The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, the Vietnam Conflict, and, in Vietnam, the American War, occurred from March 1959 to April 30, 1975. The Vietnam War began in 1959 and did not end until 1975 By then it had escalated from an insurgency in South Vietnam sponsored by the North Vietnamese government The Indochina Wars ( Vietnamese: Chiến tranh Đông Dương) refers to Wars of national liberation and attempts of the Vietnamese communists to assert regional Events 313 - Roman emperor Licinius unifies the entire Eastern Roman Empire under his rule Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The war was fought between the communist Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) and its communist allies and the US-supported Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam). The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN or less commonly Vietnamese Democratic Republic (Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa was a Country on the northern half of Vietnam The United States of America —commonly referred to as the "RVN" redirects here RVN is also the former callsign of a TV station in Wagga Wagga New South Wales Australia It concluded with the withdrawal of the United States from active combat, the dissolution of South Vietnam, and the failure of United States foreign policy in Vietnam. 
On April 30, 1975, the capital of South Vietnam, Saigon, fell to the communist forces of North Vietnam, effectively ending the war. Events 313 - Roman emperor Licinius unifies the entire Eastern Roman Empire under his rule Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Fall of Saigon (in Vietnamese: Sự kiện 30 tháng 4 - April 30 Incident; Giải phóng miền Nam - The liberation of the south Over 1. 4 million military personnel were killed in the war (of which 6 percent were members of the United States armed forces), while estimates of civilian fatalities range up to 2 million.
Various names have been applied to the conflict, and these have shifted over time, although Vietnam War is the most commonly used title in English. Various names have been applied what is known as the Vietnam War. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States It has been variously called the Second Indochina War, the Vietnam Conflict, the Vietnam War, and, in Vietnamese, Chiến tranh Việt Nam (The Vietnam War), Kháng chiến chống Mỹ (Resistance War against America) or The American War. Vietnamese ( tiếng Việt, or less commonly Việt ngữ) formerly known under French colonization as Annamese ( see Annam)
The main military organizations involved in the war were, on the side of the South, the U. S. military and the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN), and, on the side of the North, the Vietnam People's Army (VPA), also known as the North Vietnamese Army (NVA) or the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN), and the communist guerrilla forces in the South named the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (NLF), also known as the Viet Cong. The Army of the Republic of Vietnam ( ARVN) was a military component of the armed forces of the Republic of Vietnam (commonly known as South Vietnam The Vietnam People's Army ( VPA) (Quân Đội Nhân Dân Việt Nam is the official name of the Armed forces of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based
In 1950, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and the People's Republic of China (PRC) recognized each other diplomatically. The history of Vietnam begins around 2700 years ago Successive dynasties based in China ruled Vietnam directly for most of the period from 111 BC until 938 The First Indochina War (also known as the French Indochina War, the The Anti-French War, the Franco-Vietnamese War, the Franco-Vietminh War, The International Control Commission (ICC formally called the International Commission for Supervision and Control in Vietnam (ICSC was the international force established in 1954 The role of the United States in the Vietnam War began soon after the Second World War and escalated into full commitment during the Vietnam War (1956-1975 The role of the United States in the Vietnam War began soon after the Second World War and escalated into full commitment during the Vietnam War (1956-1975 The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN or less commonly Vietnamese Democratic Republic (Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa was a Country on the northern half of Vietnam Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES The Soviet Union quickly followed suit. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 U. S. President Harry S. Truman countered by recognizing the French puppet government of Vietnam. A puppet state is a State that is nominally independent but in reality under the control of another power Washington, seemingly ignorant of the long historical antipathy between Vietnam and China, feared that Hanoi was a pawn of the PRC and, by extension, Moscow.  As historian and former Hanoi foreign minister Luu Doan Huynh has commented, “Vietnam a part of the Chinese expansionist game in Asia? For anyone who knows the history of Indochina, this is incomprehensible. ” Nevertheless, Chinese support was very important to the Viet Minh's success, and China largely supported the Vietnamese Communists through the end of the war. The Việt Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam Ðộc Lập Ðồng Minh Hội, English "League for the Independence of Vietnam" was a National liberation
The outbreak of the Korean War in 1950 marked a decisive turning point. The Korean War refers to a period of military conflict between North Korean and South Korean regimes with major hostilities lasting from June 25 1950 until the From the perspective of many in Washington, what had been a colonial war in Indochina was transformed into another example of communist expansionism directed by the Kremlin. The federal government of the United States is the central United States Governmental body established by the United States Constitution. View01jpg|thumb|right|250px|Remains of the Kolomna Kremlin]] Kremlin (Кремль Kreml) is the Russian word for "fortress" "citadel" or "castle" 
In 1950, the U. S. Military Assistance and Advisory Group (MAAG) arrived to screen French requests for aid, advise on strategy, and train Vietnamese soldiers. Military Assistance Advisory Group ( MAAG) is a designation for American Military advisors sent to assist in the training of Conventional armed  By 1954, the U. S. had supplied 300,000 small arms and spent one billion dollars in support of the French military effort. The Eisenhower administration was shouldering 80 percent of the cost of the war.  The Viet Minh received crucial support from the Soviet Union and the PRC. Chinese support in the Border Campaign of 1950 allowed supplies to come from China into Vietnam. Throughout the conflict, U. S. intelligence estimates remained skeptical of French chances of success. 
The Battle of Dien Bien Phu marked the end of French involvement in Indochina. The Battle of Dien Bien Phu (Bataille de Diên Biên Phu Chiến dịch Điện Biên Phủ was the climactic battle of the First Indochina War between French Union The Viet Minh and their mercurial commander Vo Nguyen Giap handed the French a stunning military defeat. On May 7, 1954, the French Union garrison surrendered. Events 558 - In Constantinople, the dome of the Hagia Sophia collapses Year 1954 ( MCMLIV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar) The French Union (Union française was a political entity created by the French Fourth Republic to replace the old French colonial system the " French Empire At the Geneva Conference the French negotiated a ceasefire agreement with the Viet Minh. The Geneva Conference ( May 8 – July 21, 1954) was a conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore Peace in Independence was granted to Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. The Kingdom of Cambodia ( formerly known as Kampuchea (, transliterated: Preăh Réachéanachâkr Kâmpŭchea) is a country in South East Laos (ˈlɑːoʊs or /ˈlaʊs/ officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic, is a Landlocked country in Southeast Asia, bordered by Burma Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially As a U. S. Army study noted, France lost the war primarily because it “neglected to cultivate the loyalty and support of the Vietnamese people. ” More than 400,000 civilians and soldiers had died during the nine year conflict.
Vietnam was temporarily partitioned at the 17th parallel, and under the terms of the Geneva Convention, civilians were to be given the opportunity to freely move between the two provisional states. Elections throughout the country were to be held, according to the Geneva accords, but never took place. Nearly one million northerners (mainly Catholics) fled south in “understandable terror” of Ho Chi Minh's new regime.  It is estimated that as many as two million more would have left had they not been stopped by the Viet Minh.  In the north, the Viet Minh established a socialist state—the Democratic Republic of Vietnam—and engaged in a land reform program in which the mass killing of perceived “class enemies” occurred. The term socialist state (or socialist republic, or workers' state) can carry one of several different (but related meanings In strictly speaking any The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN or less commonly Vietnamese Democratic Republic (Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa was a Country on the northern half of Vietnam Ho Chi Minh later apologized. In the south a non-communist state was established under the Emperor Bao Dai, a former puppet of the French and the Japanese. Ngo Dinh Diem became his Prime Minister. In addition to the Catholics flowing south, up to 90,000 Viet Minh fighters went north for “regroupment” as envisioned by the Geneva Accords. However, in contravention of the Accords, the Viet Minh left roughly 5,000 to 10,000 cadres in South Vietnam as a “politico-military substructure within the object of its irredentism. En cadre is a military expression for a group around whom a unit is formed or a training staff Irredentism is any position advocating Annexation of territories administered by another State on the grounds of common Ethnicity or prior historical possession ”
As dictated by the Geneva Conference of 1954, the partition of Vietnam was meant to be only temporary, pending national elections on July 20, 1956. The Geneva Conference ( May 8 – July 21, 1954) was a conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore Peace in Events 1304 - Wars of Scottish Independence: Fall of Stirling Castle - King Edward I of England takes the last rebel stronghold Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Much as in Korea, the agreement stipulated that the two military zones were to be separated by a temporary demarcation line (known as the Demilitarized Zone or DMZ). Korea is a geographic area composed of two sovereign countries a civilization and a former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. The Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone was established as a dividing line between North and South Vietnam as a result of the First Indochina War. The United States, alone among the great powers, refused to sign the Geneva agreement.  The president of South Vietnam, Ngo Dinh Diem, declined to hold elections. This called into question the United States' commitment to democracy in the region, but also raised questions about the legitimacy of any election held in the communist-run North. President Dwight D. Eisenhower expressed U. S. fears when he wrote that, in 1954, “80 per cent of the population would have voted for the Communist Ho Chi Minh” over Emperor Bao Dai.  However, this wide popularity was expressed before Ho's disastrous land reform program and a peasant revolt in Ho's home province which was bloodily suppressed.
The cornerstone of U. S. policy was the Domino Theory. The domino theory was a Foreign policy theory promoted by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence This argued that if South Vietnam fell to communist forces, then all of South East Asia would follow. Popularized by the Eisenhower Administration, some argued that if communism spread unchecked, it would follow them home by first reaching Hawaii and follow to the West Coast of the United States. The State of Hawaii ( or həˈwaɪʔiː Hawaiian: Mokuāina o Hawaii) is a state in the United States located on an Archipelago in the The " West Coast " " Western Seaboard " or " Pacific Seaboard " are terms for the westernmost coastal states of the Western United States It was better, therefore, to fight communism in Asia, rather than on American soil. 
Ngo Dinh Diem was chosen by the U. The State of Vietnam referendum of 1955 determined the future Form of government of the State of Vietnam, the nation that was to become the Republic of Vietnam S. to lead South Vietnam. A devout Roman Catholic, he was fervently anti-communist and was “untainted” by any connection to the French. He was one of the few prominent Vietnamese nationalists who could claim both attributes. Historian Luu Doan Huynh notes, however, that “Diem represented narrow and extremist nationalism coupled with autocracy and nepotism. Nepotism is the showing of favoritism toward relatives and friends based upon that relationship rather than on an objective evaluation of ability Meritocracy or suitability ”
The new American patrons were almost completely ignorant of Vietnamese culture. They knew little of the language or long history of the country.  There was a tendency to assign American motives to Vietnamese actions, and Diem warned that it was an illusion to believe that blindly copying Western methods would solve Vietnamese problems. 
In April and June 1955, Diem (against U. S. advice) cleared the decks of any political opposition by launching military operations against the Cao Dai religious sect, the Buddhist Hoa Hao, and the Binh Xuyen organized crime group (which was allied with members of the secret police and some military elements). Cao Đài ( Vietnamese:) is a relatively new syncretist, Monotheistic Religion, officially established in Tây Ninh, Hòa Hảo is a religious tradition based on Buddhism, founded in 1939 by Huynh Phu So, a native of the Mekong River Delta region of southern Vietnam Binh Xuyen was a powerful Vietnamese Criminal organization active from 1945 to 1975 Diem accused these groups of harboring Communist agents. As broad-based opposition to his harsh tactics mounted, Diem increasingly sought to blame the communists. 
Beginning in the summer of 1955, he launched the “Denounce the Communists” campaign, during which communists and other anti-government elements were arrested, imprisoned, tortured, or executed. Opponents were labeled Viet Cong by the regime to degrade their nationalist credentials. During this period refugees moved across the demarcation line in both directions. Around 52,000 Vietnamese civilians moved from south to north. However a staggering 450,000 people fled north Vietnam to the south, in aircraft and ships provided by France and the U. S.  CIA propaganda efforts increased the outflow with slogans such as “the Virgin Mary is going South. ” The northern refugees were meant to give Diem a strong anti-communist constituency. 
