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Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) is a tax-exempt non-profit organization and corporation, originally created to oppose the Vietnam War. The term anti-war usually refers to the opposition to a particular nation's decision to start or carry on an armed conflict unconditional of a maybe-existing just cause. Organised opposition to a possible future military attack against Iran by the United States (US is known to have started during 2005-2006 There has been significant opposition to the Iraq War across the world Opposition to the 2001 Afghanistan War consisted of tens to a hundred thousand protestors in the United States and the United Kingdom. See also War on Terrorism Criticism of the War on Terrorism (also named the War on Terror) addresses the issues morals Ethics, efficiency economics The International Campaign to Ban Landmines is a coalition of Non-governmental organizations whose goal is to abolish the production and use of Anti-personnel mines Opposition to US involvement in the Vietnam War is significant because domestic protest in the U Nuclear disarmament is the proposed dismantling of Nuclear weapons. Opposition to World War II was most vocal during its early period and stronger still before it started while Appeasement and Isolationism were considered viable diplomatic World War I was mainly opposed by Left-wing groups but there was also opposition by Christian Pacifist groups Opposition to the Second Boer War in Britain was modest when the war began on 11 October 1899 and was always less widespread than support for it let alone Popular opposition to the American Civil War, which lasted from 1861 to 1865 was widespread This article concerns Loyalists in the American Revolution. For information on the role of those Loyalists in Canadian history after their emigration see United Empire In order to facilitate organized opposition to war Anti-war activists have often founded anti-war organizations A conscientious objector (CO is an individual who on religious moral or ethical grounds refuses to participate as a combatant in war or in some cases to take any role that would support A draft dodger, draft evader or draft resister, is a person who avoids ("dodges" or otherwise violates the Conscription policies of the A peace movement is a Social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war (or all wars minimize inter-human violence in a particular place or Peace churches are Christian churches groups or communities advocating Christian pacifism. Peace camps are a form of physical Protest camp that is focused on Anti-war activity Anti-imperialism, strictly speaking is a term that may be applied to or movement opposed to some form of Imperialism. Antimilitarism is a doctrine commonly found in the Anarchist and more globally in the Socialist movement which may be both characterized as Internationalist Nonviolence is a philosophy and strategy for social change that rejects the use of physical Violence. Pacificism is the general Ethical opposition to War or Violence, except in cases where force is deemed absolutely necessary to advance the cause of Satyagraha ( Sanskrit: सत्याग्रह satyāgraha) is a philosophy and practice of Nonviolent resistance developed by Mohandas In the context of Revolutionary struggle vanguardism is a strategy whereby an organization (usually a Vanguard party) attempts to place itself at the center of the An anti-war book is a book that is perceived as having an Anti-war theme An anti-war film is a Film that emphasizes the pain horror and human costs of armed conflict An Anti-war Song is a Musical composition that either states anti-war sentiments directly or one which is perceived (by the public and/or critics as having A non-profit organization ( abbreviated "NPO" also "not-for-profit" is a legally constituted Organization whose objective is to support or engage A corporation is a separate legal entity usually used to conduct business The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia VVAW describes itself as a national veterans' organization that campaigns for peace, justice, and the rights of all United States military veterans. A veteran (from Latin vetus, meaning "old" is a person who has or is working in the armed forces An organization (or organisation &mdash see spelling differences) is a social arrangement which pursues collective goals which controls its own performance and An advertising campaign is a series of Advertisement messages that share a single idea and theme which make up an integrated marketing communication (IMC Peace, in the modern usage is a concept defined by the ideal state of relationship as absence of hostility at the international level that of a War. JUSTICE is a Human rights and law reform organisation based in the United Kingdom. A right is a legal or moral Entitlement or Permission. Rights are of vital importance in theories of Justice and deontological ethics The United States Armed Forces are the overall unified military forces of the United States It publishes a twice-yearly newsletter The Veteran, previously published more frequently as 1st Casualty (1971-1972) and then as Winter Soldier (1973-1975). A newsletter is a regularly distributed Publication generally about one main topic that is of Interest to its Subscribers Newspapers and Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. VVAW considers itself as "anti-war," although not in the pacifistic sense. The term anti-war usually refers to the opposition to a particular nation's decision to start or carry on an armed conflict unconditional of a maybe-existing just cause. Membership varied greatly, from almost 25,000 veterans during the height of the war to fewer than a couple thousand in subsequent decades. While the member veterans were a small fraction of the millions that served between 1965-75, the VVAW is widely considered to be among the most influential anti-war organizations of that era.
