|Queen Victoria, after whom the era is named. Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901 was from 20 June 1837 the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland|
|Preceded by||English Regency|
|Followed by||Edwardian period|
The Victorian era of the United Kingdom refers to Queen Victoria's rule which began in 1837 and concluded in 1901. Year 1837 ( MDCCCXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Year 1901 ( MCMI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Artistic trends Regency architecture Regency fashions Regency dance Regency novels Class and society Socially the Edwardian era was a period during which the British Class system was very rigid Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901 was from 20 June 1837 the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927 Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901 was from 20 June 1837 the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Under the rule of Queen Victoria, the British people enjoyed a long period of prosperity. Profits gained from the overseas British Empire from trade, as well as from industrial improvements at home, allowed a large, educated middle class to develop. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. Some scholars would extend the beginning of the period—as defined by a variety of sensibilities and political concerns that have come to be associated with the Victorians—back five years to the passage of Reform Act 1832. The Representation of the People Act 1832, commonly known as the Reform Act 1832, was an Act of Parliament that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system
The era was preceded by the Regency era and succeeded by the Edwardian period. Artistic trends Regency architecture Regency fashions Regency dance Regency novels Class and society Socially the Edwardian era was a period during which the British Class system was very rigid The latter half of the Victorian era roughly coincided with the first portion of the Belle Époque era of continental Europe and other non-English speaking countries. The Belle Époque (bɛːl e'pɔk French for "Beautiful Era" was a period in European history that began during the late 19th century and lasted until Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the Continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European
Queen Victoria had the longest reign in British history, and the cultural, political, economic, industrial and scientific changes that occurred during her reign were remarkable. Transformation of culture, or cultural change, refers to the dynamic process whereby the living Cultures of the world are changing and adapting to external or internal When Victoria ascended to the throne, Britain was primarily agrarian and rural (though it was even then the most industrialised country in the world); upon her death, the country was highly industrialised and connected by an expansive railway network. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Rural areas can be large and isolated (also referred to as "the country" and/or "the countryside over the course of time is a process of social and economic change whereby a human group is transformed from a Pre-industrial society into an industrial one "Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here For other uses see Railroad (disambiguation. The first decades of Victoria's reign witnessed a series of epidemics (typhus and cholera, most notably), crop failures and economic collapses. Typhus is any of several similar diseases caused by Louse -borne bacteria Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious Gastroenteritis caused by the Bacterium An economic collapse is a devastating breakdown of a national regional or territorial economy There were riots over enfranchisement and the repeal of the Corn Laws, which had been established to protect British agriculture during the Napoleonic Wars in the early part of the 19th century. Suffrage (from the Latin suffragium, meaning "voting tablet" and figuratively "right to vote" probably from suffrago "hough" and originally The Corn Laws were Import tariffs designed to support domestic British corn prices against competition from less expensive foreign-grain imports between 1815 and 1846 The Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815 involved Napoleon's French Empire and a shifting set of European allies and opposing coalitions
Discoveries by Charles Lyell and Charles Darwin began to examine centuries of the assumptions about humanity and the world, about science and history, and, finally, about religion and philosophy. Events 451 - Battle of Chalons: Flavius Aetius ' defeats Attila the Hun. Year 1837 ( MDCCCXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Sir Charles Lyell 1st Baronet, KT, FRS (14 November 1797 &ndash 22 February 1875 was a Scottish Lawyer, Geologist, and protagonist Charles Robert Darwin (February 12 1809 &ndash April 19 1882 was an English naturalist, who realised and demonstrated that all Species of life As the country grew increasingly connected by an expansive network of railway lines, small, previously isolated communities were exposed and entire economies shifted as cities became more and more accessible.
