|Part of the series on|
Freedom of speech by country
Video games have been the subject of debate and censorship, due to the depiction of graphic violence, sexual themes, consumption of illegal drugs, consumption of alcohol or tobacco, or profanity in some games. Censorship is the suppression of speech or deletion of communicative material which may be considered objectionable harmful or sensitive as determined by a censor The working conditions of Journalists in Algeria have evolved since the 1962 independence. Australia is a federation, and responsibility for censorship is divided between the states and the federal government Censorship in Belarus Freedom of press In 2007 Reporters Without Borders ranked Belarus 151st out of 168 countries in its global press freedom listing Censorship in Bhutan is comparable to its South Asian neighbours although not as focused or systematic as censorship in China. Censorship in Burma (or Myanmar refers to government policies in controlling and regulating certain information particularly on religious, ethnic, political In Canada the principles of Community standards and Public interests are the primary adjudicants of what may be published or broadcast by the media. Censorship in the People's Republic of China is the limiting or suppressing of the publishing dissemination and viewing of certain information in the People's Republic of China Censorship in Cuba has been reported on extensively and resulted in European Union sanctions as well as statements of protest from groups governments and noted individuals As with many Soviet-allied countries prior to the fall of the Berlin Wall the government of the former German Democratic Republic (German Deutsche Demokratische Republik) applied In standard conditions France does not have Censorship laws being a Liberal democracy respectful of Freedom of press. Censorship in Germany has taken many forms during the history of the region. Censorship in India mainly targets religious issues It is justified by the government as necessary to maintain communal harmony peace and tranquillity given the history of communal tension Censorship in Iran is the limiting or suppressing of the publishing dissemination and viewing of certain information in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Although Ireland does not currently exercise much censorship in practice the state has wide-ranging laws which allow censorship and has specific laws covering Films, Israel has media censorship laws based on British emergency regulations from 1945 that apply to domestic media foreign newspapers and wire service transmissions from In Japan, Article 21 of the Japanese Constitution guarantees freedom of expression and prohibits formal censorship Censorship is a growing concern for Malaysia as it attempts to adapt to a modern knowledge-based economy The Government of Pakistan censors all Internet traffic by means of Routing all connections through a central exchange which is administered by the Censorship has been a fundamental element of Portuguese national culture throughout the country's history. The United States Department of State Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Samoa states that "The law provides for freedom of speech and of the Censorship in Saudi Arabia is prevalent in the press and with internet access Censorship in Singapore mainly targets sexual political racial and religious issues as defined by an ever-shifting panoply of out-of-bounds markers. Censorship in South Asia can apply to books movies the Internet and other media North Korea (the Democratic People's Republic of Korea) has a high degree of censorship and no Freedom of the press. Censorship in the Soviet Union was pervasive and strictly enforced Sweden strongly protects freedom of speech and was a pioneer in officially abolishing Censorship. Censorship in the Republic of China ( Taiwan) was eliminated in 1987 Freedom of speech in Thailand was guaranteed in the articles 39 40 41 in the 1997 Constitution. Censorship in Tunisia has been an issue since the country gained independence in 1956. Freedom of expression in Turkey is regulated by domestic and international legislation which Censorship in the United Kingdom has a long history with variously stringent and lax laws in place at different times although a much more liberal approach has been taken in recent years According to the Reporters Without Borders Press Freedom Index the United States is currently ranked 48th in the world in terms of press freedom Freedom of speech is the concept of the inherent human right to voice one's opinion publicly without fear of Censorship or Punishment Advertising regulation refers to the Laws and rules defining the ways in which products can be advertised in a particular region Editing of anime in American distribution describes the process of altering Anime to prepare it to be distributed in the United States and forms part of the process Many societies have banned certain Books This is a partial list of books that have been banned. For nearly the entire History of film production certain films have been either Boycotted by political and religious groups or literally banned by a Regime A re-edited film is a Film that has been edited from the original theatrical release Internet censorship is control or suppression of the publishing or accessing of information on the Internet. Censorship of Music, the practice of censoring Music from the public may take the form of partial or total censorship with the latter banning the music entirely Censorship on MTV has been the subject of debate for years MTV the first and most popular Music Television network in the U Book burning (a category of biblioclasm or book destruction is the practice of destroying often ceremoniously, one or more copies of a book or other written material A bleep censor (or " bleeping " is the replacement of verbal Profanity with a beep sound (usually a) in television or radio Content-control software, also known as censorware or web filtering software, is a term for software designed and optimized for controlling what content Expurgation is a form of Censorship by way of purging anything noxious offensive sinful or erroneous usually from an artistic work Pixelization is a video- and image-editing technique where an image or part of it is blurred by displaying part or all of it at a markedly lower resolution Postal censorship is the Inspection or examination of Mail, most often by Governments that can include opening reading or marking of covers, Prior restraint is a Legal term referring to a Government 's actions that prevent materials from being published Self-censorship is the act of censoring or classifying one's own work ( Blog, Book (s Film (s or other means of expression out To Whitewash is to gloss over or cover up vices crimes or to exonerate by means of a perfunctory investigation or through biased presentation of data A gag order (or suppression order) is an order sometimes a legal order by a court or government other times a private order by an employer or other institution restricting Corporate censorship is Censorship by Corporations the sanctioning of speech by spokespersons employees and business associates by threat of monetary loss loss Censorship in Italy under Fascism Censorship in Italy was not created with Fascism, nor did it end with it but it had heavy influence in the life of Italians Political censorship exists when a Government attempts to conceal distort or falsify information that its citizens receive by suppressing or crowding out political news Censorship by religion is a form of Censorship where Freedom of expression is controlled or limited using Religious authority or on the basis of the teachings A video game is a Game that involves interaction with a User interface to generate visual feedback on a video device. Censorship is the suppression of speech or deletion of communicative material which may be considered objectionable harmful or sensitive as determined by a censor Graphic violence is the depiction of especially vivid brutal and realistic acts of violence in visual media such as Literature, Film, Television Human sexual behavior or different human sexual practices encompass a wide range of activities such as strategies to find or attract partners ( Mating and display Recreational drug use is the use of Psychoactive drugs for Recreational purposes rather than for work, medical or spiritual purposes In Chemistry, an alcohol is any Organic compound in which a Hydroxyl group ( - O[[hydrogen H]]) is bound to a Carbon Tobacco is an Agricultural product recognized as an addictive drug processed from the fresh Leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. The original meaning of the adjective profane (from the Latin for "in front of or outside the Temple " was to refer to items not belonging to the church Critics of video games sometimes include parents' groups, politicians, organized religion groups, and other special interest groups. A politician (from Greek " Polis " is an individual who is involved in influencing public decision making through the influence of Politics or a person A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos An interest group (also advocacy group, lobby group, pressure group or special interest group) is an organized collection of people who seek In recent years, particularly notable controversy was generated with the discovery of a downloadable modification that unlocked a sexually explicit minigame in the game Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas. Mod or modification is a term generally applied to Computer games especially First-person shooters RPGs and Real-time strategy games Grand Theft Auto San Andreas is a sandbox-style action-adventure computer and Video game developed by Rockstar North
"Video game censorship" is defined as use of state or group power to control the playing, distribution, purchase, or sale of video games or computer games based on an evaluation of the game's content. Video game censorship is a polarizing subject, with both proponents and opponents of censorship displaying passion for their views.
Historically, this type of controversy and criticism is not unique to video games. The same situation has been applied to comic books; music (particularly, hip hop, heavy metal, jazz), and films. A comic book (often shortened to simply comic and sometimes called a comic paper or comic magazine) is a Magazine or Book of narrative The Parents Music Resource Center (PMRC was an American committee formed in 1985 by four women Tipper Gore, wife of Senator and later Vice President Hip hop is a cultural movement which developed in New York City in the 1970s primarily among African Americans and Latinos. Jazz is an American Musical art form which originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States The age of the art medium also plays a role in the level of controversy since the longer an art medium exists the more likely it is to have generated broader public acceptance. In the aforementioned examples, attempts at censorship in the United States were struck down as a violation of First Amendment rights, and they have all gone on to become integrated facets of society. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A right is a legal or moral Entitlement or Permission. Rights are of vital importance in theories of Justice and deontological ethics
In June 2007, the American Medical Association considered a proposal to designate video game addiction as a mental disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The American Medical Association (AMA founded in 1847 and incorporated 1897 is the largest association of Physicians and Medical students in the United States Mental disorder or mental illness is a psychological or behavioral pattern that occurs in an individual and is thought to cause distress or disability that is not expected as The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders' ( DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association They recommended that the American Psychiatric Association (APA) consider the change when it revises the next diagnostic manual in 2012. The American Psychiatric Association (APA is the main Professional organization of Psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the 
In 1976, Death Race became one of the first controversial video games; based on the film Death Race 2000, it allowed players to drive around in a car, in order to run down zombies. Death Race 2000 is a cult action Film directed by Paul Bartel, and starring David Carradine, Simone Griffeth Nevertheless, critics inferred that the game actually simulated vehicular homicide—particularly considering that the game's original title was Pedestrian. Vehicular Homicide ( or sometimes known as Vehicular Manslaughter) in most states in the United States is a crime Also, the film consists of racers running over pedestrians in order to score "points". However, this did not earn quite as much controversy as the game.