VVAW was founded by six Vietnam war veterans, including Jan "Barry" Crumb, Mark Donnelly, and David Braum, in New York City in June, 1967 after they marched together in the April 15, 1967 Spring Mobilization to End the War anti-war demonstration with over 400,000 other protesters. The City of New York Events 1450 - Battle of Formigny: Toward the end of the Hundred Years' War, the French attack and nearly annihilate English Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. The term anti-war usually refers to the opposition to a particular nation's decision to start or carry on an armed conflict unconditional of a maybe-existing just cause. After talking to members of the Veterans for Peace group at that march, Barry discovered there was no organization representing Vietnam veterans. 
The VVAW's website summarizes its history, in part indicating that:
|“||Vietnam Veterans Against the War, Inc. (VVAW) is a national veterans' organization that was founded in New York City in 1967 after six Vietnam vets marched together in a peace demonstration. It was organized to voice the growing opposition among returning servicemen and women to the still-raging war in Indochina. . . ||”|
According to the organization itself, VVAW organized rap groups for veterans in 1970, the predecessor to readjustment counseling at modern Vet Centers. Their website goes on to indicate that they helped draft legislation for education and job programs, and assisted veterans with post-war health care through the VA hospital system, including assisting victims of Agent Orange and other chemical agents. The United States Department of Veterans Affairs ( VA) is a government-run military Veteran benefit system with Cabinet -level status Agent Orange is the code name for a powerful Herbicide and Defoliant used by the U The VVAW advocated amnesty for war resisters. 
The fluctuating membership size of this organization has been a point of some confusion, with some sources claiming it peaked at over 20,000 and others claiming it never exceeded several thousand. Several historic events would serve to fuel the organization's rapid growth as well as its decline in membership. The organization remained small until late 1969 when it gained several hundred new members.  With the Nixon administration's decision to invade Cambodia and the Kent State shootings in 1970, VVAW's visibility increased, as did their membership, from 1,500 to almost 5000.  Publicity from VVAW-sponsored events continued to spur membership growth past 8,500 by the first month of 1971, and thousands more flocked to the organization after Playboy Magazine donated a full-page VVAW ad in its February edition.  An FBI informant within the organization notes in March, 1971 that membership had grown from 1,500 to over 12,000 in the past four months.  The national televised coverage of VVAW's week-long April, 1971 protest in Washington, DC, and smaller protests in subsequent months continued to increase their notoriety. By 1971, the group had grown to 20,000 members.  The organization itself claims a peak membership of over 30,000.  Including non-veterans, VVAW had "roughly 50,000" members.  By 1972, negotiations at the Paris peace talks were in full swing, signaling the beginning of the end of the war as well as the end of VVAW's primary mission. The Paris Peace Accords (or Paris Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam) were signed on January 27, 1973 by the governments of the Membership in the organization diminished as the leadership scrambled to broaden its purpose. Membership requirements were relaxed, and political differences arose as new members fought with old about which direction the VVAW should take. The organization had dwindled to just several thousand members by 1973.  With internal struggle still threatening to tear the group apart, 2,000 members demonstrated in Washington in July 1974, demanding universal amnesty for draft resisters and deserters, and universal discharge with benefits for all Vietnam veterans. 
