large hand in the birth of modern Vietnamese art. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar For practical purposes the history of French art has been divided into a series of separate articles accessible through the template to the right
Pottery dating to the Stone Age (approximately 8,000 BCE) has been found in Bac Son, Vietnam. The Stone Age is a broad prehistoric time period during which Humans widely used stone for toolmaking This pottery was made from clay, and in its beginnings was largely basic and lacking any artistic flare. Moving into the neolithic era, however, Vietnamese pottery and ceramics started to develop rapidly, showing signs of decor. Vietnamese pottery refers to Pottery designed or produced in Vietnam.
The highly developed Dong Son culture that flourished in North Vietnam (from about 1,000 BC to the 4th century BC) was the civilization responsible for the world-famous Dong Son drums, a product of their advanced bronze-casting skills. The Đông Sơn culture was a prehistoric Iron Age culture that was centered at the Red River Valley of northern Vietnam. The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN or less commonly Vietnamese Democratic Republic (Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa was a Country on the northern half of Vietnam The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. Dong Son drums (also called Heger Type I drums) are Bronze Drums fabricated by the Dong Son culture, in the Red River Delta of northern
These drums give us an important peak into early Vietnamese life. They were elaborately decorated with geometric patterns, and most importantly depicted scenes of everyday life such as farming, warriors donning feather headdresses, construction of ships, musicians, etc. A pattern, from the French patron, is a theme of recurring events or objects sometimes referred to as elements of a set
Archaeological evidence from this period also shows that people in the area had long been weaving cloth. Many of the people depicted on the drums are shown as wearing elaborate clothing.
During the ten centuries of rule by the Chinese, Vietnamese began to apply newly learned Chinese techniques to art and specifically ceramics, however this was in conjunction with the continued production of art based on native methods; this is proven by excavation of Chinese tombs in the area. 
Vietnamese art and ceramics during this period of independence (approximately 10th to 15th centuries) flourished. The ceramics from this period were thought to have been largely influenced by both ancient native styles and the Tang and later Song dynasty's art, including applying the "three colors" concept to its ceramics. The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by The Song Dynasty ( Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao was a ruling dynasty in China between 960&ndash1279 CE it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Chinese-influenced philosophies adopted by the Vietnamese such as Confucianism, Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism all had a lasting impression on Vietnamese art. Confucianism ( is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the fifth century B Mahayana ( Sanskrit: mahāyāna, Devanagari: महायान 'Great Vehicle' is one of the two main existing schools of Buddhism and a term for Taoism (pronounced /ˈdaʊɪzəm/ or /ˈtaʊɪzəm/ also spelled '''Daoism''') refers to a variety of related Philosophical and Religious traditions Some also claim there are small traces of Cham influences to be found as well. Champa was an Indic civilization that flourished along the coasts of what is now central and southern Vietnam for roughly a one thousand year period between 500 A
The Ly dynasty, beginning in the 11th century is viewed specifically as the golden age of Vietnamese art, and its ceramics became famous across East and Southeast Asia. The Lý Dynasty ( Vietnamese: nhà Lý, IPA: /ɲa˨˩ li˦˥/ pronounced like Lee) sometimes known as the Posterior Lý Dynasty ( The Ly dynasty also saw the construction of many of Vietnam's landmark structures, including the Temple of Literature, One-pillar pagoda, and Quynh Lam pagoda. Văn Miếu ( 文[[wikt 廟|廟]] or Temple of Literature, known as "pagode des Corbeaux" during the period of French colonisation is a Temple of Confucius The Tran Dynasty that immediately followed in the 13th century saw a more subdued approach to art. The Trần Dynasty ( Vietnamese: Nhà Trần, Hán Việt: Trần Triều, 陳朝 was a Vietnamese dynasty that ruled Vietnam (at that 
The fourth Chinese domination of Vietnam was quite short-lived, lasting only about 2 decades, yet it was also seen as the harshest domination. The fourth Chinese domination was a period of the History of Vietnam, from 1407 to 1427, upon which the country was ruled by the Ming Dynasty Many if not most classical Vietnamese books were burnt, and thus much documentation of the era of independence lost. It is said that a more extreme than-ever process of sinicization was enforced, and countless Vietnamese resources and goods were taken back to China. Sinicization, Sinicisation or Sinification, (in Mandarin: 中国化 Zhōngguóhuà) is the linguistic assimilation or
Consequently, much of the art in this period and even after liberation by the Le Dynasty was heavily influenced by the Ming dynasty's art. The Later Lê Dynasty ( Vietnamese: Nhà Hậu Lê; Hán Việt: 後黎朝 sometimes referred to as the Lê Dynasty (the earlier Lê Dynasty The Ming Dynasty ( or Empire of the Great Ming ( was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol -led
The Nguyen dynasty, the last ruling dynasty of Vietnam, saw a renewed interest in ceramics and porcelain art. The Nguyễn Dynasty (Nhà Nguyễn Hán Việt: Nguyễn triều 阮朝 was the last ruling family of Vietnam. Imperial courts across Asia imported Vietnamese ceramics.