Video and computer games are periodically criticized in the media. Examples include Mortal Kombat, Doom, and Grand Theft Auto. Doom (officially cased DOOM) is a 1993 Computer game by Id Software that is a landmark title in the First-person shooter Proponents of video game censorship believe that "it is particularly disturbing to some that some video games allow players to act out crimes, and reward them for doing so. In the sociological field, crime is the breach of a rule or Law for which some governing authority or force may ultimately prescribe a Punishment " A frequently-cited example is the extremely popular Grand Theft Auto III by Rockstar Games, in which a principal game activity is carjacking. Grand Theft Auto III (abbreviated as GTA III) is a sandbox-style action-adventure computer and Video game Rockstar Games, (also known as Rockstar NYC) is a British -founded development division of Video game publisher Take-Two Interactive Carjacking is a Crime of stealing a motor vehicle when the vehicle is occupied It should be noted, however, that any activity of this sort in the game is done completely by choice and players are punished for committing crimes by the police. Considering this game allows one to freely choose, it could also be noted that the game is similar to real life. On the other hand, A later game in the series, Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas goes a step further, with levels that require the gamer to murder corrupt police characters before the game will advance. Grand Theft Auto San Andreas is a sandbox-style action-adventure computer and Video game developed by Rockstar North
The game's predecessor, Grand Theft Auto: Vice City came under similar criticism, also for implying allegedly racist hate crimes: the game, taking place in "Vice City" (a fictional Miami) in 1986, involves a gang war between Haitians and Cuban refugees, and the player often serves both gangs to plot against one another. Grand Theft Auto Vice City is a sandbox-style action-adventure computer and Video game designed by Rockstar North (formerly List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that Hate crimes (also known as bias motivated crimes) occur when a perpetrator targets a victim because of his or her membership in a certain Social group, usually defined Haiti ( English: ˈheɪ·tiː or haɪ·ˈjiː·tiː French Haïti a·i·ti Haitian Creole: The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la Haitian and Cuban anti-defamation groups highly criticized the game for these actions, including using phrases such as "kill the Haitian dickheads" (a phrase used in the game, actually referring to the Haitian gang with which the character is having a shoot-out). After the threat of being sued by the Haitian-American Coalition, Rockstar removed the word "Haitians" from this phrase in the game's subtitles.
These concerns have led to voluntary rating systems adopted by the industry, such as the ESRB rating system in the United States and the PEGI rating system in Europe, that are aimed at informing parents about the types of games their children are playing (or are asking to play). The Entertainment Software Rating Board ( ESRB) is a self-regulatory organization that applies and enforces ratings, Advertising guidelines and Pan European Game Information ( PEGI) is a European Video game content rating system. Certain game publishers’ decision to have controversial games rated shows that they are not targeted at young children. They are ESRB rated as "Mature" or "Adults Only" in the US, or given BBFC ratings of 15 or 18 in the UK. The Entertainment Software Rating Board ( ESRB) is a self-regulatory organization that applies and enforces ratings, Advertising guidelines and The British Board of Film Classification ( BBFC) originally British Board of Film Censors, is the organisation responsible for Film, DVD The packaging notes that these games should not be sold to children. In the US, ESRB ratings are not legally binding, but many retailers take it upon themselves to refuse the sale of these games to minors. The Entertainment Software Rating Board ( ESRB) is a self-regulatory organization that applies and enforces ratings, Advertising guidelines and In the UK, the BBFC ratings are backed up by law, so it is actually illegal to sell the game to anyone under the indicated age, and many UK retailers go beyond that and also enforce the PEGI ratings, which are not backed up by law. The British Board of Film Classification ( BBFC) originally British Board of Film Censors, is the organisation responsible for Film, DVD Pan European Game Information ( PEGI) is a European Video game content rating system.
Lt. Col. David Grossman, a former West Point psychology professor, has written several books that pertain to the subject of violence in the media, including On Killing and Stop Teaching Our Kids to Kill. Lieutenant Colonel Dave Grossman is an author who has specialized in the study of the psychology of killing which he calls ' Killology ' "USMA" redirects here For other uses see USMA (disambiguation The United States Military Academy (also known as USMA, During heights of video game controversy he has been interviewed on the content of his books, and has repeatedly used the term "murder simulator" to describe first-person shooter games. A first-person shooter ( FPS) is an action Video game from the Shooter game The initial development of Maze War He argues that video game publishers unethically train children in the use of weapons and, more importantly, harden them emotionally to the act of murder by simulating the killing of hundreds or thousands of opponents in a single typical video game.
Most studies, however, reach the conclusion that violence in video games is not causally linked with aggressive tendencies. This was the conclusion of a 1999 study by the U. S. government, prompting Surgeon General David Satcher to say, "We clearly associate media violence to aggressive behavior. David Satcher, MD, PhD (born March 2, 1941) was the 10th Assistant Secretary for Health from 1998 to 2001 and the 16th But the impact was very small compared to other things. Some may not be happy with that, but that’s where the science is. " A meta-analysis by psychologist Jonathan Freedman, who reviewed over 200 published studies and found that the majority did not find a causal link, also reached this conclusion. In Statistics, a meta-analysis combines the results of several studies that address a set of related research hypotheses Mental health professional A psychologist is a practitioner of Psychology, the systematic investigation of the mind including Behavior, Cognition, 
Controversy of speeding and evading the authority in racing games has surfaced when a copy of Need for Speed: Most Wanted found on one of the street racer's car in Toronto in January 19, 2006, when two street, named Alexander Ryazanov and Wang-Piao Dumani Rossracers, both aged 18 were involved in an accident resulting in a taxi-driver's death, named Tahir Khan. Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario Events 1419 - Hundred Years' War: Rouen surrenders to Henry V of England completing his reconquest of Normandy. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Alexander Nikolayevich Ryazanov (Александр Николаевич Рязанов b Tahir Ahmed Khan (born 23 February 1991) was born to a Swiss mother and Pakistani father Nevertheless, the police did not find any connection between the game and the incident. 
Over two hundred studies have been published which examine the effects of violence in entertainment media and which at least partially focus on violence in video games in particular. Some psychological studies have shown a correlation between children playing violent video games and suffering psychological effects, though the vast majority stop short of claiming behavioral causation. In Probability theory and Statistics, correlation, (often measured as a correlation coefficient) indicates the strength and direction of a linear Causality (but not causation) denotes a necessary relationship between one event (called cause and another event (called effect) which is the direct consequence
The American Psychological Association summarizes the issue as "Psychological research confirms that violent video games can increase children's aggression, but that parents moderate the negative effects. The American Psychological Association (APA is a professional organization representing psychologists in the U " Craig A. Anderson has testified before the U. S. Senate on the issue, and his meta-analysis of these studies has shown five consistent effects: "increased aggressive behavior, thoughts, and affect; increased physiological arousal; and decreased prosocial (helping) behavior". In Statistics, a meta-analysis combines the results of several studies that address a set of related research hypotheses  Nevertheless, some studies explicitly deny that such a connection exists, most notably Anderson and Ford (1986), Winkel et al. (1987), Scott (1995), Ballard and Lineberger (1999), and Jonathan Freedman (2002).  More recently, Block and Crain (2007) claim that in a critical paper by Anderson (and his co-author, Bushman), data was improperly calculated and produced fallacious results. 