In a referendum on the future of the monarchy, Diem rigged the poll supervised by his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu and received “98. Electoral fraud is illegal interference with the process of an Election. For his wife see Madame Ngo Dinh Nhu., (October 7 1910 - November 2, 1963) was the younger brother 2 percent” of the vote. His American advisers had recommended a more modest winning margin of “60 to 70 percent. ” Diem, however, viewed the election as a test of authority.  On October 26, 1955, Diem declared the new Republic of Vietnam, with himself as president. Events 740 - An Earthquake strikes Constantinople, causing much damage and death Year 1955 ( MCMLV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar)  The Republic of Vietnam was created largely because of the Eisenhower administration's desire for an anti-communist state in the region.  Colonel Edward Lansdale, a CIA officer, became an important advisor to the new president. Edward Geary Lansdale ( February 6, 1908 &ndash February 23, 1987) was a U
As a wealthy Catholic, Diem was viewed by many ordinary Vietnamese as part of the old elite who had helped the French rule Vietnam. The majority of Vietnamese people were Buddhist, so his attack on the Buddhist community served only to deepen mistrust. Diem's human rights abuses increasingly alienated the population. Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled
In May, Diem undertook a ten-day state visit to the United States. President Eisenhower pledged his continued support. A parade in New York City was held in his honor. The City of New York Although Diem was openly praised, in private Secretary of State John Foster Dulles conceded that he had been selected because there were no better alternatives. The United States Secretary of State (commonly abbreviated as SecState) is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with Foreign affairs John Foster Dulles ( February 25, 1888 &ndash May 24, 1959) served as U 
In 1956 one of the leading communists in the south, Le Duan, returned to Hanoi to urge the Vietnam Workers' Party to take a firmer stand on the reunification of Vietnam under Communist leadership. For the city named after him see Ho Chi Minh City. Hồ Chí Minh (name Lê Duẩn (b April 7, 1907 - d July 10, 1986) was a Vietnamese communist leader The Communist Party of Vietnam ( Đảng Cộng sản Việt Nam) is the currently ruling as well as the only legal But Hanoi (then in a severe economic crisis) hesitated to launch a full-scale military struggle. The northern Communists feared U. S. intervention and believed that conditions in South Vietnam were not yet ripe for a "people's revolution. " However, in December 1956, Ho Chi Minh authorized the Viet Minh cadres still in South Vietnam to begin a low level insurgency. An insurgency is a violent internal uprising against a sovereign government that lacks the organization of a revolution  In North Vietnamese political theory, the action was a subset of "political struggle" called "armed propaganda," and consisted mostly of kidnappings and terrorist attacks. In Criminal law, kidnapping is the taking away or Asportation of a person against the person's will usually to hold the person in False imprisonment Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion
Four hundred government officials were assassinated in 1957 alone, and the violence gradually increased. While the terror was originally aimed at local government officials, it soon broadened to include other symbols of the status quo, such as schoolteachers, health workers, and agricultural officials.  One estimate says that by 1958, 20 percent of South Vietnam's village chiefs had been murdered by the insurgents.  The insurgency sought to completely destroy government control in South Vietnam's rural villages and replace it with a shadow government. A shadow government is a "government-in-waiting" that remains in waiting with the intention of taking control of a Government in response to some event  Finally, in January 1959, under pressure from southern cadres who were being targeted by Diem's secret police, the North's Central Committee issued a secret resolution authorizing an "armed struggle. " This authorized the southern Viet Minh to begin large-scale operations against the South Vietnamese military. In response, Diem enacted tough new anti-communist laws. However, North Vietnam supplied troops and supplies in earnest, and the infiltration of men and weapons from the north began along the Ho Chi Minh Trail. The Ho Chi Minh trail was a logistical system that ran from the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam to the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam through
Observing the increasing unpopularity of the Diem regime, on December 12, 1960, Hanoi authorized the creation of the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (NLF). Events 627 - Battle of Nineveh: A Byzantine army under Emperor Heraclius defeats Emperor Khosrau II 's Persian Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Hanoi ( Vietnamese: Hà Nội Hán Tự: 河[[wikt 内|内]], estimated population 3398889 (2007, is the Capital of Vietnam The NLF was made up of two distinct groups: nationalists and communists. While there were many non-communist members of the NLF, they were subject to party control and were increasingly sidelined as the conflict continued. The principal objective of the NLF was to seize political power through a popular insurrection—military operations were secondary. An insurgency is a violent internal uprising against a sovereign government that lacks the organization of a revolution  The NLF emphasized patriotism, honesty, and good government, while promising the reunification of Vietnam and an end to American influence. Victory Day ( Ngày Chiến thắng) Reunification Day ( Ngày Thống nhất) or Liberation Day ( Ngày Giải phóng) is a public
Successive American administrations, as Robert McNamara and others have noted, overestimated the control that Hanoi had over the NLF.  Diem's paranoia, repression, and incompetence progressively angered large segments of the population of South Vietnam.  Thus, many maintain that the origins of the anti-government violence were homegrown, rather than inspired by Hanoi.  However, as historian Douglas Pike has pointed out, “today, no serious historian would defend the thesis that North Vietnam was not involved in the Vietnam war from the start…. To maintain this thesis today, one would be obliged to deal with the assertions of Northern involvement that have poured out of Hanoi since the end of the war. "
When John F. Kennedy won the 1960 U.S. presidential election, one major issue Kennedy raised was whether the Soviet space and missile programs had surpassed those of the U. The Strategic Hamlet Program was a plan by the governments of South Vietnam and the United States during the Vietnam War to combat the Communist insurgency John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of The United States presidential election of 1960 marked the end of Dwight D S. As Kennedy took over, despite warnings from Eisenhower about Laos and Vietnam, Europe and Latin America "loomed larger than Asia on his sights. " In his inaugural address, Kennedy made the ambitious pledge to "pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and success of liberty. "
In June 1961, John F. Kennedy bitterly disagreed with Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev when they met in Vienna over key U. S. -Soviet issues. Cold war strategists concluded Southeast Asia would be one of the testing grounds where Soviet forces would test the USA's containment policy—begun during the Truman Administration and solidified by the stalemate resulting from the Korean War. Containment refers to a Foreign policy of the United States in the early years of the Cold War.
Although Kennedy stressed long-range missile parity with the Soviets, he was also interested in using special forces for counterinsurgency warfare in Third World countries threatened by communist insurgencies. Although they were originally intended for use behind front lines after a conventional invasion of Europe, Kennedy believed that the guerrilla tactics employed by special forces such as the Green Berets would be effective in a "brush fire" war in Vietnam. He saw British success in using such forces in Malaya as a strategic template. British Malaya loosely described a set of states on the Malay Peninsula that were colonized by the British from the 18th and the 19th until the 20th century
The Kennedy administration remained essentially committed to the Cold War foreign policy inherited from the Truman and Eisenhower administrations. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the In 1961, Kennedy faced a three-part crisis—the failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion, the construction of the Berlin Wall, and a negotiated settlement between the pro-Western government of Laos and the Pathet Lao communist movement These made Kennedy believe that another failure on the part of the United States to gain control and stop communist expansion would fatally damage U. The Bay of Pigs Invasion (aka Playa Girón) was an unsuccessful attempt by a U The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer was a physical barrier separating West Berlin from the German Democratic Republic (GDR ( East Germany) including The Pathet Lao ( Lao ປະເທດລາວ, "Land of Laos" was a communist, Nationalist Political movement and S. credibility with its allies and his own reputation. Kennedy determined to "draw a line in the sand" and prevent a communist victory in Vietnam, saying, "Now we have a problem making our power credible and Vietnam looks like the place," to James Reston of the New York Times immediately after meeting Khrushchev in Vienna.  Kennedy increased the number of U. S. military in Vietnam from 800 to 16,300.
In May 1961, Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson visited Saigon and enthusiastically declared Diem the "Winston Churchill of Asia. Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC, PC (Can ( 30 November 1874 " Asked why he had made the comment, Johnson replied, "Diem's the only boy we got out there. " Johnson assured Diem of more aid in molding a fighting force that could resist the communists.
Kennedy's policy toward South Vietnam rested on the assumption that Diem and his forces must ultimately defeat the guerrillas on their own. He was against the deployment of American combat troops and observed that "to introduce U. S. forces in large numbers there today, while it might have an initially favorable military impact, would almost certainly lead to adverse political and, in the long run, adverse military consequences. "
The quality of the South Vietnamese military, however, remained poor. Bad leadership, corruption, and political interference all played a part in emasculating the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN). The Army of the Republic of Vietnam ( ARVN) was a military component of the armed forces of the Republic of Vietnam (commonly known as South Vietnam The frequency of guerrilla attacks rose as the insurgency gathered steam. Hanoi's support for the NLF played a significant role. But South Vietnamese governmental incompetence was at the core of the crisis.  Kennedy advisers Maxwell Taylor and Walt Rostow recommended that U. General Maxwell Davenport Taylor ( August 26, 1901 &ndash April 19, 1987) was an American Soldier and Diplomat Walt Whitman Rostow (also known as Walt Rostow or WW Rostow) ( October 7 1916 – February 13 2003) was an American S. troops be sent to South Vietnam disguised as flood relief workers. Kennedy rejected the idea but increased military assistance yet again. In April 1962, John Kenneth Galbraith warned Kennedy of the "danger we shall replace the French as a colonial force in the area and bleed as the French did. " By mid-1962, the number of U. S. military advisers in South Vietnam had risen from 700 to 12,000.
The Strategic Hamlet Program had been initiated in 1961. The Strategic Hamlet Program was a plan by the governments of South Vietnam and the United States during the Vietnam War to combat the Communist insurgency This joint U. S. -South Vietnamese program attempted to resettle the rural population into fortified camps. The aim was to isolate the population from the insurgents, provide education and health care, and strengthen the government's hold over the countryside. The Strategic Hamlets, however, were quickly infiltrated by the guerrillas. The peasants resented being uprooted from their ancestral villages. The government refused to undertake land reform, which left farmers paying high rents to a few wealthy landlords. Corruption dogged the program and intensified opposition. Government officials were targeted for assassination. The Strategic Hamlet Program collapsed two years later.
On July 23, 1962, fourteen nations, including the People's Republic of China, South Vietnam, the Soviet Union, North Vietnam and the United States, signed an agreement promising the neutrality of Laos. Events 1632 - Three hundred colonists bound for New France depart from Dieppe France. Year 1962 ( MCMLXII) was a Common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 
Some policy-makers in Washington began to conclude that Diem was incapable of defeating the communists and might even make a deal with Ho Chi Minh. The role of the United States in the Vietnam War began soon after the Second World War and escalated into full commitment during the Vietnam War (1956-1975 The role of the United States in the Vietnam War began soon after the Second World War and escalated into full commitment during the Vietnam War (1956-1975 The Hue Vesak shootings refer to the deaths of eight unarmed Buddhist civilians on May 8 1963 in the city of Huế in South Vietnam, at the hands of the The Xá Lợi Pagoda raids were a series of synchronised attacks on the Buddhist Pagodas in South Vietnam shortly after midnight on August DEPTEL 243, also known as Department Telegram or Telegram 243 or the August 24 cable or most commonly as the Cable 243, was a high profile message The arrest and assassination of Ngo Dinh Diem, then president of South Vietnam, marked the culmination of a successful CIA -backed Coup d'état He seemed concerned only with fending off coups. As Robert F. Kennedy noted, "Diem wouldn't make even the slightest concessions. Robert Francis "Bobby" Kennedy (November 20 1925 – June 6 1968 also called RFK, was the United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964 and a He was difficult to reason with …" During the summer of 1963 U. S. officials began discussing the possibility of a regime change. The United States Department of State was generally in favor of encouraging a coup. The Pentagon and CIA were more alert to the destabilizing consequences of such an act and wanted to continue applying pressure for reforms.
Chief among the proposed changes was the removal of Diem's younger brother Ngo Dinh Nhu. For his wife see Madame Ngo Dinh Nhu., (October 7 1910 - November 2, 1963) was the younger brother Nhu controlled the secret police and was seen as the man behind the Buddhist repression. As Diem's most powerful adviser, Nhu had become a hated figure in South Vietnam. His continued influence was unacceptable to the Kennedy administration. Eventually, the administration concluded that Diem was unwilling to change.
The CIA was in contact with generals planning to remove Diem. They were told that the United States would support such a move. President Diem was overthrown and executed, along with his brother, on November 2, 1963. Events 1570 - A Tidal wave in the North Sea devastates the coast from Holland to Jutland, killing more than 1000 Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. When he was informed, Maxwell Taylor remembered that Kennedy "rushed from the room with a look of shock and dismay on his face. " He had not approved Diem's murder. The U. S. ambassador to South Vietnam, Henry Cabot Lodge, invited the coup leaders to the embassy and congratulated them. Henry Cabot Lodge Jr ( July 5, 1902 &ndash February 27, 1985) was a Republican United States Senator from Massachusetts Ambassador Lodge informed Kennedy that "the prospects now are for a shorter war". 