Despite how highly developed the performing arts (such as imperial court music and dance) became during the Nguyen dynasty, some view other fields of arts as beginning to decline during the latter part of the Nguyen dynasty.
Beginning in the 19th century, French artistic influences spread into Vietnam. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar For practical purposes the history of French art has been divided into a series of separate articles accessible through the template to the right By the early 20th century, many French art institutions such as the Fine Arts College of Indochine (FACI) were erected in Vietnam which taught European methods, and French-influenced modern art most thrived in the big cities such as Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. Hanoi ( Vietnamese: Hà Nội Hán Tự: 河[[wikt 内|内]], estimated population 3398889 (2007, is the Capital of Vietnam 
Modern Vietnamese artists began to utilize French techniques with many traditional mediums such as silk, lacquer, etc. , thus creating a unique blend of eastern and western elements.
It is believed that in prehistoric times, Vietnamese people lived in stilt-houses, as depicted on the bronze Dong Son drums. The cinema of Vietnam has a history that goes back to the 1920s and has largedly been shaped by wars that have been fought in the country from the 1940s to the 1970s The Nguyễn Dynasty (Nhà Nguyễn Hán Việt: Nguyễn triều 阮朝 was the last ruling family of Vietnam. Similar kinds of houses can still be found in Vietnam today.
When Chinese influence permeated Vietnam, Chinese architecture had a large influence on the basic structure of many types of Vietnamese buildings, mostly pagodas and temples, communal houses, houses of scholar-bureaucrats, aristocracy, and imperial palaces and quarters. Chinese architecture refers to a style of Architecture that has taken shape in Asia over the centuries A Mandarin was a Bureaucrat in Imperial China, and also in the monarchist days of Vietnam where the system of Imperial examinations and Nevertheless, these structures combined both Chinese influences and native style; Vietnamese architecture is generally much more sombre and muted than Chinese architecture, using different colors and materials.
With French colonization of Vietnam in the 19th century, many French-styled buildings were constructed, including villas, government buildings, opera houses, etc. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar Many of these buildings still stand in Vietnam and are one of the clearest remnants of the French colonial legacy. First French interventions See also France-Vietnam relations France-Vietnam relations started as early as the 17th century with the mission of the Jesuit
Some of Vietnam's most notable architectural structures include:
The citadel formerly sprawled a vast estate, but during subsequent wars and conflicts, much of it has been destroyed and later turned into rice paddies. A paddy field is a flooded parcel of Arable land used for growing Rice and other semiaquatic crops. The remaining areas are currently being restored by UNESCO. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16
The beauty of the Perfume Pagoda and surrounding area have served as the subject in many Vietnamese poems.
Calligraphy has had a long history in Vietnam, previously using Chinese characters along with Chu Nom. The art of Calligraphy is widely practiced and revered in the East Asian Civilizations that use or used Chinese characters. A Chinese character, also known as a Han character ( is a Logogram used in writing Chinese (hanzi Japanese ( Chữ Nôm ( IPA: /cɨ3ˀ5 nom33/ chữ Nôm in Unicode: 字[[wikt 喃|喃]]/ 𡨸 喃/ 𡦂 喃 chữ Nôm in Unicode However, most modern Vietnamese calligraphy instead uses the Roman-character based Quoc Ngu, which has proven to be very popular. The Vietnamese alphabet has the following 29 letters in collating order Description The Vietnamese alphabet called Chữ Quốc Ngữ
In the past, with literacy in the old character-based writing systems of Vietnam being restricted to scholars and elites, calligraphy nevertheless still played an important part in Vietnamese life. On special occasions such as the Lunar New Year, people would go to the village teacher or scholar to make them a calligraphy hanging (often poetry, folk sayings or even single words). This article is about the Vietnamese holiday For the 1968 military operation that began on that holiday see Tết Offensive. People who could not read or write also often commissioned scholars to write prayers which they would burn at temple shrines. A temple (from the Latin word Templum) is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual activities such as prayer and sacrifice or analogous rites
Vietnamese silk painting is one of the most popular forms of art in Vietnam, favored for the mystical atmosphere that can be achieved with the medium. During the 19th and 20th centuries, French influence was absorbed into Vietnamese art and the liberal and modern use of color especially began to differentiate Vietnamese silk paintings from their Chinese or Japanese counterparts. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar The twentieth century of the Common Era began on 
Vietnamese silk paintings typically showcase the countryside, landscapes, pagodas, historical events or scenes of daily life.
A folk art with a long history in Vietnam, Vietnamese woodblock prints have reached a level of popularity outside of Vietnam. Dong Ho Painting or Vietnamese woodblock prints ( Tranh Đông Hồ) refers to a Vietnamese folk art originating in Dong Ho Village Song Ho Commune Thuan Thanh Organic materials are used to make the paint, which is applied to wood and pressed on paper. The process is repeated with different colors.