Historian Andrew E. Hunt concluded, "Detractors have always cited numbers when criticizing VVAW. At the pinnacle of VVAW's success in 1972, membership rolls listed almost twenty-five thousand card carriers, or fewer than 1 percent of all eligible Vietnam era veterans. . . By emphasizing the low percentage of Vietnam veterans who paid dues to VVAW, opponents have sought to dismiss the significance and impact of the organization. "
During the Labor Day weekend of September 4-7, 1970, Operation RAW ("Rapid American Withdrawal") took place. Events 476 - Romulus Augustus, last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, is deposed when Odoacer proclaims himself It was a three day protest march from Morristown, NJ, to Valley Forge State Park by over 200 veterans. They were joined by members of "Nurses for Peace" and other peace groups. Dressed in combat fatigues and carrying toy weapons, the march was designed to dramatize a Vietnam-type search and destroy mission to the Middle America they passed through. Search and Destroy, or Seek and Destroy, or Zippo or even simply S&D, refers to a military Strategy that became a notorious component of the Upon entering each town along the march, sweeps were made, prisoners taken and interrogated, property seized and homes cleared with the assistance of previously planted "guerrilla theater" actors portraying civilians. The 86 mile long march culminated in a four hour rally at Valley Forge that over 1,500 people attended. The honorary commander during this event was retired Army Brigadier General Hugh B. Hester. Hugh Bryan Hester (August 5 1895 - November 25 1983 was an Army Brigadier General born in Hester North Carolina Sponsors included Senators George McGovern and Edmund Muskie, Rep. George Stanley McGovern Edmund Sixtus "Ed" Muskie ( March 28, 1914 – March 26, 1996) was an American Democratic Politician John Conyers, Paul O'Dwyer, Mark Lane, and Donald Sutherland. John Conyers Jr (born May 16, 1929) is a member of the United States House of Representatives representing Michigan's 14th congressional district Peter Paul O'Dwyer (1907 Bohola, County Mayo, Ireland - 1998 was an American politician and lawyer and brother of Mayor William O'Dwyer Mark Lane (born February 24 1927 in New York City) is a US attorney and author of many books including the bestseller Rush to Judgment Donald McNicol Sutherland OC (born July 17, 1935) is a Canadian Actor with a film career spanning over 50 years Scheduled speakers were John Kerry, Joe Kennedy, Rev. } John Forbes Kerry (born December 11 1943 is an American Politician who is currently serving his fourth term as the junior United States Senator James Bevel, Mark Lane, Jane Fonda, and Sutherland. James Bevel (b October 19, 1936) is a Civil rights activist who as the Director of Direct Action and Nonviolent Education of the Southern Christian Leadership Mark Lane (born February 24 1927 in New York City) is a US attorney and author of many books including the bestseller Rush to Judgment Jane Fonda (born December 21 1937 is an American Academy Award winning Actress, Writer, political activist, former Fashion Congressman Allard Lowenstein, Mike Lerner, and Army First Lt. Allard Kenneth Lowenstein, ( January 16, 1929 &ndash March 14, 1980) was a liberal Louis Font also spoke. 
In January 1971, VVAW sponsored The Winter Soldier Investigation to gather and present testimony from soldiers about war crimes being committed in Southeast Asia and demonstrate they were committed as a result of American war policies. The "Winter Soldier Investigation" was a media event sponsored by the Vietnam Veterans Against the War from January 31, 1971 – February The "Winter Soldier Investigation" was a media event sponsored by the Vietnam Veterans Against the War from January 31, 1971 – February Intended as a public event, it was boycotted by much of the mainstream media, although the Detroit Free Press covered it daily and immediately began investigating what was being said. No records of fraudulent participants or fraudulent testimony were produced. 
Veterans applying for participation in the investigation were asked if they witnessed or participated in a list of transgressions, including search and destroy missions, crop destruction, and POW mistreatment. Search and Destroy, or Seek and Destroy, or Zippo or even simply S&D, refers to a military Strategy that became a notorious component of the 
This event was estimated to have cost the VVAW $50-75,000.  It was financially supported by the fund-raising efforts of several celebrity peace activists, with actress Jane Fonda soliciting over $10,000 in donations at 54 college campuses for the VVAW. Jane Fonda (born December 21 1937 is an American Academy Award winning Actress, Writer, political activist, former Fashion  Winter Soldier Investigation testimonies were read into the Congressional Record by Senator Hatfield. In 1972, VVAW continued antiwar protests, and released Winter Soldier, a 16mm black-and-white documentary film showing participants giving testimony at the 1971 hearing, as well as footage of the Dewey Canyon III week of protest events. Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Winter Soldier is a 1972 documentary film chronicling the Winter Soldier Investigation which took place in Detroit, Michigan, Black-and-white is a number of Monochrome forms in Visual arts. Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt in one fashion or another to " Document " reality This film is currently on limited distribution and is now available on DVD.
This peaceful anti-war protest organized by VVAW took its name from two short military invasions of Laos by US and South Vietnamese forces. Dubbed "Operation Dewey Canyon III," it took place in Washington, D. C, April 19 through April 23, 1971. Events 1012 - Martyrdom of Alphege in Greenwich London. 1529 - At the Second Diet of Speyer Events 215 BC - A temple is built on the Capitoline Hill dedicated to Venus Erycina to commemorate the Roman defeat at Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. It was referred to by the participants as "a limited incursion into the country of Congress. " The level of media publicity and Vietnam veteran participation at the Dewey Canyon week of protest events far exceeded the Winter Soldier Investigation and any previous VVAW protest event. 