On March 6, 2005, the American television news program 60 Minutes took on the case of an 18-year old murderer (named Devin Moore), wherein plaintiffs have argued Grand Theft Auto: Vice City inspired him to kill three police officers that came to arrest him for stealing a car. Events 1079 - Omar Khayyám completes the Iranian calendar. 1454 - Thirteen Years' War: Delegates of Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Not to be confused with the BBC news magazine program Sixty Minutes (TV series. Strickland v Sony is a court case whose central focus is on whether violent video games played a role in teenager Devin Moore's first-degree murder/shooting Grand Theft Auto Vice City is a sandbox-style action-adventure computer and Video game designed by Rockstar North (formerly In October 2005, a judge sentenced the convicted killer to death by lethal injection. Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment.
Such content found in video games are often criticized by religious groups of specific denominations. Censorship by religion is a form of Censorship where Freedom of expression is controlled or limited using Religious authority or on the basis of the teachings Games such as Breath of Fire II, La Pucelle Tactics, Xenogears / Xenosaga, Final Fantasy Tactics, Final Fantasy X, Castlevania, Tales of Symphonia, Grandia II and Shin Megami Tensei contain religious themes that some might find offensive. Breath of Fire II, known in Japan as, is a Console role-playing game developed and published by Capcom. La Pucelle Tactics is a Tactical role-playing game for the PlayStation 2, developed by Nippon Ichi Software. is a Console role-playing game developed and published by Square (now Square Enix) for Sony 's PlayStation. --> TC --> is primarily a series of Science fiction is a Tactical role-playing game developed and published by Square (now Square Enix) for the Sony PlayStation Video game console. is a Console role-playing game developed and published by Square (now Square Enix) and the tenth installment in the Final Fantasy series Castlevania is a Video game series created and developed by Konami. is a Video game first released for the Nintendo GameCube and later for the PlayStation 2. is a Video game in the Grandia series made by Game Arts. The game was originally released for the Sega Dreamcast in 2000 and later ported is a Console role playing game by Atlus that was released on October 30 1992 on several platforms Often, RPGs in particular make use of a corrupt and powerful church as the game’s antagonist. A computer role-playing game ( CRPG) is a broad Video game genre originally developed for personal computers and other home computers An antagonist (from Greek ανταγωνιστής - antagonistes, "opponent competitor rival" is a character or
In response to potential criticism, religious content has been censored in some Western releases of Japanese-origin video games. Censorship is the suppression of speech or deletion of communicative material which may be considered objectionable harmful or sensitive as determined by a censor For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Nintendo in particular censored many of its U. is a Multinational corporation headquartered in Kyoto Japan founded on S. releases back in the NES and SNES era. The Nintendo Entertainment System (often abbreviated as NES or simply Nintendo) is an 8-bit Video game console that was released by The Super Nintendo Entertainment System or Super NES (also called SNES and Super Nintendo) is a 16-bit Video game console that was Castlevania, Dragon Quest, Final Fantasy and other games containing such references as crosses, the words "holy," "monk," and names of biblical figures were censored for their U. Castlevania is a Video game series created and developed by Konami. published as Dragon Warrior in North America until the 2005 release of Dragon Quest VIII Journey of the Cursed King, is a series of role-playing S. release. One trophy in Super Smash Bros. Melee, Tamagon, was locked out of the U. often abbreviated SSBM or Melee, is a crossover Fighting game released for the Nintendo GameCube shortly after its launch in ( in the S. release of the game, possibly due to religious reference and the title of the game in which he originally appeared (Devil World). is a Famicom game developed by Nintendo, and released in Japan on October 5, 1984, and later released in Europe The trophy can be obtained via hacking, but the name of the game has been changed to "Demon World" in the description.
Members of the Sikh came in action against the 2002 game Hitman 2: Silent Assassin, starting a petition that urged publisher Eidos to recall the game, because of a level in the game where the player was instructed to kill a group of "fanatical believers", which bore quite a resemblance to the Sikh. Sikh (English or; ਸਿੱਖ sikkh, IPA) is the title and name given to an adherent of Sikhism. Hitman 2 Silent Assassin is a stealth -based Shooter game, developed by IO Interactive and published by Eidos Interactive. A couple of months after it's release however, the initial fervor and writer Jasvinder Singh Gulati stated that "after playing the version of the game released for PlayStation 2, I believe that us Sikhs totally overreacted. "
In 2002, the Xbox fighting game Kakuto Chojin offended many Muslims with the use of religious chanting in background music. The Xbox is a sixth-generation Video game console produced by Microsoft Corporation. Kakuto Chojin Back Alley Brutal (or Kakutou Choujin Fighting Super Heroes as known is Japan is a Versus fighting game exclusively A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion The Saudi Arabian government made a formal protest, and Microsoft pulled the game internationally in early 2003. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi 
Many Muslims were also offended by the Nintendo 64 game The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time. The, often abbreviated as N64, is Nintendo 's third home Video game console for the international market is an action-adventure Video game developed by Nintendo 's Entertainment Analysis and Development division for the Nintendo 64 Video game In one of the game's dungeons, Muslim chanting can be heard in the background music. This was changed by Nintendo in later versions of the game, with the older versions being discontinued.  A prominent symbol in the game was the star and crescent, which is usually interpreted as a symbol of Islam. This was also replaced in later versions of the game, with a different symbol.
There have been a number of incidents in which a certain racial group felt their rights were violated by the racist depiction in a certain video game. The term race or racial group usually refers to the concept of categorizing Humans into Populations or groups on the basis of various sets List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that
At least one video game, 2002's Ethnic Cleansing, has been based on an explicitly racist premise.
A number of games have been criticized purely for their settings, such as Total Overdose in Mexico, or Resident Evil 5 in the African continent. Total Overdose (or Total Overdose A Gunslinger's Tale in Mexico in the US is an action/adventure third-person shooter video game that was developed The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Resident Evil 5, known in Japan as, is the forthcoming installment in the Resident Evil Survival horror Video game
Nintendo was criticized for the design of the Pokémon Jynx, who according to children's book author Carole Boston Weatherford bore a striking resemblance to blackface actors, a racist image from America's past. If you came here to express your personal opinion about Pokémon please go somewhere else At the core of the multi-billion dollar Pokémon Media franchise of various electronic games, ongoing anime, several manga series Carole Boston Weatherford is an African American author and Critic, now living in North Carolina, United States. Due to this complaint, Nintendo ended up slightly changing the colors in the Pokémon's design.
In Grand Theft Auto: Vice City, one of the instructions that the player is given is to "kill all the Haitians", referring to the Haitian gang in the game. Grand Theft Auto Vice City is a sandbox-style action-adventure computer and Video game designed by Rockstar North (formerly The group "Haitian-Americans for Human Rights"staged a protest outside of New York's City Hall, claiming the game was teaching children to be racist.
Loco Roco was criticized by a gaming journalist who said that the similarities between the game's black Moja-characters and the 19th century Goliwogg dolls, was a "product of unchecked institutional racism". is Sony's flagship Japanese Video game released in 2006 for the PlayStation Portable (PSP Handheld game console, and developed and published
The 2006-game GUN was the target of controversy when the Association of American Indian Development attempted to have it's release banned, because they felt that the game was being racist against Indians. Gun is a Revisionist Western -themed Video game developed by Neversoft.
Some critics of film and literature look down on video gaming as an inferior form of entertainment.  The majority of criticism of video games from within the video-gaming community also relates to quality. This may stem from early early video games, which tended to have had either simple or entirely linear story structures with little regard to plot development. Mythos (Aristotle In literature the plot comprises all the events in a story particularly rendered towards the achievement of some particular Artistic or Emotional However, an equal or possibly higher amount of games within the past few years have more commonly featured complex plots with alternate endings based on the player actions, often aided with intense social commentary or emotional content in the plot (even in some children's game series). A frequent counterargument is that this is like complaining that a game of football does not contain much plot or character development, and that although most video games contain a narrative, it serves only to propel the player's actions in and against a virtual world, which is not primarily based upon passively seeing and hearing. A narrative or story is a construct created in a suitable format (written spoken poetry prose images song Theater, or Dance) that describes a sequence of Virtual reality ( VR) is a technology which allows a user to interact with a Computer-simulated environment be it a real or imagined one Another point of view compares video games to the movies, which during the silent era were also considered mere entertainment.