The mid-Victorian period also witnessed significant social changes: an evangelical revival occurred alongside a series of legal changes in women's rights. Social development redirects here For the aspect of Human biological development, see Psychosocial development Social change is a general term which Evangelicalism is a theological movement tradition and system of beliefs most closely associated with Protestant Christianity, which identifies with the Gospel Revival in a Christian context generally refers to a specific period of spiritual renewal in the life of the Church While women were not enfranchised during the Victorian period, they did gain the legal right to their property upon marriage through the Married Women's Property Act, the right to divorce, and the right to fight for custody of their children upon separation. Traditionally a husband and Wife were 'one person in law' As a result according to Blackstone, 'the very being or legal existence of married woman suspended during the
The period is often characterized as a long period of peace, known as Pax Britannica, and economic, colonial, and industrial consolidation, temporarily disrupted by the Crimean War, although Britain was at war every year during this period. Pax Britannica ( Latin for "the British Peace" modelled after Pax Romana) was the period of relative peace in Europe See Colony and Colonization for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism The Crimean War, also known in Russia as the Eastern War (Восточная война Vostochnaya Vojna) (March 1854–February 1856 was fought Towards the end of the century, the policies of New Imperialism led to increasing colonial conflicts and eventually the Anglo-Zanzibar War and the Boer War. New Imperialism refers to the colonial expansion adopted by Europe 's powers and later Japan and the United States, during the 19th See also First Boer War,, South African Wars (1879-1915 The Second Boer War ( Dutch: Tweede Boerenoorlog, Afrikaans: Domestically, the agenda was increasingly liberal with a number of shifts in the direction of gradual political reform and the widening of the franchise.
In the early part of the era the House of Commons was dominated by the two parties, the Whigs and the Tories. The House of Commons' is the Lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also comprises the Sovereign and the House of Lords The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to The Tories were any of a series of Political factions that existed in the Kingdom of Great Britain and later the United Kingdom, having its roots in the From the late 1850s onwards the Whigs became the Liberals even as the Tories became known as the Conservatives. The Liberal Party was one of the two major British political parties from the early 19th century until the rise of the Labour Party in the 1920s and a third party The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is a Political party in the United Kingdom. Many prominent statesmen led one or other of the parties, including Lord Melbourne, Sir Robert Peel, Lord Derby, Lord Palmerston, William Gladstone, Benjamin Disraeli and Lord Salisbury. William Lamb 2nd Viscount Melbourne, PC, FRS (15 March 1779 &ndash 24 November 1848 was a British Whig Statesman who Sir Robert Peel 2nd Baronet (5 February 1788 &ndash 2 July 1850 was the Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 10 December 1834 to 8 April Edward Smith-Stanley redirects here for other persons with that name see Edward Stanley Lord Stanley "Lord Palmerston" and "Henry Temple" redirect here Benjamin Disraeli 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, KG, PC, FRS (born Benjamin D'Israeli; 21 December 1804 &ndash 19 April 1881 was "Lord Salisbury" redirects here For other holders of the title see Marquess of Salisbury. The unsolved problems relating to Irish Home Rule played a great part in politics in the later Victorian era, particularly in view of Gladstone's determination to achieve a political settlement. The Irish Home Rule bills were bills introduced in the British House of Commons during the late 19th and early 20th centuries intended to grant self-government and
This inescapable sense of newness resulted in a deep interest in the relationship between modernity and cultural continuities. Gothic Revival architecture became increasingly significant in the period, leading to the Battle of the Styles between Gothic and Classical ideals. The Gothic Revival is an architectural movement which began The Battle of the Styles is a term used to refer to the conflict between supporters of the Gothic style and the Classical style in architecture The term Classical architecture has a specific Archaeological meaning relating to the architecture of Classical Greece Charles Barry's architecture for the new Palace of Westminster, which had been badly damaged in an 1834 fire, built on the medieval style of Westminster Hall, the surviving part of the building. Sir Charles Barry FRS ( 23 May 1795 &ndash 12 May 1860) was an English Architect, best known for his role It constructed a narrative of cultural continuity, set in opposition to the violent disjunctions of Revolutionary France, a comparison common to the period, as expressed in Thomas Carlyle's The French Revolution: A History and Charles Dickens' A Tale of Two Cities. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an Thomas Carlyle (4 December 1795 – 5 February 1881 was a Scottish essayist satirist and historian whose work was highly influential during the Victorian era. The French Revolution A History was written by the Scottish Essayist philosopher, and Historian Thomas Carlyle. A Tale of Two Cities (1859 is the second Historical novel by Charles Dickens, set in London and Paris before and during the Gothic was also supported by the critic John Ruskin, who argued that it epitomised communal and inclusive social values, as opposed to Classicism, which he considered to epitomise mechanical standardisation. John Ruskin (8 February 1819 &ndash 20 January 1900 is best known for his work as an Art critic, sage writer, and Social critic, but is remembered