Led by Gold Star Mothers (mothers of soldiers killed in war), more than 1,100 veterans marched across the Lincoln Memorial Bridge to the Arlington Cemetery gate, just beneath the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. Shortly after World War I the Gold Star Mothers Club was formed in the United States to provide support for mothers that lost sons or daughters in the war Arlington National Cemetery, in Arlington Virginia, is a military cemetery in the United States, established during the American Civil War The Tomb of the Unknowns (also known as the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, although it has never been officially named is a monument dedicated to American servicemen who have A memorial service for their peers was conducted by Reverend Jackson H. Day, who had just a few days earlier resigned his military chaplainship. In addition to his passages of scripture and citations of poetry was a personal statement, including the following:
|“||Maybe there are some others here like me--who wanted desperately to believe that what we were doing was acceptable, who hung on the words of "revolutionary development" and "winning the hearts and minds of the people. " We had been told that on the balance the war was a good thing and we tried to make it a good thing; all of us can tell of somebody who helped out an orphanage, or of men like one sergeant who adopted a crippled Vietnamese child; and even at My Lai the grief of one of the survivors was mixed with bewilderment as he told a reporter, "I just don't understand it . The My Lai Massacre ( approximately) (thảm sát Mỹ Lai was the Mass murder of 347 to 504 unarmed citizens of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam almost . . always before, the Americans brought medicine and candy. " I believe there is something in all of us that would wave a flag for the dream of an America that brings medicine and candy, but we are gathered here today, waving no flags, in the ruins of that dream. Some of you saw right away the evil of what was going on; others of us one by one, adding and re-adding the balance sheet of what was happening and what could possibly be accomplished finally saw that no goal could be so laudable, or defense so necessary, as to justify what we have visited upon the people of Indochina. ||”|
The Gold Star Mothers and a few others approached the cemetery gate to enter and lay wreaths, but the gate had been closed and locked upon word of their impending arrival. They placed the wreaths instead along the gate, and peacefully departed. 
The march re-formed and continued to the Capitol, with Congressman Pete McCloskey joining the procession en route. Paul Norton "Pete" McCloskey Jr (born September 29 1927 is a Democratic politician from the U McCloskey and fellow Representatives Bella Abzug, Donald Edwards, Shirley Chisholm, Edmund Muskie and Ogden Reid addressed the large crowd in a show of support. Bella Savitsky Abzug ( July 24, 1920 &ndash March 31, 1998) was a American Congresswoman and a leader of the women’s movement William Donlon Edwards, (born January 6, 1915) usually known as Don Edwards, is an American Politician of the Democratic Party Shirley Anita St Hill Chisholm ( November 30, 1924 – January 1, 2005) was an American politician educator and author Edmund Sixtus "Ed" Muskie ( March 28, 1914 – March 26, 1996) was an American Democratic Politician Ogden Rogers Reid (born June 24, 1925) was a United States Representative from New York. VVAW members defied a Justice Department-ordered injunction that they not camp on The Mall and set up camp anyway. The National Mall is an open-area National park in Downtown Washington D Later that day, the District Court of Appeals lifted the injunction. Some members personally visited their Congressmen to lobby against the U. S. participation in the war. They presented Congress with their 16-point suggested resolution for ending the war in Vietnam. 
On Tuesday, April 20, 200 veterans listened to hearings by the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on proposals to end the war. Events 1303 - The University of Rome La Sapienza is instituted by Pope Boniface VIII. Other veterans, still angry at the insult to the Gold Star Mothers when they were refused entry to Arlington National Cemetery the previous day, marched back to the front gate. After initial refusal of entry, the veterans were finally allowed in. Veterans performed guerrilla theater on the Capitol steps, re-enacting combat scenes and search and destroy missions from Vietnam. Later that evening, Democratic Senators Claiborne Pell and Philip Hart held a fund-raising party for the veterans. Claiborne de Borda Pell (born November 22, 1918) was a United States Senator from Rhode Island from 1961 to 1997 Philip Aloysius Hart ( December 10, 1912 &ndash December 26, 1976) was a Democratic United States Senator from Michigan During the party it was announced that Chief Justice Warren Burger of the United States Supreme Court had reversed the decision of the Court of Appeals and reinstated the injunction. Warren Earl Burger ( September 17 1907 – June 25 1995) was Chief Justice of the United States from 1969 to 1986 The veterans were given until 4:30 the following afternoon to break camp and leave the National Mall. This was the fastest reversal of an Appeals Court decision in the Supreme Court's history. 