Other criticisms include unrealistic aspects of graphics or gameplay, games that are simply not fun to play, a perceived lack of games that appeal to women and girls, and a strong and increasing tendency of video game publishers to avoid risks and originality by only funding games which have clear promise to succeed financially. A video game publisher is a company that publishes Video games that they have either developed internally or have had developed by a Video game developer For example, the use of violence in games is sometimes seen as a crutch for creativity by critics; it is alleged that if a developer cannot invent an original, fun activity for the player, he will end up giving the player the time-honored task of shooting a monster. In particular, there has been a perceived increase in:
It should be noted that such complaints are legitimate across all mediums.
Several incidents speculated to be caused by video games in recent decades have helped fuel controversy.
The most common argument against video games is that they promote violence. A counter-argument commonly expressed in the video game community is that playing these games does not motivate players to actually commit acts of violence in reality; playing a first person shooter does not cause most people to commit murder. A US Secret Service study found that only 12 percent of those involved in school shootings were attracted to violent video games, while 24 percent read violent books and 27 percent were attracted to violent films.  An Australian study found that only children already predisposed to violence were affected by violent games. 
Many gamers accuse critics of overreacting and imagining effects. As with Fredric Wertham's widely publicized crusade against comic books in the 1950s, the association of video gaming with youth crime can be at best seen as a correlation; because a very high percentage of adolescents and young adults play video games (analogous to youth readership of comic books in the 1950s), it would not be surprising that these video games show up in the possession of young violent criminals as well. Fredric Wertham ( March 20, 1895 November 18, 1981) was a German-American Psychiatrist and crusading author who protested A comic book (often shortened to simply comic and sometimes called a comic paper or comic magazine) is a Magazine or Book of narrative
Within the video game industry itself, there is not much self-criticism about excessive sexuality or violence, as it is generally agreed that video games are for a wide range of ages, as with films and books, and are not always toys for children. The industry also argues that video game publishers have as much right to explore adult-oriented, mature themes as do movie studios or book publishers. A video game publisher is a company that publishes Video games that they have either developed internally or have had developed by a Video game developer A movie studio (aka film studio) is in the established sense of the term a company that distributes films. Publishing is the process of production and dissemination of Literature or Information &ndash the activity of making information available for public view Some developers and publishers find some of this type of content distasteful and do not produce it, but in general there is not much agitation to set limits on adult content for the industry as a whole. A video game developer is a software developer (a business or an individual that creates Video games A developer may specialize in a certain video Nolan Bushnell once said in a documentary that violent video games, for the video game industry, are similar to what porn films represent for the film industry. Nolan K Bushnell (born February 5, 1943) is an American electrical Engineer and Entrepreneur who founded both Atari Inc The video game industry (formally referred to as Interactive entertainment) is the economic sector involved with the development, Marketing Pornography or porn is the explicit depiction of Sexual subject matter with the sole intention of sexually exciting the viewer The film industry consists of the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking i
A tongue-in-cheek parody of a GTA clone was featured on a sketch on popular Adult Swim stop-motion sketch show Robot Chicken. Adult Swim, (usually stylized swim with its signature square Brackets, is an adult-oriented Television network sharing channel space with Cartoon Stop motion (or frame-by-frame) animation is an Animation technique to make a physically manipulated object appear to move on its own Sketch comedy consists of a series of short Comedy scenes or vignettes called "sketches" commonly between one and ten minutes long Robot Chicken is an Emmy -Award Winning American Stop motion animated television series created by Seth Green and Matthew The sketch, which is set out in the form of an ad, points out some exaggerated features that are commonly associated with violent video games, such as the ability for the protagonist to shoot his parents, urinate on homeless people, run people over with a school bus, and date-rape an intellectually disabled person. But at the end of the ad, a voice says, "Rated E for Everyone".
A similar parody was in season 8, episode 16 of MADtv, with a "Grand Theft Auto" game show, exaggerating all of the controversial features: Frequent killings (two of the contestants, portrayed by Bobby Lee and Paul Vogt get "killed"); drugs; and prostitutes (though there was only one on the show. MADtv, is an American Sketch comedy television series based on the humor magazine Mad. Bobby Lee (born September 17, 1972) is an American Comedian, notable for his membership in the recurring cast of comedians on the live comedy Paul C Vogt (born December 16 1964, in Buffalo New York Graduated from Kenmore East High School in 1982 was from 2002 - 2005 one of ) The show ended with an apology for the excessive violence in the sketch, and a reminder to go and buy "Grand Theft Auto: Vice City".
Currently, some educators have begun to address "the controversy over the effects of violent gameplay on gamers" and have also discussed ways in which teachers might incorporate video games into their classrooms, as is the subject of the book Playing to Learn: Video Games in the Classroom written by a Ph. D. at Brock University. 
After conducting a two-year study of more than 1,200 middle-school children about their attitudes towards video games, Harvard Medical School researchers Lawrence Kutner and Cheryl Olson found out that playing video games did not have a particularly negative affect on the researched group. Harvard Medical School ( HMS) is one of the graduate schools of Harvard University and currently the #1 medical school in America as ranked by U Usually a researcher or scientific researcher is someone who is professionally engaged in Scientific research, technological research or Engineering research 
In Argentina, federal legislation (Law No. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. 26. 043) states that Manufacturers and/or importers of video games are required to display the warning "Overexposure is harmful to health" on the packaging in which such products are marketed. The rating "Suitable for all ages", "Suitable for persons aged 13 or over" or "Suitable for persons aged 18 or over", as applicable, must also be displayed.
In Australia video games are rated by the Office of Film and Literature Classification, which also rates other media. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The Office of Film and Literature Classification is a Statutory Censorship and classification body which provides day to day administrative support for the Classification Unlike movies however, no R18+ or X18+ category exists for video games, and as such if they do not fit into the MA15+ category (suitable for 15 year olds and over), they are refused classification and effectively banned, because video games can not be sold in Australia without a rating from the OFLC, unless that video game applies for, and receives, exemption from being rated.  This fact means that games deemed unsuitable for 15 year olds are banned entirely from sale and distribution within the country, even for use by adults. This situation has been a point of much debate for many years now, as the video gaming community view this as restrictive and archaic. Recently the Victorian government has announced plans to try and get an R18+ category introduced. A comprehensive list of games that have been banned in Australia can be found at Refused-Classification. The "argument for" states that adults are allowed to see and hear whatever they like. Much of the controversy seems to be caused by the perception that video games are only targeted at children.
In 1996, Duke Nukem 3D was refused classification because of the presence of minor nudity in a section of the game. Duke Nukem 3D is a First-person shooter computer game developed by 3D Realms and published by Apogee Software. It was modified so that it was sold with the parental lock on, removing the nudity, but a mix-up meant that the unlocked content was sold on the game's disc. This led to the majority of the Australian player base gaining access to, and playing, the banned version of the game. The OFLC attempted to have the game recalled, since the version that was being sold was functionally the version that was refused classification. The OFLC was unsuccessful, however, because the distributor had notified them that the uncensored content was on the disc when the modified version was classified. Six months later, the unmodified version of the game was officially reclassified as MA15+, and was allowed for sale throughout Australia.
In 2002, Australia banned Grand Theft Auto III for allowing certain actions against virtual prostitutes; the game was later reinstated when this action was removed. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Grand Theft Auto III (abbreviated as GTA III) is a sandbox-style action-adventure computer and Video game Specifically, the player could solicit services from a virtual prostitute, and then kill her. The ability to solicit sex from prostitutes in the game was the action that was removed, but the player could still violently murder them. The sequel, Grand Theft Auto: Vice City was also modified for the same reasons, and in the same way for release in the Australian market. Grand Theft Auto Vice City is a sandbox-style action-adventure computer and Video game designed by Rockstar North (formerly Similarly, Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas was banned in July 2005 following the revelation that sex scenes were included in the content files on the game's disk. Grand Theft Auto San Andreas is a sandbox-style action-adventure computer and Video game developed by Rockstar North Ordinarily, one could not access these scenes, but third party modification, known as the Hot Coffee mod, allowed the player to access these scenes within the game itself. The inclusion of the scenes on the game disk took the game outside the MA15+ category. The MA15+ rating was re-instated after a modified version was released by Rockstar Games, omitting the content files for the sex scenes. Rockstar Games, (also known as Rockstar NYC) is a British -founded development division of Video game publisher Take-Two Interactive In 2005 the game 50 Cent: Bulletproof was banned for encouraging gang violence (a version without the game's Arcade Mode and excessive gore, and with an automatic Game Over for killing innocents was later submitted and given an MA15+ rating), and Marc Ecko's Getting Up: Contents Under Pressure was also banned for glorifying illegal graffiti tagging. 50 Cent Bulletproof is a Video game for the PlayStation 2 and Xbox platforms Marc Ecko (born Marc Milecofsky in Lakewood New Jersey. He started selling T-shirts in the mid 1980s and founded his clothing brand Eckō in 1993 Marc Eckō's Getting Up Contents Under Pressure is a Video game released on February 14, 2006. Reservoir Dogs was banned because the Australian government disliked the fact that the player was able to shoot the heads off of hostages during a bank heist. Reservoir Dogs is a Video game based on the Quentin Tarantino film of the same name.