Traditional Vietnamese music is extremely diverse, consisting of many different styles varying from region to region. Traditional Vietnamese music is highly diverse and syncretistic, combining native and foreign influences Some of the most widely known genres include:
Vietnam has 54 different ethnics, each with their own traditional dance. Traditional Vietnamese dance includes several different forms Among the ethnic Vietnamese majority, there are several traditional dances performed widely at festivals and other special occasions, such as the lion dance. Lion dance ( is a form of traditional Dance in Chinese culture, in which performers mimic a lion's movements in a lion costume
In the imperial court there also developed throughout the centuries a series of complex court dances which require great skill. Some of the more widely known are the imperial lantern dance, fan dance, and platter dance, among others.
Water puppetry is a distinct Vietnamese art which had its origins in the 12th century. Múa rối nước is Vietnamese water puppetry Múa rối nước literally means "puppets that dance on water In water puppetry, a split-bamboo screen obscures puppets which stand in water and are manipulated using long poles hidden beneath the water. Epic storylines are played out with many different characters, often depicting traditional scenes of Vietnamese life. Despite nearly dying out in the 20th century, it has been saved by efforts of preservation and is now largely seen by tourists to Vietnam. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on
Vietnamese literature is literature, both oral and written, created largely by Vietnamese-speaking people, although Francophone Vietnamese and English-speaking Vietnamese authors in Australia and the United States are counted by many critics as part of the national tradition. Vietnamese literature is Literature, both oral and written created largely by Vietnamese-speaking people although Francophone Vietnamese and English-speaking Vietnamese Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter Vietnamese ( tiếng Việt, or less commonly Việt ngữ) formerly known under French colonization as Annamese ( see Annam) For much of its history, Vietnam was dominated by China and as a result much of the written work during this period was in Classical Chinese. Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Classical Chinese or Literary Chinese is a traditional style of Written Chinese based on the Grammar and Vocabulary of ancient Chinese Chữ nôm, created around the 10th century, allowed writers to compose in Vietnamese using modified Chinese characters. Chữ Nôm ( IPA: /cɨ3ˀ5 nom33/ chữ Nôm in Unicode: 字[[wikt 喃|喃]]/ 𡨸 喃/ 𡦂 喃 chữ Nôm in Unicode Although regarded as inferior to Chinese, it gradually grew in prestige. It flourished in the 18th century when many notable Vietnamese writers and poets composed their works in chữ nôm and when it briefly became the official written script. While the quốc ngữ script was created in the 17th century, it did not become popular outside of missionary groups until the early 20th century, when the French colonial administration mandated its use in French Indochina. The Vietnamese alphabet has the following 29 letters in collating order Description The Vietnamese alphabet called Chữ Quốc Ngữ This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. First French interventions See also France-Vietnam relations France-Vietnam relations started as early as the 17th century with the mission of the Jesuit By the mid-20th century, virtually all Vietnamese works of literature were composed in quốc ngữ.
Some defining works of literature include The Tale of Kieu by Nguyen Du, and Luc Van Tien by Nguyen Dinh Chieu. The Tale of Kiều is an epic Poem in Vietnamese written by the 18th century writer Nguyễn Du (1766–1820 widely regarded Nguyễn Du (1765&ndash1820 Pennames Tố Như and Thanh Hiên) is a celebrated Vietnamese poet who wrote in ''Chữ Nôm'', the Lục Vân Tiên is a 19th-century Vietnamese epic poem Written by Nguyễn Đình Chiểu (1822 - 1888 it is perhaps one of the two most recognizable Nguyễn Đình Chiểu (1822&ndash1888 was a Vietnamese poet who was known for his nationalist and anti-colonial writings against the French Colonization
Legendary female poetess Ho Xuan Huong (born during the end of the 18th century) composed much of her poetry in Chu nom, and most of it has been translated into Quoc ngu for modern Vietnamese. Hồ Xuân Hương (1772-1822 ( Hán Tự: 胡[[wikt 春|春]] 香) was a Vietnamese poet born at the end of the Lê Dynasty who grew The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system Chữ Nôm ( IPA: /cɨ3ˀ5 nom33/ chữ Nôm in Unicode: 字[[wikt 喃|喃]]/ 𡨸 喃/ 𡦂 喃 chữ Nôm in Unicode The Vietnamese alphabet has the following 29 letters in collating order Description The Vietnamese alphabet called Chữ Quốc Ngữ Her poetry continues to be widely popular. Other poets such as the famous Mandarin official Duong Khue had some of his poetry adapted into songs that are still famous today, such as the Ca trù-genre song "Hồng hồng, tuyết tuyết". A Mandarin was a Bureaucrat in Imperial China, and also in the monarchist days of Vietnam where the system of Imperial examinations and Ca trù (also known as hát ả đào or hát nói) is an ancient genre of chamber music featuring
Many Vietnamese poems, along with folk "literature" in general, tends to be much more of an oral tradition - as literacy (as it is defined today) in the past was restricted mostly to scholars and the elite.