Following the coup, chaos ensued. Hanoi took advantage of the situation and increased its support for the guerrillas. South Vietnam entered a period of extreme political instability, as one military government toppled another in quick succession. Increasingly, each new regime was viewed as a puppet of the Americans; whatever the failings of Diem, his credentials as a nationalist (as Robert McNamara later reflected) had been impeccable. 
Kennedy increased the number of U. S. military advisers from 800 to 16,300 to cope with rising guerrilla activity. The advisers were embedded at every level of the South Vietnamese armed forces. They were, however, almost completely ignorant of the political nature of the insurgency. An insurgency is a violent internal uprising against a sovereign government that lacks the organization of a revolution The insurgency was a political power struggle, in which military engagements were not the main goal.  The Kennedy administration sought to refocus U. S. efforts on pacification and "winning over the hearts and minds" of the population. Peace, in the modern usage is a concept defined by the ideal state of relationship as absence of hostility at the international level that of a War. The military leadership in Washington, however, was hostile to any role for U. S. advisers other than conventional troop training.  General Paul Harkins, the commander of U. Paul Donal Harkins ( May 15, 1904 – August 21, 1984) was Deputy Chief of Staff during World War II to George S S. forces in South Vietnam, confidently predicted victory by Christmas 1963.  The CIA was less optimistic, however, warning that "the Viet Cong by and large retain de facto control of much of the countryside and have steadily increased the overall intensity of the effort". 
In a conversation with Nobel Peace Prize winner and Canadian prime minister Lester B. Pearson, Kennedy sought his advice. The Nobel Peace Prize ( Swedish, Danish and Nobels fredspris is one of five Nobel Prizes Bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor "Get out," Pearson replied. "That's a stupid answer," shot back Kennedy. "Everyone knows that. The question is: How do we get out?" Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963, just three weeks after Diem. The assassination of John F Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday November 22 1963 in Dallas Texas Events 498 - Kofi Aseidu- After the death of Anastasius II, Symmachus is elected Pope in the Lateran Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Kennedy had introduced helicopters to the war and created a joint U. S. -South Vietnamese Air Force, staffed with American pilots. He also sent in the Green Berets. He was succeeded by his vice president, Lyndon B. Johnson, who reaffirmed America's support of South Vietnam. By the end of the year Saigon had received $500 million in military aid.
Lyndon Johnson, as he took over the presidency after the death of Kennedy, did not consider Vietnam a priority and was more concerned with his "Great Society" and progressive social programs. The Great Society was also a 1960s band featuring Grace Slick, and a 1914 book by English social theorist Graham Wallas.  Johnson had a difficult time with American foreign policy makers, specifically Averill Harriman and Dean Acheson, who to Johnson's mind spoke a different language. William Averell Harriman ( November 15 1891 July 26 1986) was an American Democratic Party politician businessman Dean Gooderham Acheson ( April 11, 1893 — October 12, 1971) was an American statesman and lawyer as United States  Particularly heated was the relationship between the new president and national security advisor McGeorge Bundy. McGeorge "Mac" Bundy ( March 30, 1919 – September 16, 1996) was United States National Security Advisor to Presidents Shortly after the assassination of Kennedy, when Bundy called LBJ on the phone, LBJ responded:
"Goddammit, Bundy. I've told you that when I want you I'll call you. "
On November 24, 1963, Johnson brought a small group together to talk with Henry Cabot Lodge, and the new president provided his support to help win the Vietnam war. Events 380 - Theodosius I makes his adventus, or formal Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Henry Cabot Lodge Jr ( July 5, 1902 &ndash February 27, 1985) was a Republican United States Senator from Massachusetts  But the pledge came at a time when Vietnam was deteriorating, especially in places like the Mekong Delta, because of the recent coup against Diem. 
The military revolutionary council, meeting in lieu of a strong South Vietnamese leader, was made up of 12 members headed by General Minh—whom Stanley Karnow, a journalist on the ground, later recalled as "a model of lethargy. Stanley Karnow (born 1925 in New York City) is a Pulitzer Prize -winning author who covered Asia from 1959 as chief correspondent for Time and " His regime was overthrown in January 1964 by General Nguyen Khanh. Lodge, frustrated by the end of year, cabled home about Minh: "Will he be strong enough to get on top of things?"
On August 2, 1964, the USS Maddox, on an intelligence mission along North Vietnam's coast, fired upon and damaged several torpedo boats that had been stalking it in the Gulf of Tonkin. Events 338 BC - A Macedonian army led by Philip II defeated the combined forces of Athens and Thebes in the Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. Operations Maddox screened the ships of the Fast Carrier Task Force during strikes against enemy targets in the western Pacific where she was struck by an enemy The Gulf of Tonkin, in Vietnamese: Vịnh Bắc Bộ or in Chinese: Beibu Wan is an arm of the South China Sea.  A second attack was reported two days later on the USS Turner Joy and Maddox in the same area. Pre-Vietnam War operational duty Following a pre-shakedown goodwill cruise to Central and South American ports and shakedown out of San Diego, The circumstances of the attack were murky. Lyndon Johnson commented to Undersecretary of State George Ball that "those sailors out there may have been shooting at flying fish. " The second attack led to retaliatory air strikes, prompted Congress to approve the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, and gave the president power to conduct military operations in Southeast Asia without declaring war. The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (officially the Southeast Asia Resolution Public Law 88-408 was addressed by Lyndon B In the same month, Johnson pledged that he was not ". . . committing American boys to fighting a war that I think ought to be fought by the boys of Asia to help protect their own land. "
In 2005, however, an NSA declassified report revealed that there was no attack on 4 August. Events 70 - The Destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem by the Romans. It had already been called into question long before this. "The Gulf of Tonkin incident," writes Louise Gerdes, "is an oft-cited example of the way in which Johnson misled the American people to gain support for his foreign policy in Vietnam. " George C. Herring argues, however, that McNamara and the Pentagon "did not knowingly lie about the alleged attacks, but they were obviously in a mood to retaliate and they seem to have selected from the evidence available to them those parts that confirmed what they wanted to believe. " Rising from 5,000 in 1959, there were now 100,000 guerrilla fighters in 1964.  Some have argued that ten soldiers are needed to deal with every one insurgent. An insurgency is a violent internal uprising against a sovereign government that lacks the organization of a revolution  Thus, the total number of U. S. troops in 1964 needed to defeat the insurgents may have exceeded the entire strength of the United States Army. 
The National Security Council recommended a three-stage escalation of the bombing of North Vietnam. A National Security Council (NSC is usually an Executive branch governmental body responsible for coordinating policy on national security issues and advising chief On March 2, 1965, following an attack on a U.S. Marine barracks at Pleiku, Operation Flaming Dart and Operation Rolling Thunder commenced. Events 986 - Louis V becomes King of the Franks. 1127 - Assassination of Charles the Good Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. Pleiku is a town in central Vietnam, located in that nation's central highland region Operation Flaming Dart was a US military operation conducted in two parts during the Vietnam War Operation Rolling Thunder was the title of a gradual and sustained U The bombing campaign, which ultimately lasted three years, was intended to force North Vietnam to cease its support for the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (NLF) by threatening to destroy North Vietnam's air defenses and industrial infrastructure. As well, it was aimed at bolstering the morale of the South Vietnamese.  Between March 1965 and November 1968, "Rolling Thunder" deluged the north with a million tons of missiles, rockets and bombs.  Bombing was not restricted to North Vietnam. Other aerial campaigns, such as Operation Commando Hunt, targeted different parts of the NLF and Vietnam People's Army (VPA) infrastructure. Operation Commando Hunt was a covert US Seventh Air Force and U The Vietnam People's Army ( VPA) (Quân Đội Nhân Dân Việt Nam is the official name of the Armed forces of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. These included the Ho Chi Minh Trail, which ran through Laos and Cambodia. The objective of forcing North Vietnam to stop its support for the NLF, however, was never reached. As one officer noted "this is a political war and it calls for discriminate killing. The best weapon … would be a knife … The worst is an airplane. " The Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force Curtis LeMay, however, had long advocated saturation bombing in Vietnam and wrote of the Communists that "we're going to bomb them back into the Stone Age". The Chief of Staff of the Air Force ( CSAF) is the senior uniformed officer in United States Air Force and is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Curtis Emerson LeMay (15 November 1906–3 October 1990 was a General in the United States Air Force and the vice presidential running mate of American Independent 
Escalation of the Vietnam War officially started on the morning of January 31, 1965, when orders were cut and issued to mobilize the 18th TAC Fighter Squadron from Okinawa to Danang air force base (AFB). is one of Japan 's southern prefectures, and consists of hundreds of the Ryukyu Islands in a chain over 1000 km long which extends southwest from Kyūshū For the civil/military use of the facility after April 1975 see Da Nang International Airport Da Nang Air Base (1958-1975 was a Republic A red alert alarm to scramble was sounded at Kadena AFB at 3:00 a. Kadena Air Base is a United States Air Force base located in the towns m. F-105s, pilots, and support were deployed from Okinawa and landed in Vietnam that afternoon to join up with other smaller units who had already arrived weeks earlier. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see Wikipe diaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Preparations were under way for the first step of Operation Flaming Dart. The mission of Operation Flaming Dart, to cross the Seventeenth Parallel into North Vietnam, had already been planned and was in place before the NLF attack on Pleiku airbase on February 6. The Viet Cong attack on Pleiku airbase (aka Camp Holloway Airfield occurred on the night of February 6, 1965. On February 7, forty-nine F-105 Thunderchiefs flew out of Danang AFB to targets located in North Vietnam. From this day forward the war was no longer confined to South Vietnam. It took almost an hour to get all forty nine of the F-105's in the air. On that morning, the continuous loud roar of the F-105 engines going down the runway, one following another, was described by the ground crew as a "rolling thunder". At this time the Marines had not landed and Danang AFB was unprotected.
After several attacks upon them, it was decided that U.S. Air Force bases needed more protection. The South Vietnamese military seemed incapable of providing security. On March 8, 1965, 3,500 United States Marines were dispatched to South Vietnam. Events 1618 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion. Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. This marked the beginning of the American ground war. U. S. public opinion overwhelmingly supported the deployment.  Public opinion, however, was based on the premise that Vietnam was part of a global struggle against communism. In a statement similar to that made to the French almost two decades earlier, Ho Chi Minh warned that if the Americans "want to make war for twenty years then we shall make war for twenty years. If they want to make peace, we shall make peace and invite them to afternoon tea. " As former First Deputy Foreign Minister Tran Quang Co has noted, the primary goal of the war was to reunify Vietnam and secure its independence. The policy of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) was not to topple other non-communist governments in South East Asia. 
The Marines' assignment was defensive. The initial deployment of 3,500 in March was increased to nearly 200,000 by December.  The U. S. military had long been schooled in offensive warfare. Regardless of political policies, U. S. commanders were institutionally and psychologically unsuited to a defensive mission.  In May, Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) forces suffered heavy losses at the Battle of Binh Gia. They were again defeated in June, at the Battle of Dong Xoai. Desertion rates were increasing, and morale plummeted. General William Westmoreland informed Admiral Grant Sharp, commander of U. William C Westmoreland ( March 26, 1914 &ndash July 18, 2005) was an American General who commanded American military S. Pacific forces, that the situation was critical.  He said, "I am convinced that U. S. troops with their energy, mobility, and firepower can successfully take the fight to the NLF [National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam]. " With this recommendation, Westmoreland was advocating an aggressive departure from America's defensive posture and the sidelining of the South Vietnamese. By ignoring ARVN units, the U. S. commitment became open-ended.  Westmoreland outlined a three-point plan to win the war:
"Phase 1. Commitment of U. S. (and other free world) forces necessary to halt the losing trend by the end of 1965.
Phase 2. U. S. and allied forces mount major offensive actions to seize the initiative to destroy guerrilla and organized enemy forces. This phase would be concluded when the enemy had been worn down, thrown on the defensive, and driven back from major populated areas.
Phase 3. If the enemy persisted, a period of twelve to eighteen months following Phase 2 would be required for the final destruction of enemy forces remaining in remote base areas. "
The plan was approved by Johnson and marked a profound departure from the previous administration's insistence that the government of South Vietnam was responsible for defeating the guerrillas. Westmoreland predicted victory by the end of 1967.  Johnson did not, however, communicate this change in strategy to the media. Instead he emphasized continuity.  The change in U. S. policy depended on matching the North Vietnamese and the NLF in a contest of attrition and morale. Morale, also known as esprit de corps when discussing the morale of a group is an intangible term used for the capacity of people to maintain Belief in The opponents were locked in a cycle of escalation. Escalation is the phenomenon of something getting more intense step by step for example a quarrel or notably military presence and nuclear armament during the Cold War.  The idea that the government of South Vietnam could manage its own affairs was shelved. 