On Wednesday, April 21, more than 50 veterans marched to The Pentagon and attempted to surrender and turn themselves in as war criminals. Events 753 BC - Romulus and Remus found Rome ( traditional date) The Pentagon is the Headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located in Arlington County, Virginia. A Pentagon representative took their names and then turned them away. More veterans continued to meet with and lobby their representatives in Congress. Senator Ted Kennedy spent the day speaking with the veterans. Edward Moore "Ted" Kennedy (born February 22 1932 is the senior United States Senator from Massachusetts and a member of the Democratic The guerrilla theater re-enactments were moved to the steps of the Justice Department. After a close vote by the veterans, they decided to remain where they were. Many of the veterans were prepared to be arrested for continuing to camp on the National Mall, but none were arrested. Several of the patrolling park police officers reassured the veterans that arrests were not going to be made, despite orders to do so. Headlines the following day read, "VETS OVERRULE SUPREME COURT. "
On Thursday, April 22, a large group of veterans demonstrated on the steps of the Supreme Court, and demanded to know why the Supreme Court had not ruled on the constitutionality of the war in Vietnam. Events 1500 - Portuguese Navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral becomes the first European to sight Brazil. The veterans sang "God Bless America" and 110 were arrested for disturbing the peace, and were later released. John Kerry, as VVAW spokesman, testified against the war for 2 hours in front of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee before a packed room of observers and media. } John Forbes Kerry (born December 11 1943 is an American Politician who is currently serving his fourth term as the junior United States Senator  The veterans continued lobbying on Capitol Hill all day. A Washington District Court judge angrily dissolved his injunction order, rebuking the Justice Department lawyers for requesting the court order and then not enforcing it. Veterans staged a candlelight march around the White House, while a huge American flag was carried upside down in the historic international signal of distress. 
On Friday, April 23, more than 800 veterans, one by one, tossed their medals, ribbons, discharge papers and other war mementos on the steps of the Capitol, rejecting the Vietnam war and the significance of those awards. Events 215 BC - A temple is built on the Capitoline Hill dedicated to Venus Erycina to commemorate the Roman defeat at Several hearings in Congress were held that week regarding atrocities committed in Vietnam and the media's inaccurate coverage of the war. There were also hearings on proposals to end the United States' participation in the war. The vets planted a tree on the mall as part of a ceremony symbolizing the veterans' wish to preserve life and the environment. 
Senators George McGovern and Mark Hatfield helped arrange at least $50,000 in fundraising during preparations for Dewey Canyon III. George Stanley McGovern Mark Odom Hatfield (born July 12 1922 is an American politician and educator from the state of Oregon. The VVAW paid $94,000 for an ad to advertise this event in the April 11, 1971 New York Times. Events 491 - Flavius Anastasius becomes Byzantine Emperor, with the name of Anastasius I. Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. 
In May 1971, the VVAW and former Army chaplain Reverend Jackson Day conducted a service for veterans at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center. Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. Injured and disabled veterans who were inpatients there were brought into the chapel in wheelchairs. The service included time for individual prayers or public confession, and many veterans took the floor to recount things they had done or seen for which they felt guilt or anger. This was the last service performed by Jackson Day for almost two decades. 
Operation POW, organized by the VVAW in Massachusetts, got its name from the group's concern that Americans were prisoners of the Vietnam War, as well as to honor American POWs held captive by North Vietnam. The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN or less commonly Vietnamese Democratic Republic (Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa was a Country on the northern half of Vietnam The event sought to tie antiwar activism to patriotic themes. Over the 1971 Memorial Day weekend, veterans and other participants marched from Concord, Massachusetts to a rally on Boston Common. Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. Memorial Day is a United States Federal holiday observed on the last Monday of May (on May in) Concord is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, in the United States. Boston Common is a central Public park in Boston, Massachusetts. The plan was to invoke the spirit of the American Revolution and Paul Revere by spending successive nights at the sites of the Battle of Lexington and Concord and the Battle of Bunker Hill, culminating in a Memorial Day rally with a public reading of the United States Declaration of Independence. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" Paul Revere (bap December 22, 1734 ( OS) / January 1 1735 (NS &ndash May 10, 1818) was an American Silversmith The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War. The Battle of Bunker Hill took place on June 17, 1775 on Breed's Hill, as part of the Siege of Boston during the American Revolutionary The United States Declaration of Independence is a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4 1776 announcing that the thirteen American colonies then
The event organizers requested permission in advance to camp overnight on the historic Lexington, Massachusetts Green, but were refused by the town Board of Selectmen. Lexington is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. On the day of the marchers' arrival in Lexington, an emergency town meeting was held. The Selectmen, citing a town bylaw, insisted that the demonstrators must vacate the Green by 10:00 p. m. The VVAW and town citizens that supported them decided instead to camp on the village green. At 2:30 a. m. on May 30, local and state police awoke and arrested 441 demonstrators for trespassing. Events 1416 - The Council of Constance, called by the Emperor Sigismund a supporter of Antipope John XXIII burns Jerome of Prague following All were given the Miranda warning and were taken away on school buses to spend the night at the Lexington Public Works Garage. In the United States, the Miranda warning is a Warning given by Police to criminal Suspects in police custody or in a custodial situation before Julian Soshnick, a Lexington resident and charismatic lawyer of Boston Strangler fame, was among several attorneys that volunteered to represent the demonstrators. Julian Soshnick was born on August 17, 1932 in Brooklyn NY. Born and raised there Soshnick graduated high school in Manhattan at age The Boston Strangler is a name attributed to the murderer of several women in Boston, Massachusetts, United States, in the early 1960s He worked out a deal with friend, colleague, and Concord Court Judge, John Forte. The protesters later paid a $5 fine each and were released. The mass arrests caused a community backlash and eventually gave positive coverage to the VVAW. 