Two other games banned in Australia are the highly violent (and controversial) Postal and Postal² from Running With Scissors. Postal is a Computer game made by Running With Scissors and published by Ripcord Games in 1997. Running With Scissors Inc (RWS for short is an American computer game developer based in Arizona.
The most recent video game of the Grand Theft Auto series, Grand Theft Auto IV, has also prompted editing in the Australian (PAL) version. PAL, short for Phase Alternating Line, is a colour -encoding system used in Broadcast television systems in large parts of the world In the American release, sexual encounters with prostitutes occur inside the player's vehicle and the player has the ability to rotate the camera for clearer view of what transpires. This ability is absent in the Australian version in which the camera is fixed behind the vehicle. 
It was recently announced that an R18+ rating for video games was in the works, though South Australian Attorney-General Michael Atkinson has stated he will fight against this plan. Michael Atkinson, Australian Politician, is the current South Australian Attorney-General, Justice Minister for Veterans' Affairs and Minister Atkinson is solely responsible for maintaining Austalia's status of being the only developed democracy without an adults only rating for video games, despite overwhelming demand for such a rating.
Around the 1990s, Brazil did not have a video game rating system, such as ESRB, but some games such as Carmageddon, Postal and Grand Theft Auto were banned in the whole Brazilian territory via juridical decision. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld The Entertainment Software Rating Board ( ESRB) is a self-regulatory organization that applies and enforces ratings, Advertising guidelines and Carmageddon is the first of a series of graphically violent driving-oriented Video games produced by Stainless Games, published by Interplay and Postal is a Computer game made by Running With Scissors and published by Ripcord Games in 1997. Grand Theft Auto ( GTA) is a computer and video game created by Scottish company DMA Design (now Rockstar North  Due to a gunman's rampage through a movie theatre in Brazil, Duke Nukem 3D was also banned in that country along with Quake, Doom and several other violent first-person shooters. Duke Nukem 3D is a First-person shooter computer game developed by 3D Realms and published by Apogee Software. Quake is a First-person shooter Computer game that was released by Id Software on June 22, 1996. Doom (officially cased DOOM) is a 1993 Computer game by Id Software that is a landmark title in the First-person shooter The Brazil rampage (named Mateus da Costa Meira) was allegedly inspired by Duke Nukem 3D's opening level "Hollywood Holocaust" (Episode 1, Mission 1), where a firefight with aliens takes place inside a cinema. Mateus da Costa Meira (b São Paulo, April 4, 1975) better known as The Shoot'em Up of Cinema, was a former university student from the Despite this ban, Duke Nukem 3D was subsequently being published in a computer magazine (Revista Senha), and other titles such as Quake and Doom are still sold openly in Brazil.
On January 18, 2008, the Brazilian justice banned the games Counter-Strike and Everquest. Events 350 - Generallus Magnentius deposes Roman Emperor Constans and proclaims himself Emperor 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Counter-Strike (commonly abbreviated to CS) is a tactical First-person shooter Video game which originated from a EverQuest, often called EQ, is a 3D fantasy -themed Massively multiplayer online role-playing game ( MMORPG) that was released Counter-Strike was banned due to cs_rio — a map which simulates a favela in Rio de Janeiro. Favela (Portuguese and Spanish for slum) is a specifically Brazilian word for a Shanty town. Rio de Janeiro ("River of January" ˈhiw dʒi ʒʌˈnejɾu in Brazilian Portuguese, /ˈriːoʊ di ʒəˈnɛroʊ/ in English is the second largest city of Brazil 
In April 10, 2008, the game Bully  was also banned by Brazilian justice claiming "The aggravating factor is that everything in Bully takes place inside a school. Events 879 - Louis III becomes King of the Western Franks. 1407 - the lama 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Bully, also known as Canis Canem Edit in the UK which is ( Latin for "dog eat dog" for the PAL PlayStation 2 ".
Canada (including French-speaking Quebec) uses the same ESRB rating system as the United States. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk The Entertainment Software Rating Board ( ESRB) is a self-regulatory organization that applies and enforces ratings, Advertising guidelines and The United States of America —commonly referred to as the However, in British Columbia and Ontario, their respective provincial governments re-rated the video games Soldier of Fortune and Manhunt as R (Canadian film rating), which unlike the United States' R rating, these games are restricted to those 18 and over for their depictions of graphic violence. British Columbia (ˌbrɪtɨʃ kəˈlʌmbiə ( BC) ( (la Colombie-Britannique C Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec This article concerns the first-person shooter For the SNES and Genesis game Soldiers of Fortune see The Chaos Engine. Manhunt is a third-person Video game released by Rockstar Games in November. Motion picture ratings in Canada are mostly a provincial responsibility and each province has its own legislation regarding exhibition and admission The Motion Picture Association of America's film-rating system is used in the U Graphic violence is the depiction of especially vivid brutal and realistic acts of violence in visual media such as Literature, Film, Television 
Through new laws the Chinese government has said it plans to restrict gamers to three hours of consecutive play, using a “fatigue technique” in games. Children and teenagers are strongly encouraged to play online games no more than 3 hours per day through this method. After 3 hours their character abilities will be limited. Gamers who spend more than five hours will have the abilities of their in-game character severely limited. Players will be forced to take a five-hour break before they can return to a game with the character back to full capacity. In some cases further playing is locked down through their IP identification number or account with the online game vendor. An Internet Protocol ( IP) address is a numerical identification ( Logical address) that is assigned to devices participating in a Computer network The operators face little choice as they need government approval to offer online gaming. 
The MMO genre of games is big business in China since subscription based games avoid software piracy, and most gamers use Internet cafes as they do not own a personal computer. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The subscription business model is a Business model where a customer must pay a subscription price to have access to the product/service The Copyright infringement of Software (also known as software piracy) refers to several practices which involve the unauthorized copying of computer A personal computer ( PC) is any Computer whose original sales price size and capabilities make it useful for individuals and which is intended to be operated The company that runs the popular World of Warcraft in China, The9, is listed on the NASDAQ market exchange so they must release an annual report which includes much information on how MMORPGs work in China. World of Warcraft (commonly acronymed as WoW) is a Massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG The9 Limited ( ( Corporation is a Shanghai -based Online game operator with the exclusive license to operate and distribute World of Warcraft The NASDAQ (acronym of National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations) is an American Stock exchange. An annual report is a document a company presents at an Annual general meeting for approval by its Shareholders, or a charitable organization presents A massively multiplayer online role-playing game ( MMORPG) is a genre of Computer role-playing games (CRPGs in which a large number of players interact with Abbreviated versions of the sources have been published. 