Soon the NLF began to engage in small-unit guerrilla warfare, which allowed them to control the pace of the fighting.
It is widely held that the average U. S. serviceman was nineteen years old, as evidenced by the casual reference in a pop song (19 by Paul Hardcastle); the figure is cited by Lt. Col. Dave Grossman ret. " 19 " is a song by English musician Paul Hardcastle, released in 1985 featuring dialogue by Peter Thomas. Paul Hardcastle (born December 10 1957, London) is an English Composer and Musician, specializing in the Synthesizer Please see " Lieutenant Colonel " for other countries which use this rank In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps Lieutenant Colonel Dave Grossman is an author who has specialized in the study of the psychology of killing which he calls ' Killology ' of the Killology Research Group in his 1995 book On Killing: The Psychological Cost of Learning to Kill in War and Society (p. The Killology Research Group is an advocacy group devoted to research into the idea that First-person shooter games can lead to violent behavior in people On Killing The Psychological Cost of Learning to Kill in War and Society is a book by Lt 265). However, it is disputed by the  Vietnam Helicopter Flight Crew Network Website, which claims the average age of MOS 11B personnel was 22. This compares with twenty-six years of age for those who participated in World War II. Soldiers served a one year tour of duty. The average age of the US Military men who died in Vietnam was 22. 8 years old.  The one-year tour of duty deprived units of experienced leadership. As one observer noted "we were not in Vietnam for 10 years, but for one year 10 times. " As a result, training programs were shortened. Some NCO's were referred to as "Shake 'N' Bake" to highlight their accelerated training. A non-commissioned officer (sometimes noncommissioned officer) also known as an NCO or Noncom, is an enlisted member of an Armed force Shake 'n Bake is a brand owned by Kraft Foods. It is a flavored coating for chicken (and sometimes pork which is applied by placing chicken pieces in a bag containing the coating Unlike soldiers in World War II and Korea, there were no secure rear areas in which to get rest and relaxation (R'n'R). American troops were vulnerable to attack everywhere they went.
South Vietnam was inundated with manufactured goods. As Stanley Karnow writes, "the main PX, located in the Saigon suburb of Cholon, was only slightly smaller than the New York Bloomingdale's …" The American buildup transformed the economy and had a profound impact on South Vietnamese society. Cholon is the name of the Chinese district of Ho Chi Minh City (the former Saigon the largest such Chinatown district in Vietnam. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Bloomingdale's (or Bloomie's) is a chain of upscale American Department stores owned by Macy's Inc A huge surge in corruption was witnessed. The country was also flooded with civilian specialists from every conceivable field to advise the South Vietnamese government and improve its performance.
Washington encouraged its SEATO allies to contribute troops. The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization ( SEATO) was an International organization for Collective defense created by the Southeast Asia Collective Australia, New Zealand, the Republic of Korea, Thailand, and the Philippines all agreed to send troops. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP Major allies, however, notably NATO nations, Canada and the United Kingdom, declined Washington's troop requests. The North Atlantic Treaty Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located  The U. S. and its allies mounted complex operations, such as operations Masher, Attleboro, Cedar Falls, and Junction City. Operation Masher was a combined US, ARVN, and ROKA operation that began on January 28, 1966. Operation Attleboro was a Search and destroy operation by the 196th Light Infantry Brigade. Operation Cedar Falls was a military operation of the Vietnam War conducted primarily by US forces Operation Junction City was a 82-day Military operation conducted by U However, the communist insurgents remained elusive and demonstrated great tactical flexibility. Military tactics ( Greek: Taktikē, the art of organizing an army are the techniques for using weapons or military units in combination for engaging and defeating
Meanwhile, the political situation in South Vietnam began to stabilize somewhat with the coming to power of Vice President Nguyen Cao Ky and President Nguyen Van Thieu in 1967. Nguyễn Cao Kỳ (born 8 September 1930) is a Vietnamese politician who served as Prime Minister of South Nguyễn Văn Thiệu, ( April 5, 1923 &ndash September 29, 2001) was a former General and President of South Vietnam. Thieu, mistrustful and indecisive, remained president until 1975.  This ended a long series of military juntas that had begun with Diem's assassination. A military dictatorship is a Form of government wherein the political power resides with the Military; it is similar but not identical to a Stratocracy, The relative calm allowed the ARVN to collaborate more effectively with its allies and become a better fighting force.
The Johnson administration employed a "policy of minimum candor" in its dealings with the media. Military information officers sought to manage media coverage by emphasizing stories which portrayed progress in the war. Over time, this policy damaged the public trust in official pronouncements. As the media's coverage of the war and that of the Pentagon diverged, a so-called credibility gap developed. Alternate use The Credibility Gap, name of a comedy team Credibility gap is a political term that came into wide use during the 1960s and 1970s 
In October 1967 a large anti-war demonstration was held on the steps of the Pentagon. Some protesters were heard to chant, "Hey, hey, LBJ! How many kids did you kill today?" One reason for the increase in the opposition to the Vietnam War was larger draft quotas. Opposition to US involvement in the Vietnam War is significant because domestic protest in the U
Having lured General Westmoreland's forces into the hinterland at Khe Sanh in Quang Tri Province, in January 1968, the PVA and NLF broke the truce that had traditionally accompanied the Tet (Lunar New Year) holiday. The Tet Offensive was a military campaign conducted between 30 January and 23 September 1968, by forces of the Vietcong, or National Front for The Battle of Khe Sanh, or Operation Scotland, Operation Pegasus, was conducted in northwestern Quang Tri Province, Republic of Vietnam This article is about the Vietnamese holiday For the 1968 military operation that began on that holiday see Tết Offensive. They launched the surprise Tet Offensive in the hope of sparking a national uprising. The Tet Offensive was a military campaign conducted between 30 January and 23 September 1968, by forces of the Vietcong, or National Front for Over 100 cities were attacked, with assaults on General Westmoreland's headquarters and the U. S. embassy in Saigon.
Although the U. S. and South Vietnamese were initially taken aback by the scale of the urban offensive, they responded quickly and effectively, decimating the ranks of the NLF. In the former capital city of Hue, the combined NLF and NVA troops captured the Imperial Citadel and much of the city, which led to the Battle of Hue. ( 化 in Chữ Nôm) is the capital city of Thừa Thiên - Huế province, Vietnam. The Vietnam People's Army ( VPA) (Quân Đội Nhân Dân Việt Nam is the official name of the Armed forces of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. During the interim between the capture of the Citadel and end of the "Battle of Hue", the communist insurgent occupying forces massacred several thousand unarmed Hue civilians (estimates vary up to a high of 6000). Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based An insurgency is a violent internal uprising against a sovereign government that lacks the organization of a revolution The Massacre at Huế ( Thảm sát tại Huế Tết Mậu Thân) is the name given to describe the Summary executions and Mass killings conducted by After the war, North Vietnamese officials acknowledged that the Tet Offensive had, indeed, caused grave damage to NLF forces. But the offensive had another, unintended consequence.
General Westmoreland had become the public face of the war. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based He was featured on the cover of Time magazine three times and was named 1965's Man of the Year.  Time described him as "the sinewy personification of the American fighting man … (who) directed the historic buildup, drew up the battle plans, and infused the … men under him with his own idealistic view of U. S. aims and responsibilities. "
In November 1967 Westmoreland spearheaded a public relations drive for the Johnson administration to bolster flagging public support.  In a speech before the National Press Club he said that a point in the war had been reached "where the end comes into view. The National Press Club is one of the world's leading professional organizations for journalists " Thus, the public was shocked and confused when Westmoreland's predictions were trumped by Tet.  The American media, which had been largely supportive of U. S. efforts, rounded on the Johnson administration for what had become an increasing credibility gap. Despite its military failure, the Tet Offensive became a political victory and ended the career of President Lyndon B. Johnson, who declined to run for re-election. Johnson's approval rating slumped from 48 to 36 percent.  As James Witz noted, Tet "contradicted the claims of progress … made by the Johnson administration and the military. " The Tet Offensive was the turning point in America's involvement in the Vietnam War. It had a profound impact on domestic support for the conflict. The offensive constituted an intelligence failure on the scale of Pearl Harbor. Failure in the intelligence cycle or intelligence failure while never defined in texts can be understood to be the outcome of the inadequacies within the intelligence cycle The attack on Pearl Harbor (or Hawaii Operation, as it was called by the Imperial General Headquarters) was a surprise Military strike conducted by  Journalist Peter Arnett quoted an unnamed officer, saying of Ben Tre that "it became necessary to destroy the village in order to save it". Peter Gregg Arnett, ONZM (born November 13, 1934 in Riverton, New Zealand) is a New Zealand-American journalist Bến Tre is a town in the Mekong Delta area of southern Vietnam.  Westmoreland became Chief of Staff of the Army in March, just as all resistance was finally subdued. The move was technically a promotion. However, his position had become untenable because of the offensive and because his request for 200,000 additional troops had been leaked to the media. Westmoreland was succeeded by his deputy Creighton Abrams, a commander less inclined to public media pronouncements. Creighton Williams Abrams Jr ( September 15 1914 – September 4 1974) was a United States Army General who commanded military
On May 10, 1968, despite low expectations, peace talks began between the U. The Tet Offensive was a military campaign conducted between 30 January and 23 September 1968, by forces of the Vietcong, or National Front for Events 1291 - Scottish Nobles recognize the authority of Edward I of England. Year 1968 ( MCMLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Paris Peace Accords (or Paris Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam) were signed on January 27, 1973 by the governments of the S. and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Negotiations stagnated for five months, until Johnson gave orders to halt the bombing of North Vietnam. The Democratic candidate, Vice President Hubert Humphrey, was running against Republican former vice president Richard Nixon. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. Hubert Horatio Humphrey Jr ( May 27, 1911 &ndash January 13, 1978) was the thirty-eighth Vice President of the United States, serving Through an intermediary, Nixon advised Saigon to refuse to participate in the talks until after elections, claiming that he would give them a better deal once elected. Thieu obliged, leaving almost no progress made by the time Johnson left office.
As historian Robert Dallek writes, "Lyndon Johnson's escalation of the war in Vietnam divided Americans into warring camps … cost 30,000 American lives by the time he left office, (and) destroyed Johnson's presidency …" His refusal to send more U. S. troops to Vietnam was Johnson's admission that the war was lost. As Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara noted, "the dangerous illusion of victory by the United States was therefore dead. "
During the 1968 presidential election, Richard M. The role of the United States in the Vietnam War began soon after the Second World War and escalated into full commitment during the Vietnam War (1956-1975 Please DO NOT flip the colors -->The United States presidential election of 1968 was a wrenching national experience and included the assassination of Democratic candidate Nixon promised "peace with honor". His plan was to build up the ARVN, so that they could take over the defense of South Vietnam (the Nixon Doctrine). The Nixon Doctrine (also known as the Guam Doctrine) was put forth in a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by Richard Nixon The policy became known as "Vietnamization", a term criticized by Robert K. The role of the United States in the Vietnam War began soon after the Second World War and escalated into full commitment during the Vietnam War (1956-1975 Brigham for implying that, to that date, only Americans had been dying in the conflict.  Vietnamization had much in common with the policies of the Kennedy administration. One important difference, however, remained. While Kennedy insisted that the South Vietnamese fight the war themselves, he attempted to limit the scope of the conflict. In pursuit of a withdrawal strategy, Richard Nixon was prepared to employ a variety of tactics, including widening the war.
Nixon also pursued negotiations. Theater commander Creighton Abrams shifted to smaller operations, aimed at NLF logistics, with better use of firepower and more cooperation with the ARVN. Nixon also began to pursue détente with the Soviet Union and rapprochement with the People's Republic of China. Détente is a French term meaning a relaxing or easing the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s This policy helped to decrease global tensions. Détente led to nuclear arms reduction on the part of both superpowers. A superpower is a State with a leading position in the international system and the ability to Influence events and project power on a worldwide scale But Nixon was disappointed that the PRC and the Soviet Union continued to supply the North Vietnamese with aid. In September 1969, Ho Chi Minh died at age seventy-nine.