On December 26, 1971, fifteen VVAW activists barricaded and occupied the Statue of Liberty for two days in a successful attempt to bring attention to the antiwar cause. Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. Liberty Enlightening the World (La liberté éclairant le monde commonly known as the Statue of Liberty (Statue de la Liberté was presented Simultaneous protests took place across the country, such as at the historic Betsy Ross house in Philadelphia (for 45 minutes) and Travis Air Force Base in California (for 12 hours). Betsy Ross ( January 1, 1752  – January 30, 1836) was an American woman said to have sewn the first American flag which incorporated Travis Air Force Base is a United States Air Force air base under the operational control of the Air Mobility Command (AMC located three miles (5 Other VVAW members in California also briefly occupied the Saigon Government consulate in San Francisco. VVAW occupied the Statue of Liberty a second time in 1976 to bring renewed attention to veteran issues. 
During a four day meeting in Kansas City, Missouri on November 12-15, 1971, Scott Camil, a radical VVAW leader, proposed the assassination of the most conservative members of United States Congress, and other powerful opponents of the antiwar movement. Kansas City Missouri only Items for the metro area Kansas City Kansas or North Kansas City MO should go on their respective pages Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. Scott Camil (born 1946 in Brooklyn, New York, United States) is a noted political activist. The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses
According to interviews with VVAW members who were present at the Kansas City meeting, Camil suggested something he called "The Phoenix Project," named after the original Phoenix Program operations during the Vietnam War used to assassinate the Viet Cong. The Phoenix Program ( Vietnamese: Chiến dịch Phượng Hoàng, a word related to Fenghuang, the Chinese phoenix) was a military Mr. Camil's Phoenix Project plan was to execute the Southern senatorial leadership that was backing the war including John Tower, Strom Thurmond, and John Stennis. John Goodwin Tower ( September 29, 1925 – April 5, 1991) was the first Republican United States senator from Texas James Strom Thurmond ( December 5, 1902 – June 26, 2003) was an American politician who served as governor of South Carolina and John Cornelius Stennis ( August 3, 1901 – April 23, 1995) was a U In Camil's words:
|“||My plan was that, on the last day we would go into the [congressional] offices we would schedule the most hardcore hawks for last — and we would shoot them all. . . I was serious. ||”|
The assassinations were to be executed during the Senate Christmas recess. The plan was voted down, although there's a "difference of opinion" as to how close the vote was.  It is unclear whether 2004 presidential candidate John Kerry was present for this meeting.  His campaign indicated he wasn't there and had resigned from the organization by then. He continued to speak at anti-war events for several more months.