China has also banned certain video games for their content. Foreign Internet games are subject to content examinations by the Ministry of Culture before being allowed to enter the Chinese market. Games such as Hearts of Iron, I.G.I.-2: Covert Strike, and Command & Conquer have all been banned for offenses such as "distorting history and damaging China's sovereignty and territorial integrity" and "smearing the image of China and the Chinese army". IGI-2 Covert Strike is a Computer game developed by Innerloop Studios and released by Codemasters in 2003. Command & Conquer (often abbreviated as C&C or CNC) is a Video game franchise, mostly of the (However, it should be noted that Command and Conquer: Generals portrays China as a protagonist, aiding the U. Command & Conquer Generals is a Real-time strategy game in the Command & Conquer series. S. in destroying a fictional terrorist cell. )
In Germany, video games, as with other media, are subject to censorship, or "decency standards", that are strict by the standards of other European nations. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Censorship is the suppression of speech or deletion of communicative material which may be considered objectionable harmful or sensitive as determined by a censor For video games there is the index, which is a list of video games, films and other media considered a bad influence on children and therefore unsuited for anyone under 18. Articles not suited for anyone under 18 cannot be easily sold through mail order in Germany. There are a few specialized companies that sell such games, but require a photocopy of the buyers' ID card as age verification, and the package is only handed over to the buyer personally. Certain institutions can request that a game be examined by the BPjM (Bundesprüfstelle für jugendgefährdende Medien). The Bundesprüfstelle für jugendgefährdende Medien or BPjM (Federal Department for Media Harmful to Young Persons is an upper-level German federal agency subordinate In some cases it is then placed on the index, usually because it is deemed to glorify violence, at which point it becomes illegal to advertise the games or even review them in an age-unrestricted medium, display them on store shelves, or sell them to anyone under 18. Advertising is a form of Communication that typically attempts to persuade potential Customers to Purchase or to consume more of a particular Brand This dramatically affects sales, so most video game companies selling games in Germany elect to create a special German version that narrowly avoids the index by changing the graphics. Instead of red blood, green blood is shown, implying that aliens are being killed and not humans; or gears and springs are shown coming out of the wound, implying that the victims are robots. For example, the Contra series, known as Probotector in Europe, repeatedly replaced the heroes and many enemies throughout the series with robots. released as Probotector in Europe and Oceania, is an Arcade game released in 1987 by the Konami corporation In Half-Life, the marines that are fought by the player are replaced by robots. The scientists also cannot be killed in Half-Life, they just sit down and shake their heads.
The problem with the index is that games cannot be examined by the BPjM prior to their release, even if requested by the manufacturers, as that would be considered censorship by German standards, which is illegal under the German constitution.  However, this has led to many publishers thinking with "scissors in their hands" and removing more content than would have been necessary.
Recently, the index has become a little redundant regarding video games, as the USK's (Unterhaltungssoftware Selbstkontrolle) ratings have been made obligatory and only games that did not receive a rating can be placed on the index. USK redirects here For the Usinsk airport see Usinsk Airport. Before 2003-04-01 these ratings had been merely suggestions for gamers and the index was the only way to control sales. Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 527 - Byzantine Emperor Justin I names his nephew Justinian I as co-ruler and successor to the throne Now violent games which received an 18+ rating can be sold openly in stores, but the stores are responsible for checking the buyers' age. The self-censorship described above has also decreased because of that. Companies still employ it because a 16+ rating can improve sales, but it is not as excessive as it used to be.
Moreover, because of Germany's law banning public displays of Nazism and the swastika, some games have been banned for using these symbols, even though the rationale behind their use is clearly critical of the Nazi philosophy. Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German The swastika (from Sanskrit: svástika sa स्वस्तिक Hindu IS CORRECT if 'ि' is positioned incorrectly see -->) is Games such as Wolfenstein 3D or Commandos: Behind Enemy Lines, which involve Allied soldiers on missions to kill Nazi soldiers, are banned. In Military science, the term commando can refer to an individual a Military unit, or a raiding style of military operation. Although a censored version of Return to Castle Wolfenstein was released in Germany, the original Wolfenstein 3D remains illegal. It should be noted that confiscations of video games based on this law are not common, and most of the confiscated games are openly racist homebrews like KZ Manager. KZ Manager is a name shared by many similar Resource management computer games putting the player in the role of a Nazi Concentration camp "manager"
The display of Nazi symbols in an accurate historical context is permitted. This applies especially to World War II films, which are classified as art and thus exempt from this ban. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Video games however are denied being art. There are few World War II video games that are deemed to be historically accurate, but the backgrounds of titles such as Medal of Honor: Allied Assault, Call of Duty and Commandos: Beyond The Call of Duty do operate on a historically true background, even if the stories central to the games are exaggerated or fictional. Medal of Honor Allied Assault ( MoHAA) is a First-person shooter (FPS computer game developed by 2015 Inc Call of Duty (released October 29, 2003) is a First-person shooter Video game based on the ''Quake III Team Arena'' engine In Military science, the term commando can refer to an individual a Military unit, or a raiding style of military operation. Nonetheless, the symbols were removed, although all other references to the Nazis were kept.
In September 2006, due to its graphic violence, the USK has refused to rate the Xbox 360 game Dead Rising. The Xbox 360 is the second Video game console produced by Microsoft, and was developed in cooperation with IBM, ATI, and SiS. Dead Rising is a Survival horror Video game with action adventure and RPG elements developed by Capcom Microsoft does not allow unrated games to be published for the Xbox 360, effectively halting the production of a German version of the game. The game is available as an import to players of legal age. The same fate occurred to Gears of War as well as Crackdown. Gears of War is a tactical Third-person shooter Video game developed by Epic Games and published by Microsoft Game Studios. Crackdown (titled Riot Act in Japan is an open world, Third-person shooter Video game for the Xbox 360 
In July 2002, the Greek Parliament passed Greek Law Number 3037, entirely outlawing electronic gaming. In 2002 the Greek government, ostensibly in an attempt to fight illegal Gambling, passed the ambiguous and controversial law 3037/2002 which effectively This controversial law has been frowned upon, not only in Greece, but elsewhere in Europe and in the United States, and petitions were made against it. In December 2003 it was restricted to only affect Internet cafes in accordance with a letter from the European Union. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in
In Italy some sporadic attempts at video game censorship have been made. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The game Carmageddon was censored when first released, showing zombies instead of people and green blood. Carmageddon is the first of a series of graphically violent driving-oriented Video games produced by Stainless Games, published by Interplay and zombie is a reanimated human corpse Stories of zombies originated in the Afro-Caribbean spiritual belief system of Vodou, which told of the people being controlled This censorship was not applied to the sequels, and apparently even the first game was re-released into its original form after some time; When Resident Evil 2 was released in 1998, it was banned from stores after a protest made by a group of conservative mothers, but it reappeared after few days following the ruling of a judge. Resident Evil 2, known in Japan as, is a Survival horror game by Capcom originally released for the PlayStation in 1998 In November 2006 Italian politicians inaccurately attacked Rule of Rose for alleged violence against children perpetrated by the player. Rule of Rose is a Survival horror game for the PlayStation 2. 
Violent games are tolerated, as demonstrated in the Japanese created game series Biohazard (known as Resident Evil outside of Japan), Devil May Cry, God Hand, Samurai Spirits (also known as Samurai Shodown, which was censored in the US), and Dead Rising (Though Dead Rising was made with US audiences in mind). Resident Evil (known in Japan as) is a Survival horror Video game series and Media franchise consisting of Comic books novelizations Devil May Cry (frequently abbreviated as DMC) is an Action game developed by Capcom Production Studio 4 and published by Capcom God Hand (ゴッドハンド is a Video game developed by Clover Studio and published by Capcom for the PlayStation 2 Video game This article is specifically about the original Samurai Shodown game Dead Rising is a Survival horror Video game with action adventure and RPG elements developed by Capcom However, games in which depictions of violence and gore are deemed unnecessary, extravagant, and unethical are censored, such as Mortal Kombat. Consequently, Japanese critics tend to focus instead on pornography found in some adult Japanese computer games, which have generally not been released outside of Japan. Pornography or porn is the explicit depiction of Sexual subject matter with the sole intention of sexually exciting the viewer Since 2002, a non-governmental organization, CERO, is reviewing games and issuing an age recommendation for all products that have been submitted. The ( CERO) is the Organization that rates video games and Computer Software in Japan with levels of rating that informs the customer
Violently pornographic games came to national attention in Japan in 1986 with the release by dB-soft of 177, a game where the player takes the role of a rapist. 177 is a Bishōjo game for NEC PC-8801 released in Japan in 1986 by dB-soft. (The game's title originates from the number of the Japanese law criminalizing rape. ) 177 was not the first game designed around this premise, but it was unusually explicit for that time. The game caused debate in the Japanese parliament and was eventually recalled and re-released with the most controversial scenes removed. The controversy was ignited again in late 1991, when a junior high school student stole Saori: the House of Beautiful Girls. is a Bishōjo game released in Japan on 1991-10-18 by Fairytale. The game included scenes of abduction, incest and homosexuality. Incest refers to any sexual activity between closely related persons (often within the immediate family that is illegal or socially Taboo. Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation. In 1992 the pornographic game industry formed the "Ethics Organization for Computer Software", setting industry guidelines for acceptable content and packaging. Those games deemed inappropriate by this organization for minors are released only to people 18 years or older.