The anti-war movement was gaining strength in the United States. Nixon appealed to the "silent majority" of Americans to support the war. The silent majority is an unspecified large majority of people in a country or group who do not express their opinions publicly But revelations of the My Lai Massacre, in which U. The My Lai Massacre ( approximately) (thảm sát Mỹ Lai was the Mass murder of 347 to 504 unarmed citizens of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam almost S. forces went on a rampage and killed civilians, including women and children, provoked national and international outrage. The civilian cost of the war was again questioned when the U. S concluded operation Speedy Express with a claimed bodycount of 10,889 NLF (vietcong) guerillas with only 40 U. Operation Speedy Express was a controversial United States military operation of the Vietnam War conducted in the Mekong Delta provinces Kien S losses; Kevin Buckley writing in Newsweek estimated that perhaps 5,000 of the Vietnamese dead were civilians. Newsweek is an American weekly Newsmagazine published in New York City.
Prince Norodom Sihanouk had proclaimed Cambodia neutral since 1955, but the VPA and NLF used Cambodian soil as a base and Sihanouk tolerated their presence, because he wished to avoid being drawn into a wider regional conflict. Names and titles Since his abdication Sihanouk's official Cambodian title (short version the most-widely used is Preah Karuna Preah Bat Sâmdech Preah Norodom Sihanouk Preahmâhaviraksat Under pressure from Washington, however, he changed this policy in 1969. The VPA and the NLF were no longer welcome. President Nixon took the opportunity to launch a massive secret bombing campaign, called Operation Menu, against their sanctuaries along the border. Operation Menu was the codename of a covert US Strategic Air Command (SAC bombing campaign conducted in eastern Cambodia from 18 March 1969 This violated a long succession of pronouncements from Washington supporting Cambodian neutrality. Richard Nixon wrote to Prince Sihanouk in April 1969 assuring him that the United States respected "the sovereignty, neutrality and territorial integrity of the Kingdom of Cambodia …" Over 14 months, however, approximately 2,750,000 tons of bombs were dropped, more than the total dropped by the Allies in World War II. The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War. The bombing was hidden from the American public. In 1970, Prince Sihanouk was deposed by his pro-American prime minister Lon Nol. The Cambodian coup of 1970 refers to the removal of Prince Norodom Sihanouk and the subsequent elevation of Prime Minister Lon Nol as head of state under the Lon Nol ( November 13, 1913 - November 17, 1985) was a Cambodian Politician and Soldier who served as Prime The country's borders were closed, and the U. S. and ARVN launched incursions into Cambodia to attack VPA/NLF bases and buy time for South Vietnam. The Cambodian Campaign (also known as the Cambodian Incursion) was a series of military operations conducted in eastern Cambodia during the late spring and summer The coup against Sihanouk and U. S. bombing destabilized Cambodia and increased support for the Khmer Rouge. The Khmer Rouge (ខ្មែរក្រហម Kmae Krɑhɑɑm was the Communist ruling political party of Cambodia &mdashwhich it renamed
The invasion of Cambodia sparked nationwide U. The My Lai Massacre ( approximately) (thảm sát Mỹ Lai was the Mass murder of 347 to 504 unarmed citizens of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam almost S. protests. Four students were killed by National Guardsmen at Kent State University during a protest in Ohio, which provoked public outrage in the United States. IMPORTANT After careful consideration the title "Kent State Shootings" has been applied in this article rather than "Kent State Massacre Kent State University (also known as Kent, Kent State, or KSU) is one of America’s largest university systems the third largest university Ohio ( is a Midwestern state of the United States. As part of the Great Lakes region, Ohio has long been a cultural and geographical crossroads The reaction to the incident by the Nixon administration was seen as callous and indifferent, providing additional impetus for the anti-war movement. 
In 1971 the Pentagon Papers were leaked to The New York Times. The Pentagon Papers is the popular name for a 14000-page top-secret United States government report about the history of the Government's internal planning and policy The top-secret history of U. S. involvement in Vietnam, commissioned by the Department of Defense, detailed a long series of public deceptions. The Supreme Court ruled that its publication was legal. The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. 
The ARVN launched Operation Lam Son 719, aimed at cutting the Ho Chi Minh trail in Laos. Operation Lam Son 719 (Chiến dịch Lam Sơn 719 or Chiến dịch đường 9 - Nam Lào was a limited-objective offensive campaign conducted in southeastern portion The offensive was a clear violation of Laotian neutrality, which neither side respected in any event. Laos had long been the scene of a Secret War. After meeting resistance, ARVN forces retreated in a confused rout. They fled along roads littered with their own dead. When they ran out of fuel, soldiers abandoned their vehicles and attempted to barge their way on to American helicopters sent to evacuate the wounded. Many ARVN soldiers clung to helicopter skids in a desperate attempt to save themselves. U. S. aircraft had to destroy abandoned equipment, including tanks, to prevent them from falling into enemy hands. Half of the invading ARVN troops were either captured or killed. The operation was a fiasco and represented a clear failure of Vietnamization. As Karnow noted "the blunders were monumental … The (South Vietnamese) government's top officers had been tutored by the Americans for ten or fifteen years, many at training schools in the United States, yet they had learned little. "
In 1971 Australia and New Zealand withdrew their soldiers. The U. S. troop count was further reduced to 196,700, with a deadline to remove another 45,000 troops by February 1972. As peace protests spread across the United States, disillusionment grew in the ranks. Drug use increased, race relations grew tense and the number of soldiers disobeying officers rose. Fragging, or the murder of unpopular officers with fragmentation grenades, increased. Fragging is a term from the Vietnam War, used primarily by US
Vietnamization was again tested by the Easter Offensive of 1972, a massive conventional invasion of South Vietnam. The Easter Offensive, officially the Nguyen Hue Offensive and also ( Chiến dịch Xuân hè 1972 in Vietnamese was a military campaign conducted by the The VPA and NLF quickly overran the northern provinces and in coordination with other forces attacked from Cambodia, threatening to cut the country in half. U. S. troop withdrawals continued. But American airpower came to the rescue with Operation Linebacker, and the offensive was halted. For the December 1972 military operation see Operation Linebacker II. However, it became clear that without American airpower South Vietnam could not survive. The last remaining American ground troops were withdrawn in August. But a force of civilian and military advisers remained in place.
The war was the central issue of the 1972 presidential election. The United States presidential election of 1972 was waged on the issues of radicalism and the Vietnam War. Nixon's opponent, George McGovern, campaigned on a platform of withdrawal from Vietnam. George Stanley McGovern Nixon's National Security Adviser, Henry Kissinger, continued secret negotiations with North Vietnam's Le Duc Tho. Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German -born American bureaucrat diplomat and 1973 Lê Ðức Thọ ( ( October 14, 1911  &ndash October 13, 1990) was a Vietnamese Revolutionary, General In October 1972, they reached an agreement. However, South Vietnamese President Thieu demanded massive changes to the peace accord. When North Vietnam went public with the agreement's details, the Nixon administration claimed that the North was attempting to embarrass the President. The negotiations became deadlocked. Hanoi demanded new changes. To show his support for South Vietnam and force Hanoi back to the negotiating table, Nixon ordered Operation Linebacker II, a massive bombing of Hanoi and Haiphong. Operation Linebacker II was a US Seventh Air Force and US Navy Task Force 77 aerial bombardment campaign conducted against targets in the The offensive destroyed much of the remaining economic and industrial capacity of North Vietnam. Simultaneously Nixon pressured Thieu to accept the terms of the agreement, threatening to conclude a bilateral peace deal and cut off American aid. Popularly known as the Christmas Bombings, Operation Linebacker II provoked a fresh wave of anti-war demonstrations. Operation Linebacker II was a US Seventh Air Force and US Navy Task Force 77 aerial bombardment campaign conducted against targets in the
On January 15, 1973, Nixon announced the suspension of offensive action against North Vietnam. Events 588 BC - Nebuchadrezzar II of Babylon lays siege to Jerusalem under Zedekiah 's reign Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. The Paris Peace Accords on "Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam" were signed on January 27, 1973, officially ending direct U. The Paris Peace Accords (or Paris Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam) were signed on January 27, 1973 by the governments of the Events 98 - Trajan becomes Roman Emperor after the death of Nerva. Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. S. involvement in the Vietnam War. A cease-fire was declared across North and South Vietnam. U. S. POWs were released. The agreement guaranteed the territorial integrity of Vietnam and, like the Geneva Conference of 1954, called for national elections in the North and South. Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially The Paris Peace Accords stipulated a sixty-day period for the total withdrawal of U. S. forces. "This article," noted Peter Church, "proved … to be the only one of the Paris Agreements which was fully carried out. "
Under Paris Peace Accord, between North Vietnamese Foreign Minister Lê Ðức Thọ and U. The Paris Peace Accords (or Paris Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam) were signed on January 27, 1973 by the governments of the Lê Ðức Thọ ( ( October 14, 1911  &ndash October 13, 1990) was a Vietnamese Revolutionary, General S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, and reluctantly signed by South Vietnamese President Thiệu, U. Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German -born American bureaucrat diplomat and 1973 President is a Title leaders of Organizations companies, Trade unions universities, and countries. Nguyễn Văn Thiệu, ( April 5, 1923 &ndash September 29, 2001) was a former General and President of South Vietnam. S. military forces withdrew from South Vietnam and prisoners were exchanged. North Vietnam was allowed to continue supplying communist troops in the South, but only to the extent of replacing materials that were consumed. Later that year the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Kissinger and Thọ, but the Vietnamese negotiator declined it saying that a true peace did not yet exist. The Nobel Peace Prize ( Swedish, Danish and Nobels fredspris is one of five Nobel Prizes Bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor
The communist leaders had expected that the ceasefire terms would favor their side. But Saigon, bolstered by a surge of U. S. aid received just before the ceasefire went into effect, began to roll back the Vietcong.  The communists responded with a new strategy hammered out in a series of meetings in Hanoi in March 1973, according to the memoirs of Trần Văn Trà.  As the Vietcong's top commander, Trà participated in several of these meetings.  With U. S. bombings suspended, work on the Hochiminh Trail and other logisical structures could proceed unimpeded.  Logistics would be upgraded until the North was in a position to launch a massive invasion of the South, projected for the 1975-76 dry season.  Trà calculated that this date would be the Hanoi's last opportunity to strike before Saigon's army could be fully trained. A three-thousand-mile long oil pipeline would be built from North Vietnam to Vietcong headquarters in Loc Ninh, about 75 miles northwest of Saigon. Loc Ninh is a provincial capital in southern Vietnam It is a district (''huyện'' of Binh Phuoc Province in the southeastern region of Vietnam 
Although McGovern himself was not elected U. S. president, the November 1972 election did return a Democratic majority to both houses of Congress under McGovern's "Come home America" campaign theme. On March 15, 1973, U. S. President Richard Nixon implied that the U. S. would intervene militarily if the communist side violated the ceasefire.  Public and congressional reaction to Nixon's trial balloon was unfavorable and in April Nixon appointed Graham Martin as U. Graham A Martin (1912 - 1990 succeeded Ellsworth Bunker as US S. ambassador to Vietnam. Martin was a second stringer compared to previous U. S. ambassadors and his appointment was an early signal that Washington had given up on Vietnam.  During his confirmation hearings in June 1973, Secretary of Defense James R. Schlesinger stated that he would recommend resumption of U. The United States Secretary of Defense ( SECDEF) is the head of the U James Rodney Schlesinger (born February 15, 1929) was United States Secretary of Defense from 1973 to 1975 under presidents Richard Nixon and S. bombing in North Vietnam if North Vietnam launched a major offensive against South Vietnam. On June 4, 1973, the U. S. Senate passed the Case-Church Amendment to prohibit such intervention. The Case-Church Amendment was a piece of Legislation that prohibited U 
The oil price shock of October 1973 caused significant damage to the South Vietnamese economy. The Vietcong resumed offensive operations when dry season began and by January 1974 it had recaptured the territory it lost during the previous dry season. After two clashes that left 55 South Vietnamese soldiers dead, President Thiệu announced on January 4 that the war had restarted and that the Paris Peace Accord was no longer in effect. There had been over 25,000 South Vietnamese casualties during the ceasefire period. 
Gerald Ford took over as U. Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr (July 14 1913 December 26 2006 was the thirty-eighth President of the United States, serving from 1974 to 1977 and the fortieth Vice President S. president on August 9, 1974 after President Nixon resigned due to the Watergate scandal. The Watergate scandals were a series of Political scandals during the presidency of Richard Nixon that resulted in the Indictment of several of Nixon's At this time, Congress cut financial aid to South Vietnam from $1 billion a year to $700 million. The U. S. midterm elections in 1974 brought in a new Congress dominated by Democrats who were even more determined to confront the president on the war. Congress immediately voted in restrictions on funding and military activities to be phased in through 1975 and to culminate in a total cutoff of funding in 1976.