Some declassified Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) files allege that VVAW leadership was actively coordinating with members of the North Vietnamese Peace delegation toward the common cause of ending US participation in the war and changing US policy in Southeast Asia. Some leaders in the VVAW organization were alleged by informants to the FBI to have cultivated ties with the North Vietnamese representatives, forming collaborative efforts to oppose US policy in Southeast Asia. The FBI managed to gain the confidence of several VVAW members and used them to perform surveillance of the group’s activities, as part of its controversial COINTELPRO operation. COINTELPRO (an acronym for Co unter Intel ligence Pro gram was a series of covert and often illegal projects conducted by the United States Federal Bureau
Mike Oliver had hoped to send a VVAW delegation to Hanoi to coordinate an American Prisoner of War (POW) release with the North Vietnamese government. The rationale behind this was the release of US POW’s would be credited by the North Vietnamese to the VVAW organization, thereby boosting notability and credibility. Oliver had hoped that the successful release of prisoners could lead to more negotiations page 12. The VVAW's leadership also decided in a July 1971 Executive Committee meeting that terms such as "Vietcong" and "North Vietnamese" were not to be used in VVAW press releases and communications, because their use supported the "establishment idea that there are two Vietnams. Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. " Instead, they used PRG (Provisional Revolutionary Government) and DRV (Democratic Republic of Vietnam), to indicate the groups acceptance of these designations. The Republic of South Vietnam (Cộng Hòa Miền Nam Việt Nam was the provisional government of South Vietnam following the final military defeat of the Army of the The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN or less commonly Vietnamese Democratic Republic (Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa was a Country on the northern half of Vietnam
According to FBI records dated November 24, 1971, an informant "who has provided credible information in the past" stated that Al Hubbard had just returned from meetings with peace delegates in Paris, and described those meetings. Events 380 - Theodosius I makes his adventus, or formal Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. Alfred H Hubbard was a US Air Force veteran anti-war and civil rights activist Black Panther, executive secretary of Vietnam Veterans Against the War Representatives from the VVAW, the Communist Party USA and a "Left Wing" group from Paris were invited to meet with individuals from the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and the Peoples Republic Government from Vietnam. The Communist Party of the United States of America ( CPUSA) is a Marxist-Leninist Political party in the United States. The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN or less commonly Vietnamese Democratic Republic (Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa was a Country on the northern half of Vietnam Hubbard said his trip was financed by the CPUSA. The Communist Party of the United States of America ( CPUSA) is a Marxist-Leninist Political party in the United States. Hubbard said he, while in Paris, spoke with a representative of North Vietnam about possibly having a VVAW delegation travel to Vietnam to discuss the release of American POWs. The FBI informants report also stated that Joseph Urgo, a VVAW employee at the national office, traveled to Hanoi 90 days earlier and also spoke with North Vietnamese representatives. Urgo’s aim coincided with a planned international action by active duty people to demonstrate against the Vietnam war. Urgo proposed to send tapes to the North Vietnamese to use in Radio Hanoi broadcasts to get US servicemen to stop fighting in Vietnam, and proposed to send a VVAW delegation to negotiate the release of American POWs. 
The following year, on April 4, 1972, a confidential source reported that “a representative of a North Vietnamese Government at the Paris Peace talks telephoned the 'movement' in the United States telling them to be ready to take action, presumably demonstrations, to counter expected escalation of bombing by American air forces in South Vietnam and North Vietnam as a result of the increased military action of North Vietnamese forces in Quang Tri Province, South Vietnam. Events 1581 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. ” The source reported that VVAW had no specific "actions" planned at that time but that the National Steering Committee would take it up at the next meeting, and announce its plans during a press conference.
By 1973, US combat involvement in Vietnam ended, and VVAW changed its emphasis to include advocating amnesty for draft resisters and dissenters. Amnesty (from the Greek amnestia, oblivion is a legislative or executive act by which a state restores those who may have been guilty of an offense against it to Conscription (also known as the draft, the call-up or national service) is a general term for involuntary labor demanded by some established authority President Jimmy Carter eventually granted an amnesty in 1980. James Earl "Jimmy" Carter Jr (born October 1 1924 was the thirty-ninth President of the United States, serving from 1977 to 1981 and the recipient of the 2002 Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar)
There were two significant battles fought simultaneously by VVAW after the fighting in Vietnam ended in 1975, that of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Agent Orange. Post traumatic stress disorder It is a severe and ongoing emotional reaction to Agent Orange is the code name for a powerful Herbicide and Defoliant used by the U
As VVAW gained members in the late '60s they realized that many veterans were having readjustment problems. As early as 1970 VVAW initiated "rap groups" in which veterans could discuss the troubling aspects of the war, their disillusionment with it, and their experiences on arriving home. They enlisted the aid of two prominent psychiatrists, Dr. Robert Jay Lifton and Dr. Robert Jay Lifton (born May 16, 1926) is an American Psychiatrist and author chiefly known for his studies of the psychological causes Chaim F. Shatan to direct and add focus to their sessions. Chaim F Shatan ( September 1, 1924 &ndash August 2001 was a Canadian Psychiatrist born in Włocławek, Poland. Their continued pressure and activism caused what had been known as "Post-Vietnam Syndrome" to be recognized in 1980 as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The VVAW "rap group" treatment methods are the basis for treating PTSD today. 