The relevant law for New Zealand is the Films, Videos, and Publications Classification Act 1993. A,or girl game, gal game is a type of Japanese video game centered around interactions with attractive Anime girls An is a Japanese video or computer game that features erotic content usually in the form of Anime -style artwork New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island Apart from age restrictions, a publication can be declared objectionable:
For the purposes of this Act, a publication is objectionable if it describes, depicts, expresses, or otherwise deals with matters such as sex, horror, crime, cruelty, or violence in such a manner that the availability of the publication is likely to be injurious to the public good. 
Objectionable publications can be seized any time by an Inspector from the Department of Internal Affairs, a Customs officer or a member of the police, and mere possession is an offense, punishable with up to five years imprisonment for an individual.  Supply, distribution, display, or exhibition to any other person, or possession for this purpose, can be punished with up to ten years in jail under certain conditions. 
Manhunt, Reservoir Dogs, Postal and Postal² were dubbed "objectionable" under this law. Manhunt is a third-person Video game released by Rockstar Games in November. Reservoir Dogs is a Video game based on the Quentin Tarantino film of the same name. Postal is a Computer game made by Running With Scissors and published by Ripcord Games in 1997.
The games Call Of Duty 4 and Assassin's Creed are banned in Oman. Call of Duty 4 Modern Warfare is a First-person shooter Video game developed by Infinity Ward and published by Activision for Assassin's Creed is a Video game developed by Ubisoft Montreal and published by Ubisoft. Oman, officially the Sultanate of Oman ( Arabic: سلطنة عُمان) is an Arab Country in Southwest Asia on the southeast
Poland uses the Pan European Game Information (PEGI) rating system. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Pan European Game Information ( PEGI) is a European Video game content rating system. In early 2006, it was announced that there will be a rating system unique to Poland.  Law project probably will be presented with the end of 2007.  Additionally, former Polish Minister of Education Roman Giertych stated that his “No tolerance for violence in school” ("Zero tolerancji dla przemocy w szkole") project will also apply as a ban on distributing violent video games. Roman Jacek Giertych, (ˈrɔman ˈgʲɛrtɨx born 27 February 1971 in Śrem, Poland) is a Polish politician Deputy Prime Minister and  The project has been suspended by his successor, Ryszard Legutko, on August 14, 2007. Ryszard Legutko (1949-present - Polish professor of philosophy writer and politician Events 1183 - Taira no Munemori and the Taira clan take the young Emperor Antoku and the three sacred treasures Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
Video game violence is controversial in South Korea, and "no blood" regulations apply. South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː South Korea also regularly bans games that depict North Korea and South Korea at war, or that demonize North Koreans. North Korea is the commonly used short form name for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (or DPRK) a State located in East Asia, Ghost Recon 2 and Mercenaries: Playground of Destruction have been banned for these reasons. Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon 2 is the third console installment in the popular Ghost Recon Tactical shooter video game series, published Mercenaries Playground of Destruction is a Third-person shooter which takes place in the near future Splinter Cell: Chaos Theory was also banned in South Korea due to the destruction of the South Korean capital Seoul in the game; however, the ban was recently lifted in late 2006. Tom Clancy's Splinter Cell Chaos Theory is a critically acclaimed third-person Stealth-based video game developed and published by Ubisoft. Seoul ( soʊl is the Capital and largest City of South Korea. The South Korean government banned Grand Theft Auto III, Grand Theft Auto: Vice City and Manhunt for cruelty and violence. Grand Theft Auto III (abbreviated as GTA III) is a sandbox-style action-adventure computer and Video game Grand Theft Auto Vice City is a sandbox-style action-adventure computer and Video game designed by Rockstar North (formerly
However, with launch of the Game Rating Board (Oct. 2007), tolerance for violence in games has been improved significantly. (Prior to GRB, Korea Media Rating Board, an organization responsible for rating various media such as theatrical movies and videos was in charge of rating video games. ) With GRB in place, Korea is seeing lots of controversial games released with 18+ ratings. For example, PS2 and PC versions of GTA series were banned (by KMRB), but GTA games for PSP were released with 18+ rating (approved by GRB).
The introduction of controversial games featuring photo-realistic images, such as Mortal Kombat and Night Trap, led to calls from the tabloid press for games to fall under the Video Recordings Act. This article concerns the first entry of the fighting game series Night Trap is a Video game that was released on October 15, 1992. The Video Recordings Act 1984 is a UK Act of Parliament that was passed into law in 1984. The UK games publisher trade body ELSPA responded by introducing a voluntary age rating system in 1994. The Entertainment and Leisure Software Publishers Association ( ELSPA) is an Organisation set up in 1989 by British Software publishers It The ELSPA ratings were succeeded by the PEGI, in 2003. Pan European Game Information ( PEGI) is a European Video game content rating system. Nevertheless, although games are generally exempt from the Video Recordings Act, those depicting sexual content, or gross violence towards people or animals, must still be submitted to the BBFC for consideration. The British Board of Film Classification ( BBFC) originally British Board of Film Censors, is the organisation responsible for Film, DVD BBFC ratings are legally binding, and British law imposes stiff penalties on retailers who sell to under-aged customers.
Carmageddon, in which the gameplay involved mowing down innocent pedestrians, was the first game to be refused classification in 1997, effectively banning it. Carmageddon is the first of a series of graphically violent driving-oriented Video games produced by Stainless Games, published by Interplay and The game's publisher, SCI, had a modified version created in which the pedestrians in question were replaced by green-blooded zombies, which completed a successful appeal against the BBFC to overturn their original decision. SCi Entertainment Group PLC (originally The Sales Curve and later Sales Curve Interactive) is a United Kingdom Video game publisher. The uncensored, unmodified version of Carmageddon was later released under an 18-certificate. Carmageddon is the first of a series of graphically violent driving-oriented Video games produced by Stainless Games, published by Interplay and
In 2002 the Io Interactive game Hitman 2: Silent Assassin was withdrawn by a number of retailers due to religious sensitivities. IO Interactive (commonly abbreviated to IOI) is a Danish Video game developer currently owned by Eidos Interactive. Hitman 2 Silent Assassin is a stealth -based Shooter game, developed by IO Interactive and published by Eidos Interactive.  The area in question involved a Sikh sect that were depicted as terrorists involved in arms smuggling and assassination. Sikh (English or; ਸਿੱਖ sikkh, IPA) is the title and name given to an adherent of Sikhism. It also involved a section that many Sikhs believed to closely resemble the 1984 massacre at the Amritsar temple. Operation Blue Star ( ਬਿਲਯੂ ਸਟਾਰ, बिल्यू स्टार) ( June 3 to June 6, 1984) was an Indian military operation
In 2004, the parents of a murdered 14-year-old boy blamed Manhunt as having been "connected" to the murder. Manhunt is a third-person Video game released by Rockstar Games in November. It was later found not to be, as the game was found in the victim's home, rather than the killer's.  Leicestershire police "did not uncover any connections to the computer game. " The accusations prompted some retailers to remove the game from their shelves.  Nevertheless, following this incident the sales of the game rose due to the free publicity from newspaper headlines. The sequel, Manhunt 2, released in 2007, was banned in the UK by the BBFC. Manhunt 2 is a Video game developed by Rockstar Games and the sequel to 2003's Manhunt. The British Board of Film Classification ( BBFC) originally British Board of Film Censors, is the organisation responsible for Film, DVD On appeal to the Video Appeals Committee this ruling was overturned however the BBFC launched a successful judicial review into the VAC's decision, forcing the VAC to reconsider its judgement. The Video Appeals Committee was a body set up by the United Kingdom 's Video Recordings Act. Judicial review is the power of the courts to annul the acts of the executive and/or the legislative power where it finds them incompatible with a higher norm  On 14th March 2008, the VAC again recommended that the game be released, a position to which the BBFC have now agreed. The game now, according to Play.com the game is now reportedly available on 29/08/2008 on all 3 consoles and is available to pre-order. Playcom is a Jersey -based online retailer and of DVDs CDs Books Gadgets DRM-free mp3 downloads and other electronic products
In June 2007 the PS3 game Resistance: Fall of Man was criticized for the use of Manchester cathedral as one of the games' backdrops. Resistance Fall of Man —often called Resistance; abbreviated to RFoM; and originally developed under the title I8 Sony, the publisher of the game, responded by saying "Sony Computer Entertainment Europe is aware of the concerns expressed by the Bishop of Manchester and the cathedral authorities. . . and we naturally take the concerns very seriously. Resistance: Fall of Man is a fantasy science fiction game and is not based on reality. We believe we have sought and received all permissions necessary for the creation of the game. "
After the economic crash of the video game industry in the early 1980s, the home console industry was revived, and both Nintendo of America and Sega of America imposed censorship guidelines upon software publishers. is a Multinational corporation headquartered in Kyoto Japan founded on is a multinational Video game Software and Hardware development company and a former Home computer
However, hardware manufactures never sought to impose such content censorship rules on the creators of computer games. If there was any objectionable content in a computer game, the publisher might put a generic parental advisory label on the game's packaging, while such content was often removed from a video game prior to sale.