The success of the 1973-74 dry season offensive inspired Trà to return to Hanoi in October 1974 and plead for a larger offensive in the next dry season. This time, Trà could travel on a drivable highway with regular fueling stops, a vast change from the days was Hochiminh Trail was a dangerous mountain trek.  Giáp, the North Vietnamese defense minister, was reluctant to approved Trà's plan. A larger offensive might provoke a U. S. reaction and interfere with the big push planned for 1976. Trà appealed over Giáp's head to party boss Lê Duẩn, who obtained Politburo approval for the operation. Lê Duẩn (b April 7, 1907 - d July 10, 1986) was a Vietnamese communist leader
Trà's plan called for a limited offensive from Cambodia into Phuoc Long Province. Phuoc Long can refer to Phước Long Bac Lieu, a district in Bac Lieu Province in Vietnam Phước Long Binh Phuoc The strike was designed to solve local logistical problems, gauge the reaction of South Vietnamese forces, and determine whether the U. S. would return to the fray.
On December 13, 1974, North Vietnamese forces attacked Route 14 in Phouc Long Province. Phouc Binh, the provincial capital, fell on January 6, 1975. Ford desperately asked Congress for funds to assist and re-supply the South before it was overrun. Congress refused. The fall of Phouc Binh and the lack of an American response left the South Vietnamese elite demoralized and corruption grew rampant.
The speed of this success led the Politburo to reassess its strategy. It was decided that operations in the Central Highlands would be turned over to General Văn Tiến Dũng and that Pleiku should be seized, if possible. General Văn Tiến Dũng ( 2 May 1917 &ndash 17 March 2002) was a Vietnamese general in the People's Army of Vietnam Before he left for the South, Dũng was addressed by Lê Duẩn: "Never have we had military and political conditions so perfect or a strategic advantage as great as we have now. "
By 1975 the South Vietnamese Army faced a well-organized, highly determined and well-funded North Vietnam. Much of the North's material and financial support came from the communist bloc. Within South Vietnam, there was increasing chaos. Their abandonment by the American military had compromised an economy dependent on U. S. financial support and the presence of a large number of U. S. troops. South Vietnam suffered from the global recession which followed the Arab oil embargo. The 1973 oil crisis began on October 17 1973 when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC consisting of the Arab members of
On March 10, 1975, General Dung launched Campaign 275, a limited offensive into the Central Highlands, supported by tanks and heavy artillery. Events 241 BC - First Punic War: Battle of the Aegates Islands - The Romans sink the Carthaginian fleet bringing Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The target was Ban Me Thuot, in Daklak Province. If the town could be taken, the provincial capital of Pleiku and the road to the coast would be exposed for a planned campaign in 1976. Pleiku is a town in central Vietnam, located in that nation's central highland region The ARVN proved incapable of resisting the onslaught, and its forces collapsed on March 11. Events 1425 BC - Thutmose III, Pharaoh of Egypt, dies (according to the Low Chronology of the 18th Dynasty Once again, Hanoi was surprised by the speed of their success. Dung now urged the Politburo to allow him to seize Pleiku immediately and then turn his attention to Kontum. Kontum or Kon Tum is the capital town Kon Tum Province in Vietnam. He argued that with two months of good weather remaining until the onset of the monsoon, it would be irresponsible to not take advantage of the situation.
President Nguyen Van Thieu, a former general, was fearful that his forces would be cut off in the north by the attacking communists; Thieu ordered a retreat. Nguyễn Văn Thiệu, ( April 5, 1923 &ndash September 29, 2001) was a former General and President of South Vietnam. The president declared this to be a "lighten the top and keep the bottom" strategy. But in what appeared to be a repeat of Operation Lam Son 719, the withdrawal soon turned into a bloody rout. Operation Lam Son 719 (Chiến dịch Lam Sơn 719 or Chiến dịch đường 9 - Nam Lào was a limited-objective offensive campaign conducted in southeastern portion While the bulk of ARVN forces attempted to flee, isolated units fought desperately. ARVN General Phu abandoned Pleiku and Kontum and retreated toward the coast, in what became known as the "column of tears". As the ARVN tried to disengage from the enemy, refugees mixed in with the line of retreat. The poor condition of roads and bridges, damaged by years of conflict and neglect, slowed Phu's column. As the North Vietnamese forces approached, panic set in. Often abandoned by their officers, the soldiers, and civilians, were shelled incessantly. The retreat degenerated into a desperate scramble for the coast. By April 1 the "column of tears" was all but annihilated. Events 527 - Byzantine Emperor Justin I names his nephew Justinian I as co-ruler and successor to the throne It marked one of the poorest examples of a strategic withdrawal in modern military history.
On March 20, Thieu reversed himself and ordered Hue, Vietnam's third-largest city, be held at all costs. Events 1600 - The Linköping Bloodbath takes place on Maundy Thursday in Linköping, Sweden. Thieu's contradictory orders confused and demoralized his officer corps. As the North Vietnamese launched their attack, panic set in, and ARVN resistance withered. On March 22, the VPA opened the siege of Hue. Events 238 - Gordian I and his son Gordian II are proclaimed Roman emperor. Civilians flooded the airport and the docks hoping for any mode of escape. Some even swam out to sea to reach boats and barges anchored offshore. In the confusion, routed ARVN soldiers fired on civilians to make way for their retreat. On March 31, after a three-day battle, Hue fell. Events 307 - After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Roman Emperor As resistance in Hue collapsed, North Vietnamese rockets rained down on Da Nang and its airport. This article is about the city of Đà Nẵng For the Vietnam War era air base see Da Nang Air Base or Đà Nẵng International Airport. By March 28, 35,000 VPA troops were poised to attack the suburbs. Events 37 - Roman Emperor Caligula accepts the titles of the Principate, entitled to him by the Senate. By March 30, 100,000 leaderless ARVN troops surrendered as the VPA marched victoriously through Da Nang. Events 240 BC - 1st recorded Perihelion passage of Halley's Comet. With the fall of the city, the defense of the Central Highlands and Northern provinces came to an end.
With the northern half of the country under their control, the Politburo ordered General Dung to launch the final offensive against Saigon. The operational plan for the Ho Chi Minh Campaign called for the capture of Saigon before May 1. The Ho Chi Minh Campaign (Chiến dịch Hồ Chí Minh was the final title applied to a series of increasingly large-scale and ambitious Offensive operations by the Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. Hanoi wished to avoid the coming monsoon and prevent any redeployment of ARVN forces defending the capital. Northern forces, their morale boosted by their recent victories, rolled on, taking Nha Trang, Cam Ranh, and Da Lat.
On April 7, three North Vietnamese divisions attacked Xuan Loc, 40 miles (64 km) east of Saigon. Events 529 - First draft of Corpus Juris Civilis (a fundamental work in Jurisprudence) is issued by Eastern Roman Emperor The North Vietnamese met fierce resistance at Xuan Loc from the ARVN 18th Division. The 18th Division was an Infantry division in the III Corps of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN For two bloody weeks, severe fighting raged as the ARVN defenders made a last stand to try to block the North Vietnamese advance. Last stand is a loose Military term used to describe a body of Troops holding a defensive position in the face of overwhelming odds By April 21, however, the exhausted garrison surrendered. Events 753 BC - Romulus and Remus found Rome ( traditional date)
An embittered and tearful President Thieu resigned on the same day, declaring that the United States had betrayed South Vietnam. In a scathing attack on the US, he suggested U. S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger had tricked him into signing the Paris peace agreement two years ago, promising military aid which then failed to materialise. Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German -born American bureaucrat diplomat and 1973
"At the time of the peace agreement the United States agreed to replace equipment on a one-by-one basis," he said. "But the United States did not keep its word. Is an American's word reliable these days?" He continued, "The United States did not keep its promise to help us fight for freedom and it was in the same fight that the United States lost 50,000 of its young men. " He left for Taiwan on April 25, leaving control of the government in the hands of General Duong Van Minh. Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia. Events 1607 - Eighty Years' War: The Dutch fleet destroys the anchored Spanish fleet at Gibraltar. ( February 16 1916 &ndash August 6 2001) known popularly as “Big Minh” was a Vietnamese general and politician At the same time, North Vietnamese tanks had reached Bien Hoa and turned toward Saigon, brushing aside isolated ARVN units along the way. Biên Hòa is a city in Dong Nai Province, Vietnam, about 20 miles (30 kilometers east of Ho Chi Minh City, to which Bien Hoa is linked by Vietnam
By the end of April, the Army of the Republic of South Vietnam had collapsed on all fronts. Thousand of refugees streamed southward, ahead of the main communist onslaught. On April 27, 100,000 North Vietnamese troops encircled Saigon. Events 1124 - David I becomes King of Scotland. 1296 - Battle of Dunbar: The Scots are defeated The city was defended by about 30,000 ARVN troops. To hasten a collapse and foment panic, the VPA shelled the airport and forced its closure. With the air exit closed, large numbers of civilians found that they had no way out.
Chaos, unrest, and panic broke out as hysterical South Vietnamese officials and civilians scrambled to leave Saigon. The Fall of Saigon (in Vietnamese: Sự kiện 30 tháng 4 - April 30 Incident; Giải phóng miền Nam - The liberation of the south Operation Frequent Wind was the Emergency evacuation by Helicopter from Saigon, South Vietnam, in April 1975 during the last days Martial law was declared. Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect when the military takes control of the normal administration of justice American helicopters began evacuating South Vietnamese, U. S. , and foreign nationals from various parts of the city and from the U. S. embassy compound. Operation Frequent Wind had been delayed until the last possible moment, because of U. Operation Frequent Wind was the Emergency evacuation by Helicopter from Saigon, South Vietnam, in April 1975 during the last days S. Ambassador Graham Martin's belief that Saigon could be held and that a political settlement could be reached. Graham A Martin (1912 - 1990 succeeded Ellsworth Bunker as US
Schlesinger announced early in the morning of 29 April 1975 the evacuation from Saigon by helicopter of the last U. S. diplomatic, military, and civilian personnel. A military is an Organization authorized by its Nation to use force usually including use of Weapons in defending its Country (or by attacking Frequent Wind was arguably the largest helicopter evacuation in history. It began on April 29, in an atmosphere of desperation, as hysterical crowds of Vietnamese vied for limited seats. Events 1429 - Joan of Arc arrives to relieve the Siege of Orleans. Martin pleaded with Washington to dispatch $700 million in emergency aid to bolster the regime and help it mobilize fresh military reserves. But American public opinion had soured on this conflict halfway around the world.
In the U. S. , South Vietnam was perceived as doomed. President Gerald Ford gave a televised speech on April 23, declaring an end to the Vietnam War and all U. Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr (July 14 1913 December 26 2006 was the thirty-eighth President of the United States, serving from 1974 to 1977 and the fortieth Vice President Events 215 BC - A temple is built on the Capitoline Hill dedicated to Venus Erycina to commemorate the Roman defeat at S. aid. Frequent Wind continued around the clock, as North Vietnamese tanks breached defenses on the outskirts of Saigon. The song "White Christmas" was broadcast as the final signal for withdrawal. " White Christmas " is an Irving Berlin song whose lyrics reminisce about White Christmases. In the early morning hours of April 30, the last U.S. Marines evacuated the embassy by helicopter, as civilians swamped the perimeter and poured into the grounds. Events 313 - Roman emperor Licinius unifies the entire Eastern Roman Empire under his rule Many of them had been employed by the Americans and were left to their fate.
On April 30, 1975, VPA troops overcame all resistance, quickly capturing key buildings and installations. Events 313 - Roman emperor Licinius unifies the entire Eastern Roman Empire under his rule Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A tank crashed through the gates of the Presidential Palace, and at 11:30 a. m. local time the NLF flag was raised above it. Thieu's successor, President Duong Van Minh, attempted to surrender, but VPA officers informed him that he had nothing left to surrender. ( February 16 1916 &ndash August 6 2001) known popularly as “Big Minh” was a Vietnamese general and politician Minh then issued his last command, ordering all South Vietnamese troops to lay down their arms.
The Communists had attained their goal: they had toppled the Saigon regime. But the cost of victory was high. In the past decade alone, one Vietnamese in every ten had been a casualty of war—nearly a million and a half killed, three million wounded. Vietnam had been a tormented land, and its ordeal was not over.