In 1978 Chicago Veterans Administration caseworker Maude de Victor noticed a pattern in cancers and other illnesses suffered by Vietnam veterans and linked those illnesses with exposure to herbicides like Agent Orange, and its dioxin contaminants. VVAW led veterans organizations in the struggle to force the government to test, treat and compensate the victims of those poisons. Congress mandated a study of Agent Orange in 1979. Veterans sued the herbicide manufacturers, Dow Chemical and Monsanto, in 1982. Two years later the companies settled the suit for $180 million to compensate what at that time was over 200,000 claimants. 
These were lonely campaigns since the "main stream" veterans groups regarded Vietnam veterans as "crybabies and losers" in general, and VVAW in particular was seen as being unpatriotic and anti-American. A natural ally, Vietnam Veterans of America, wasn't founded by VVAW member Robert Muller until 1978. Vietnam Veterans of America Inc (VVA is a national non-profit corporation founded in 1978 in the United States that promotes the interests of United It wasn't until 1990 that the American Legion and VVA filed suit against the government for failing to conduct the study ordered by Congress in 1979. 
Several members moved on to prominent positions in society. In 1978 former VVAW member Robert Muller co-founded the Vietnam Veterans of America. Year 1978 ( MCMLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar) Robert Muller (born 1923 in Belgium) is an employee of the United Nations. Vietnam Veterans of America Inc (VVA is a national non-profit corporation founded in 1978 in the United States that promotes the interests of United Former member John Kerry became Lt. } John Forbes Kerry (born December 11 1943 is an American Politician who is currently serving his fourth term as the junior United States Senator Governor of Massachusetts in 1982, and won a United States Senate seat in 1984. Ron Kovic went on to write Born on the Fourth of July, an autobiography which became an Academy Award winning movie in 1989. Ronald Lawrence Kovic (born July 4 1946 is an Anti-war Activist, Veteran and Writer who was paralyzed in the Vietnam War.
Every five years, members and former members attend regular reunions, with the 1992 event attracting hundreds of veterans to commemorate the founding of the organization twenty five years earlier. VVAW continues to organize programs and fundraising events in support of veterans, peace, and social justice. ”
The relatively small group Vietnam Veterans Against the War Anti-Imperialist (VVAW-AI) is not a faction, caucus or part of VVAW. The VVAW web site describes VVAW-AI as "the creation of an obscure, ultra-left sect called the Revolutionary Communist Party (RCP) . The Revolutionary Communist Party USA ( RCP USA) known originally as the Revolutionary Union, is a Maoist Communist party formed in . . designed to pimp off of VVAW's history of struggle. " In the mid-1970s, as VVAW membership severely dropped after the end of the war, members of Bob Avakian's militant RCP were able to gain influential positions in the VVAW, including the National Office. Bob Avakian is Chairman of the Revolutionary Communist Party USA, which he has led since its formation in 1975 A rift in the remaining membership formed due to the opposed ideologies, and the RCP group formed a separate organization, Vietnam Veterans Against the War Anti-Imperialist (VVAW-AI). VVAW filed and won a lawsuit prohibiting the RCP group from using the VVAW name, logos and materials. 
In 1973, after months of heated debate, the VVAW changed the name of the organization to VVAW/WSO (Winter Soldier Organization), and opened its membership to non-veterans as a remedy to its diminishing size. With these relaxed membership requirements, members of ultra-left factions like Bob Avakian's militant Revolutionary Union were able to join VVAW, ultimately leading to a takeover of the VVAW’s National Office and steering committee. Bob Avakian is Chairman of the Revolutionary Communist Party USA, which he has led since its formation in 1975 The Revolutionary Communist Party USA ( RCP USA) known originally as the Revolutionary Union, is a Maoist Communist party formed in By 1975, the RCP cadre had managed to obtain many key leadership positions in the organization, and tried to control the splintered organization.  A rift in the remaining membership formed due to the opposed ideologies, and the RCP group splintered off to form a smaller separate organization, Vietnam Veterans Against the War Anti-Imperialist (VVAW-AI). With the radical fringe elements influence removed, VVAW dropped the WSO from their name, won the court injunction against the radical group and struggled to rebuild. Deep animosity still exists between the two organizations. 
The organization survived the conflict with the RCP and its general decline after the end of the Vietnam War, but as Historian Andrew Hunt put it, only as “an ineffectual fragment of its former self. . . . VVAW never ceased to exist. It split, dwindled, and underwent additional transformation. Yet it did not fold. ”