In the early 1990s, Sega of America, who had more liberal censorship polices, introduced the Videogame Rating Council in effort to develop a formal rating system for games sold on its Sega Genesis, Game Gear, and Sega CD. is a multinational Video game Software and Hardware development company and a former Home computer The Videogame Rating Council ( VRC) was introduced by Sega of America in 1993 to rate all Video games that were released for sale in the The is a 16-bit Video game console released by Sega in Japan in 1988 North America in 1989 and the PAL region in 1990 The Sega Game Gear is a Handheld game console which was Sega 's response to Nintendo 's Game Boy. The is an add-on device for the Sega Mega Drive that was released in Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Japan. It was during this era that a second wave of controversy erupted over the content of certain video games (i. e. Doom, Mortal Kombat, Lethal Enforcers, Night Trap and Primal Rage). Doom (officially cased DOOM) is a 1993 Computer game by Id Software that is a landmark title in the First-person shooter Lethal Enforcers is a 1992 shooting game released for the arcades by Konami. Night Trap is a Video game that was released on October 15, 1992. Primal Rage is a Versus fighting game developed and published by Atari Games in 1994 as an Arcade video game.
The criticism came from interest groups and politicians, liberals and conservatives alike, who believed that the content of these games was too mature for children, promoted real life threats to public order and morality and, often, proposed greater government oversight of the industry. Senators Joe Lieberman, Herb Kohl and Byron Dorgan held high-profile hearings on the video game industry and instructed the industry to engage in effective self-regulation, or risk federal intervention. Joseph Isadore "Joe" Lieberman (born February 24 1942 is the junior United States Senator from Connecticut. Herbert H "Herb" Kohl (born February 7, 1935) is an American politician business leader and philanthropist Byron Leslie Dorgan (born May 14 1942) is the junior United States Senator from North Dakota.
The industry's response was to establish the ESRB, which would be charged with giving each video game sold within the United States a content based rating, similar to the MPAA film rating system. The Entertainment Software Rating Board ( ESRB) is a self-regulatory organization that applies and enforces ratings, Advertising guidelines and The Motion Picture Association of America's film-rating system is used in the U Initially computer game companies supported an alternative rating system, but the ESRB ratings would eventually be used for both video and computer games.
A third wave of national controversy erupted over the video game Grand Theft Auto, especially the "Hot Coffee" mod. Once this mod is downloaded it allowed the player to engage in graphic sex with a virtual girlfriend. This was not intended to be available in the game, but the code was not removed. This allowed someone to make a mod that allowed this code to run. The ESRB was not aware that this code existed, and more scrutiny was placed on the industry and its rating system.
Several States are considering, or have already enacted, legislation that would prohibit certain games being sold to minors. The Constitutionality of such legislation remains in dispute, as the courts have yet to decide what, if any, First Amendment protection exists for video and computer games.
Senator Lieberman stated in 2002 that in his opinion, the video game industry's rating system had become the best rating system of any medium, including the film industry. However, many video game players have criticized him, citing his work as too broad and unaware of the industry as a whole. The ESRB itself has, on numerous occasions, blamed any continued problems with video games on parents. It boasts an extremely high approval rating on its ratings, and claim that the labels are there and are properly used. It says that parents need to be more aware of what their children are buying and what they are buying for their children.
In December 2004, Hal Hal, the president of the retail trade association announced that all IEMA member companies - which included every major retailer of computer and video games, including such notable names as Wal-Mart - would now have policies to check the identification of young purchasers of games rated "Mature" to ensure that the purchaser is at least 17 years old, as recommended by the "Mature" rating. The Interactive Entertainment Merchants Association (IEMA was a United States -based Non-profit organization dedicated to serving the business interests of leading Wal-Mart Stores Inc (or Walmart as written in its new logo is an American public corporation that runs a chain of large discount department stores The association also required its members to post ESRB signage in every store and begin training retail clerks about the ratings system in order to help parents understand the process more thoroughly.
From time to time, local officials attempt to restrict the playing or selling of violent video games. Predictably, the ESA (representing video game publishers) and the IEMA (representing game retailers) oppose the legislation and have been, to-date, victorious in overturning each bill passed. For example, the city of Indianapolis, Indiana in 2000 passed an ordinance barring children from playing arcade games with graphic violence unless parental consent was given. An arcade game is a coin-operated entertainment machine typically installed in businesses such as Restaurants Pubs Video arcades and Family Entertainment It was generally thought that this law was intended to target the game The House of the Dead, in which players use plastic guns to shoot at the game screen in order to kill zombies that try to kill the player. The House of the Dead is a first-person Light gun Arcade game released in 1996 by Sega. The ordinance was struck down at the appellate Federal court level, on the grounds that in the United States, video games enjoy some measure of First Amendment free speech protection because they contain real expression of ideas, and children have constitutional rights before the age of 18, and given this, the city did not demonstrate an overriding public interest in passing the ban. Recently, Illinois governor Rod Blagojevich passed a law banning the sale of "violent or sexually explicit" video games to minors under the age of 18. Rod R Blagojevich (bləˈgɔɪəvɪtʃ, born December 10, 1956) is an American Politician from the state of Illinois. The new law would have taken effect on January 1, 2006, but was struck down by District Court judge Matthew Kennelly. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The United States district courts are the general Trial courts of the United States federal court system. As Kennelly so concisely put it: "In this country, the state lacks the authority to ban protected speech on the ground that it affects the listener's or observer's thoughts and attitudes. " In doing so, the Judge confirmed yet again that video games are protected under the First Amendment and deserve treatment no different than film and literature. Illinois was forced to pay the ESRB legal fees, approximately 1 million dollars. About three months later, similar laws were passed by Michigan governor Jennifer Granholm and California governor Arnold Schwarzenegger. Jennifer Mulhern Granholm (born February 5 1959 in Vancouver British Columbia) is a Canadian -born American Politician, former Attorney Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger ( German ˌaɐnɔlt aloʏs ˈʃvaɐtsənɛɡɐ born July 30 1947 is an Austrian American Bodybuilder, Actor The California law, as California Assembly Bills 1792 & 1793, was sponsored by Leland Yee, the Speaker pro Tem of the Assembly and a child psychologist. California Assembly Bills 1792 & 1793 were two bills introduced by Speaker pro Tempore of the Assembly Leland Yee (D- San Francisco / Daly City) Leland Yee ( born November 20 1948 in China) is a California State Senator in District 8 which includes the western half of San Francisco The laws were deemed unconstitutional by Judge Ronald Whyte on December 21, 2005; preventing it from going into effect on January 1, 2006. Events 69 - The end of the Year of the four emperors: Following Galba, Otho and Vitellius, Vespasian Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
On 2005-11-29, Senators Hillary Clinton, Joe Lieberman and Evan Bayh introduced the Family Entertainment Protection Act to much criticism. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1777 - San Jose California, is founded as el Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26 1947 is the junior United States Senator from Joseph Isadore "Joe" Lieberman (born February 24 1942 is the junior United States Senator from Connecticut. The United States Family Entertainment Protection Act (FEPA was a bill introduced by Senator Hillary Clinton, and co-sponsored by Senators Joe Lieberman The act was intended to protect children from inappropriate content found in video games. The bill expired without going to a vote. Similar bills introduced at state level were found to be unconstitutional.
It should be noted that a large reason that such legislation described above has never been enforced in the United States is because such legislation has been unanimously ruled unconstitutional in US courts. Judges across the nation agree that, if nothing else, video games are a fine art, and thus are protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution's guarantee of freedom of press (press instead of speech because video game files are more long-term than pure oral words). The First Amendment to the United States Constitution is part of the United States Bill of Rights that expressly prohibits the United States Congress