Phnom Penh, the capital of Cambodia, fell to the Khmer Rouge on April 17, 1975. The Mayagüez incident involving the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia on May 12-15 1975 marked the last official battle of the U Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially Democratic Kampuchea (កម្ពុជាប្រជាធិបតេយ្យ (Kampuchéa Démocratique Vietnamese: Kampuchea Dân chủ) was a The Sino–Vietnamese War, also known as the Third Indochina War, was a brief but bloody border war fought in 1979 between the People's Republic of China (PRC Reeducation camp (trại học tập cải tạo is the official name given to the Prison camps operated by the Government of Vietnam following Boat people is a term that usually refers to Illegal immigrants or Asylum seekers who emigrate en masse in boats that are sometimes old and crudely made rendering Phnom Penh ( Khmer: ភ្នំពេញ official Romanization Phnum Pénh; pʰnum pɯɲ is the Capital The Kingdom of Cambodia ( formerly known as Kampuchea (, transliterated: Preăh Réachéanachâkr Kâmpŭchea) is a country in South East The Khmer Rouge (ខ្មែរក្រហម Kmae Krɑhɑɑm was the Communist ruling political party of Cambodia &mdashwhich it renamed Events 69 - After the First Battle of Bedriacum, Vitellius becomes Roman Emperor. Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The last official American military action in Southeast Asia occurred on May 15, 1975. Events 1252 - Pope Innocent IV issues the Papal bull Ad exstirpanda, which authorizes but also limits the Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Forty-one U. S. military personnel were killed when the Khmer Rouge seized a U. S. merchant ship, the SS Mayagüez. SS Mayagüez was a US container ship that attained notoriety for its May 12, 1975 seizure by Khmer Rouge forces of Cambodia which The episode became known as the Mayagüez incident. The Mayagüez incident involving the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia on May 12-15 1975 marked the last official battle of the U
The Pathet Lao overthrew the royalist government of Laos in December 1975. The Pathet Lao ( Lao ປະເທດລາວ, "Land of Laos" was a communist, Nationalist Political movement and Laos (ˈlɑːoʊs or /ˈlaʊs/ officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic, is a Landlocked country in Southeast Asia, bordered by Burma They established the Lao People's Democratic Republic. Laos (ˈlɑːoʊs or /ˈlaʊs/ officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic, is a Landlocked country in Southeast Asia, bordered by Burma 
Hundreds of thousands of South Vietnamese officials, particularly ARVN officers, were imprisoned in reeducation camps after the Communist takeover. Reeducation camp (trại học tập cải tạo is the official name given to the Prison camps operated by the Government of Vietnam following Tens of thousands died and many fled the country after being released. Up to two million civilians left the country, and as many as half of these boat people perished at sea. Boat people is a term that usually refers to Illegal immigrants or Asylum seekers who emigrate en masse in boats that are sometimes old and crudely made rendering
On July 2, 1976, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam was declared. Events 310 - Pope Miltiades is elected 626 - In fear of assassination Li Shimin ambushes and kills his rival Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially After repeated border clashes in 1978, Vietnam invaded Democratic Kampuchea (Cambodia) and ousted the Khmer Rouge. Democratic Kampuchea (កម្ពុជាប្រជាធិបតេយ្យ (Kampuchéa Démocratique Vietnamese: Kampuchea Dân chủ) was a As many as two million died during the Khmer Rouge genocide. Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction in whole or in part of an ethnic racial religious or national group
Vietnam began to repress its ethnic Chinese minority. Thousand fled and the exodus of the boat people began. Boat people is a term that usually refers to Illegal immigrants or Asylum seekers who emigrate en masse in boats that are sometimes old and crudely made rendering In 1979, China invaded Vietnam and the two countries fought a brief border war, known as the Third Indochina War or the Sino-Vietnamese War. The Sino–Vietnamese War, also known as the Third Indochina War, was a brief but bloody border war fought in 1979 between the People's Republic of China (PRC The Sino–Vietnamese War, also known as the Third Indochina War, was a brief but bloody border war fought in 1979 between the People's Republic of China (PRC
In the post-war, Americans struggled to absorb the lessons of the military intervention. This article deals exclusively with the Vietnamese communities within the United States of America; for other communities outside Vietnam refer to the Overseas Vietnamese Westminster is a city in Orange County, California, United States. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. Houston, Texas, United States has two Chinatowns Old Chinatown is located in Downtown Houston near the George R Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State.  As General Maxwell Taylor, one of the principal architects of the war, noted "first, we didn't know ourselves. General Maxwell Davenport Taylor ( August 26, 1901 &ndash April 19, 1987) was an American Soldier and Diplomat We thought that we were going into another Korean war, but this was a different country. The Korean War refers to a period of military conflict between North Korean and South Korean regimes with major hostilities lasting from June 25 1950 until the Secondly, we didn't know our South Vietnamese allies … And we knew less about North Vietnam. Who was Ho Chi Minh? Nobody really knew. So, until we know the enemy and know our allies and know ourselves, we'd better keep out of this kind of dirty business. It's very dangerous. "
In the decades since end of the conflict, discussions have ensued as to whether America's withdrawal was a political defeat rather than military defeat. Some have suggested that "the responsibility for the ultimate failure of this policy [America's withdrawal from Vietnam] lies not with the men who fought, but with those in Congress. . . " Alternatively, the official history of the United States Army noted that "tactics have often seemed to exist apart from larger issues, strategies, and objectives. The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities. Military tactics ( Greek: Taktikē, the art of organizing an army are the techniques for using weapons or military units in combination for engaging and defeating Yet in Vietnam the Army experienced tactical success and strategic failure … The … Vietnam War('s) … legacy may be the lesson that unique historical, political, cultural, and social factors always impinge on the military … Success rests not only on military progress but on correctly analyzing the nature of the particular conflict, understanding the enemy's strategy, and assessing the strengths and weaknesses of allies. A new humility and a new sophistication may form the best parts of a complex heritage left to the Army by the long, bitter war in Vietnam. " U. S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger wrote in a secret memo to President Gerald Ford that "in terms of military tactics, we cannot help draw the conclusion that our armed forces are not suited to this kind of war. Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German -born American bureaucrat diplomat and 1973 Even the Special Forces who had been designed for it could not prevail. " Even Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara concluded that "the achievement of a military victory by U. S. forces in Vietnam was indeed a dangerous illusion. "
Doubts surfaced as to the effectiveness of large-scale, sustained bombing. As Army Chief of Staff Harold K. Johnson noted, "if anything came out of Vietnam, it was that air power couldn't do the job. The Chief of Staff of the United States Army ( CSA) is the highest ranking officer in the United States Army and is member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Harold Keith Johnson ( 22 February, 1912  Even General William Westmoreland admitted that the bombing had been ineffective. As he remarked, "I still doubt that the North Vietnamese would have relented. " The inability to bomb Hanoi to the bargaining table also illustrated another U. S. miscalculation. The North's leadership was composed of hardened communists who had been fighting for independence for thirty years. They had successfully defeated the French, and their tenacity as both nationalists and communists was formidable.
The withdrawal from Vietnam called into question U. S. Army doctrine. Marine Corps General Victor Krulak heavily criticised Westmoreland's attrition strategy, calling it "wasteful of American lives … with small likelihood of a successful outcome. Victor H Krulak (born January 7 1913 in Denver Colorado) was a decorated United States Marine Corps officer who saw action in World War II, Korea This article is about the military strategy For the Israeli-Egyptian conflict see War of Attrition, for the game theoretical model see War of attrition (game " As well, doubts surfaced about the ability of the military to train foreign forces.  The defeat also raised disturbing questions about the quality of the advice that was given to successive presidents by the Pentagon. 
As the number of troops in Vietnam increased, the financial burden of the war grew. Some of the rarely mentioned consequences of the war were the budget cuts to President Johnson's Great Society programs. The Great Society was also a 1960s band featuring Grace Slick, and a 1914 book by English social theorist Graham Wallas. As defense spending and inflation grew, Johnson was forced to raise taxes. The Republicans, however, refused to vote for the increases unless a $6 billion cut was made to the administration's social programs.
Almost 3 million Americans served in Vietnam. Between 1965 and 1973, the United States spent $120 billion on the war ($700 billion in 2007 dollars). This resulted in a large federal budget deficit. The war demonstrated that no power, not even a superpower, has unlimited strength and resources. But perhaps most significantly, the Vietnam War illustrated that political will, as much as material might, is a decisive factor in the outcome of conflicts.
In 1977, United States President Jimmy Carter from the Democratic Party issued a pardon for nearly 10,000 draft dodgers. James Earl "Jimmy" Carter Jr (born October 1 1924 was the thirty-ninth President of the United States, serving from 1977 to 1981 and the recipient of the 2002 A draft dodger, draft evader or draft resister, is a person who avoids ("dodges" or otherwise violates the Conscription policies of the 
The People's Republic of China's involvement in the Vietnam War began in 1949, when the communists took over the country. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES The Communist Party of China provided material and technical support to the Vietnamese communists. The Communist Party of China ( CPC) ( also known as the Chinese Communist Party ( CCP) is the founding and ruling political party of the In the summer of 1962, Mao Zedong agreed to supply Hanoi with 90,000 rifles and guns free of charge. Mao Zedong ( 26 December 1893 – 9 September 1976) was a Chinese Military and political leader who led After the launch of "Rolling Thunder", China sent anti-aircraft units and engineering battalions to North Vietnam to repair the damage caused by American bombing, rebuild roads and railroads, and to perform other engineering work. This freed North Vietnamese army units for combat in the South. Between 1965 and 1970, over 320,000 Chinese soldiers served in North Vietnam. The peak came in 1967, when 170,000 served there. Although Chinese assistance was accepted gladly, the North Vietnamese remained distrustful of their larger neighbour because of the historical antipathy between the two nations. China emerged as the principle backer of the Khmer Rouge. The People's Republic of China briefly launched an invasion of Vietnam in 1979 which is considered by most western experts to be a military failure. The two nations continued the border wars in the 1980s which China capturing many Vietnamese islands during the Battle of Hoang Sa and the Spratly Island Skirmish (1988). The Battle of the Paracel Islands was fought between the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Vietnam ( South Vietnam) in the Paracel The Johnson South Reef Skirmish of 1988 was a Naval Battle that took place between Chinese and Vietnamese forces over Johnson South
On the anti-communist side, South Korea had the second-largest contingent of foreign troops in South Vietnam after the United States. The Republic of Korea Marine Corps (aka ROK Marine Corps / ROK Marines, ROKMC, Korean Hangul: 대한민국 South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː South Korea dispatched its first troops in 1964. Large combat battalions began arriving a year later. South Korean troops developed a reputation for effectiveness. Koreans conducted counterinsurgency operations so well that American commanders felt that Korean AOR (area of responsibility) was the safest.  This was further supported when Vietcong documents captured after the Tet Offensive warned their compatriots to never engage Koreans until full victory is certain. 
Approximately 320,000 South Korean soldiers were sent to Vietnam. As with the United States, soldiers served one year. The maximum number of South Korean troops peaked at 50,000. More than 5,000 South Koreans were killed and 11,000 were injured in the war. All troops were withdrawn in 1973.
Australia and New Zealand, both close allies of the United States and members of SEATO, sent ground troops to Vietnam. The Vietnam War was a conflict in which the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV or North Vietnam and its allies fought against the Republic of Vietnam New Zealand's involvement in the Vietnam War was highly controversial sparking widespread protest at home from anti-Vietnam War movements modelled on their American counterparts The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization ( SEATO) was an International organization for Collective defense created by the Southeast Asia Collective Both nations had gained experience in counterinsurgency and jungle warfare during the Malayan Emergency. The Malayan Emergency was a State of emergency declared by the British colonial government of Malaya in 1948 and lifted in 1960 as well as an insurrection and Geographically close to Asia, their governments subscribed to the "Domino Theory" of communist expansion and felt that their national security would be threatened if communism spread further in Southeast Asia. The domino theory was a Foreign policy theory promoted by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence
Australia began by sending advisers to Vietnam, the number of which rose steadily until 1965, when combat troops were committed. New Zealand began by sending a detachment of engineers and an artillery battery, and then started sending special forces and regular infantry. Australia's peak commitment was 7,672 combat troops, New Zealand's 552. Most of these soldiers served in the 1st Australian Task Force, a brigade group-type formation, which was based in what was then Phuoc Tuy province, in the vicinity of present-day Ba Ria-Vung Tau Province. The 1st Australian Task Force (1 ATF commanded the Australian and New Zealand Army units deployed to South Vietnam between 1966 and 1971 A Brigade group is a term used primarily in armies of the Commonwealth of Nations for an ad hoc arrangement of forces and not a permanent organisation whereas Bà Rịa–Vũng Tàu is a province of Vietnam. It is located on the coast of the country's southeastern region.
Australia re-introduced conscription to expand its armed forces in the face of significant public opposition to the war. Conscription in Australia, or mandatory Military service also known as National Service, has a controversial history dating back to the first years of nationhood The Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam was a large demonstration against the United States involvement in the Vietnam War that took place across the United
Several Australian and New Zealand units were awarded U. Individual awards for valor Other than the awards to unknown soldiers of World War I the Medal of Honor, the highest United States valor decoration has not been awarded S. unit citations for their service in South Vietnam, while the last Victoria Crosses—the highest award for bravery in the Commonwealth— awarded to members of the Australian armed forces were for actions in Vietnam. See below the section "Separate Commonwealth awards" Note that since 
Some 10,450 Filipino troops were dispatched to South Vietnam. The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP They were primarily engaged in medical and other civilian pacification projects. These forces operated under the designation PHLCAAG or Philippines Civil Affairs Assistance Group.
Thai Army formations, including the "Queen's Cobra" battalion, saw action in South Vietnam between 1965 and 1971. The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj Thai forces saw much more action in the covert war in Laos between 1964 and 1972, though Thai regular formations there were heavily outnumbered by the irregular "volunteers" of the CIA-sponsored Police Aerial Reconnaissance Units or PARU, who carried out reconnaissance activities on the western side of the Ho Chi Minh Trail.
The Soviet Union supplied North Vietnam with medical supplies, arms, tanks, planes, helicopters, artillery, anti-aircraft missiles and other military equipment. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Soviet crews fired USSR-made surface-to-air missiles at the B-52 bombers which were the first raiders shot down over Hanoi. A surface to air missile ( SAM) or ground-to-air missile ( GTAM) is a Missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy Aircraft Fewer than a dozen Soviet citizens lost their lives in this conflict. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Russian officials acknowledged that the Soviet Union had stationed up to 3,000 troops in Vietnam during the war. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending 
As a result of a decision of the Korean Workers' Party in October 1966, in early 1967, North Korea sent a fighter squadron to North Vietnam to back up the North Vietnamese 921st and 923rd fighter squadrons defending Hanoi. The Workers' Party of Korea (WPK is the ruling party of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK commonly known as North Korea North Korea is the commonly used short form name for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (or DPRK) a State located in East Asia, They stayed through 1968, and 200 pilots were reported to have served.  In addition, at least two anti-aircraft artillery regiments were sent as well. North Korea also sent weapons, ammunition and two million sets of uniforms to their comrades in North Vietnam.  Kim Il Sung is reported to have told his pilots to "fight in the war as if the Vietnamese sky were their own". Kim Il-sung ( 15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was the leader of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea from its founding in early 
Canadian, Indian and Polish troops (respectively, representatives of NATO, non-aligned states, and the Warsaw Pact) formed the International Control Commission, which was supposed to monitor the 1954 ceasefire agreement. Canada did not fight in the Vietnam War, and diplomatically it was officially " Non-belligerent " Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland The North Atlantic Treaty The Non-Aligned Movement ( NAM) is an International organization of states considering themselves not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc The Warsaw Pact (see Nomenclature) was an organization of Communist states in Central and Eastern Europe. The International Control Commission (ICC formally called the International Commission for Supervision and Control in Vietnam (ICSC was the international force established in 1954 Canada also had citizens serving in Vietnam as part of the U. S. armed forces and harboured American deserters and draft dodgers during the conflict. A draft dodger, draft evader or draft resister, is a person who avoids ("dodges" or otherwise violates the Conscription policies of the Canada hosted 30,000–90,000 Americans seeking asylum.
Nicaragua and Paraguay also offered to send troops to Vietnam in support of the United States. Nicaragua (ˌnɪkəˈrɑgwə officially the Republic of Nicaragua () is a representative democratic republic and the largest nation in Central America Paraguay, officially the Republic of Paraguay ( Spanish: República del Paraguay; Guaraní: Tetã Paraguái) is one of the only
One of the most controversial aspects of the U. S. military effort in Southeast Asia was the widespread use of herbicides between 1961 and 1971. A herbicide is used to kill unwanted Plants Selective herbicides kill specific targets while leaving the desired Crop relatively unharmed They were used to defoliate large parts of the countryside. These chemicals continue to change the landscape, cause diseases and birth defects, and poison the food chain. 
Early in the American military effort it was decided that since the enemy were hiding their activities under triple-canopy jungle a useful first step might be to defoliate certain areas. This was especially true of growth surrounding bases (both large and small) in what became known as Operation Ranch Hand. Operation Ranch Hand was a US Military operation during part of the Vietnam War, lasting from 1962 until 1971. Corporations like Dow Chemical and Monsanto were given the task of developing herbicides for this purpose. The Dow Chemical Company () is an American Multinational corporation headquartered in Midland Michigan. The Monsanto Company ( is a multinational Agricultural biotechnology Corporation. The defoliants, which were distributed in drums marked with color-coded bands, included the "Rainbow Herbicides"—Agent Pink, Agent Green, Agent Purple, Agent Blue, Agent White, and, most famously, Agent Orange, which included dioxin as a byproduct of its manufacture. A defoliant is any chemical sprayed or dusted on plants to cause its leaves to fall off The Rainbow Herbicides are a group of chemicals used by the United States military in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War. Agent Pink is the code name for a powerful Herbicide and Defoliant used by the U Agent Green is the code name for a powerful Herbicide and Defoliant used by the U Agent Purple is the code name for a powerful Herbicide and Defoliant used by the U Agent Blue is one of the " Rainbow herbicides " that is known for its use by the United States during the Vietnam War. Agent White is the code name for a powerful Herbicide and Defoliant used by the U Agent Orange is the code name for a powerful Herbicide and Defoliant used by the U Not to be confused with Dioxane or Digoxin. Dioxin is a heterocyclic, organic, antiaromatic compound About 12 million gallons (45 000 000 L) of Agent Orange were sprayed over Southeast Asia during the American involvement. A prime area of Ranch Hand operations was in the Mekong Delta, where the U. The Mekong Delta (đồng bằng sông Cửu Long “Nine Dragon river delta” is the region in southwestern Vietnam where the Mekong River approaches and empties S. Navy patrol boats were vulnerable to attack from the undergrowth at the water's edge.
In 1961 and 1962, the Kennedy administration authorized the use of chemicals to destroy rice crops. Between 1961 and 1967, the U. S. Air Force sprayed 20 million U. S. gallons (75 700 000 L) of concentrated herbicides over 6 million acres (24 000 km²) of crops and trees, affecting an estimated 13% of South Vietnam's land. A 1967 study by the Agronomy Section of the Japanese Science Council concluded that 3. Agronomy is the science and technology of using plants for food fuel feed and fiber 8 million acres (15 000 km²) of foliage had been destroyed, possibly also leading to the deaths of 1,000 peasants and 13,000 head of livestock.
As of 2006, the Vietnamese government estimates that there are over 4,000,000 victims of dioxin poisoning in Vietnam, although the United States government denies any conclusive scientific links between Agent Orange and the Vietnamese victims of dioxin poisoning. In some areas of southern Vietnam dioxin levels remain at over 100 times the accepted international standard. 
The U. S. Veterans Administration has listed prostate cancer, respiratory cancers, multiple myeloma, type II diabetes, Hodgkin’s disease, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, soft tissue sarcoma, chloracne, porphyria cutanea tarda, peripheral neuropathy, and spina bifida in children of veterans exposed to Agent Orange. Lung cancer is a Disease of uncontrolled Cell growth in tissues of the Lung. Multiple myeloma (also known as MM, myeloma, plasma cell myeloma, or as Kahler's disease after Otto Kahler) is a type of Diabetes mellitus type 2 or Type 2 Diabetes (formerly called non - Insulin -dependent Diabetes mellitus (NIDDM or adult-onset diabetes is a metabolic Hodgkin's lymphoma, also known as Hodgkin's disease is a type of Lymphoma first described by Thomas Hodgkin in 1832 The non-Hodgkin lymphomas are a diverse group of hematologic cancers which encompass any Lymphoma other than Hodgkin lymphoma. A soft tissue sarcoma is a rare form of Cancer that develops in mesenchymal tissue the Muscle, Connective tissues and Bones of the body Chloracne is an acne -like eruption of Blackheads Cysts and Pustules associated with over-exposure to certain Halogenated Aromatic Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT is the most common subtype of Porphyria. Peripheral neuropathy is the term for damage to Nerves of the Peripheral nervous system, which may be caused either by diseases of the Nerve or from the Spina bifida ( Latin: "split spine" is a developmental Birth defect involving the Neural tube: incomplete closure of the Embryonic neural Although there has been much discussion over whether the use of these defoliants constituted a violation of the laws of war, the defoliants were not considered weapons, since exposure to them did not lead to immediate death or incapacitation.
The number of military and civilian deaths from 1959 to 1975 is debated. The Vietnam War began in 1959 and did not end until 1975 By then it had escalated from an insurgency in South Vietnam sponsored by the North Vietnamese government Some reports fail to include the members of South Vietnamese forces killed in the final campaign, or the Royal Lao Armed Forces, thousands of Laotian and Thai irregulars, or Laotian civilians who all perished in the conflict. They do not include the tens of thousands of Cambodians killed during the civil war or the estimated one and one-half to two million that perished in the genocide that followed Khmer Rouge victory, or the fate of Laotian Royals and civilians after the Pathet Lao assumed complete power in Laos. Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction in whole or in part of an ethnic racial religious or national group The Khmer Rouge (ខ្មែរក្រហម Kmae Krɑhɑɑm was the Communist ruling political party of Cambodia &mdashwhich it renamed The Pathet Lao ( Lao ປະເທດລາວ, "Land of Laos" was a communist, Nationalist Political movement and Laos (ˈlɑːoʊs or /ˈlaʊs/ officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic, is a Landlocked country in Southeast Asia, bordered by Burma
In 1995, the Vietnamese government reported that its military forces, including the NLF, suffered 1. 1 million dead and 600,000 wounded during Hanoi's conflict with the United States. Civilian deaths were put at two million in the North and South, and economic reparations were expected. War reparations refer to the monetary compensation intended to cover damage or injury during a war Hanoi concealed the figures during the war to avoid demoralizing the population. 
The Vietnam War has been featured heavily in television and films. The war also influenced a generation of musicians and songwriters. Music is an Art form in which the medium is Sound organized in Time. The band Country Joe and The Fish recorded "I-Feel-Like-I'm-Fixin'-To-Die Rag" in 1965, and it became one of the most influential anti-Vietnam protest anthems. Country Joe and the Fish was a rock band most widely known for musical protests against the Vietnam War, from 1966 to 1971. The musical Miss Saigon focuses on the end of the war and its aftermath. Miss Saigon is a West End musical by Claude-Michel Schönberg and Alain Boublil, with lyrics by Boublil In cinema, noted films that have shaped the popular conception of the war include Apocalypse Now, Platoon, The Deer Hunter , Hamburger Hill, Full Metal Jacket, Good Morning, Vietnam, Born on the Fourth of July, the Rambo films and We Were Soldiers. Platoon is a 1986 Vietnam War film written and directed by Oliver Stone and starring Charlie Sheen, Tom Berenger The Deer Hunter is a 1978 war Drama film about a trio of Rusyn American steel worker friends and their infantry service in the Hamburger Hill is a 1987 American War film about the actual assault of the U Full Metal Jacket ( 1987) is a War film based on the novel The Short-Timers by Gustav Hasford. Good Morning Vietnam is a 1987 Comedy-drama film set in Saigon during the Vietnam War, based on the career of Adrian Cronauer Born on the Fourth of July is a 1989 Film adaptation of the Autobiography of the same name by Vietnam War veteran "RAMBO" can refer to RAMBO Brooklyn, a neighborhood in New York City Robust Associations of Massive Baryonic Objects, a theoretical We Were Soldiers is a 2002 American War film that dramatized the Battle of Ia Drang in November 1965, the first major engagement It serves as the setting for numerous video games, such as Conflict: Vietnam. A video game is a Game that involves interaction with a User interface to generate visual feedback on a video device. Conflict Vietnam is the third installment in the Conflict series of Video games for the Xbox, PC and PlayStation 2