The middle of the century saw The Great Exhibition of 1851, the first World's Fair and showcased the greatest innovations of the century. The Great Exhibition, also known as Crystal Palace, was an international exhibition that was held in Hyde Park, London, England, from 1 Expo (short for "exposition" and also known as World Fair and World's Fair) is the name given to various large public exhibitions held since the At its centre was the Crystal Palace, an enormous, modular glass and iron structure - the first of its kind. The Crystal Palace was a cast-iron and Glass building originally erected in Hyde Park, London, England, to house the It was condemned by Ruskin as the very model of mechanical dehumanisation in design, but later came to be presented as the prototype of Modern architecture. This article is concerned with architectural aspects of Modernism; for the most recent developments in architecture see Contemporary architecture. The emergence of photography, which was showcased at the Great Exhibition, resulted in significant changes in Victorian art. Modern photography began in the 1820s with the first permanent Photographs Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries John Everett Millais was influenced by photography (notably in his portrait of Ruskin) as were other Pre-Raphaelite artists. Sir John Everett Millais 1st Baronet, PRA ( June 8, 1829 &ndash August 13, 1896) was an English painter The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (also known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters Poets, and critics founded in 1848 by It later became associated with the Impressionistic and Social Realist techniques that would dominate the later years of the period in the work of artists such as Walter Sickert and Frank Holl. Impressionism was a 19th-century Art movement that began as a loose association of Paris -based Artists exhibiting their art publicly in the 1860s Social Realism, also known as Socio-Realism, is an Artistic movement, expressed in the visual and other realist arts, which depicts Working class Walter Richard Sickert ( May 31, 1860 in Munich, Germany &ndash January 22, 1942 in Bath, England Frank Holl ( July 4, 1845 &ndash July 31, 1888) English painter, was born in London, and was educated chiefly
Popular forms of entertainment vary by socio-economic class. Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions (or stratification) between individuals or groups in Societies or Cultures. Victorian England, like the periods before it, was interested in theatre and the arts. Theatre (or theater, see spelling differences) is the branch of the Performing arts defined by Bernard Beckerman as what "occurs when one The arts is a broad subdivision of Culture, composed of many expressive disciplines. Music, drama, and opera were widely attended. Music is an Art form in which the medium is Sound organized in Time. Drama is the specific mode of Fiction represented in Performance. Opera is an art form in which Singers and Musicians perform a Dramatic work (called an opera which combines a text (called a Libretto There were, however, other forms of entertainment. Gambling at cards in establishments popularly called casinos was wildly popular during the period—so much so that evangelical and reform movements specifically targeted such establishments in their efforts to stop gambling, drinking, and prostitution. A casino is in the modern sense of the word a facility that houses and accommodates certain types of Gambling activities Prostitution is the act of performing Sexual activity in exchange for Money.
Brass bands and 'The bandstand' became popular in the Victorian era typically associated with the British brass band. A British-style brass band is a musical ensemble comprising a standardised range of brass and Percussion instruments. A bandstand is a circular or semicircular structure set in a Park, Garden, or Pier, designed to accommodate Musical bands performing outdoor The band stand is a simple construction which not only creates an ornamental focal point, it also serves acoustic requirements whilst providing shelter from the changeable British weather. The Climate of the United Kingdom is classified as a mid-latitude Oceanic climate ( Koppen climate classification Cfb) with warm summers It was common to hear the sound of a brass band whilst strolling through parklands. An urban park, also known as a municipal park (North America or a public park or open space (United Kingdom is a Park in cities and other At this time musical recording was still very much a novelty.
Another form of entertainment involved 'spectacles' where paranormal events, such as hypnotism, communication with the dead (by way of mediumship or channelling), ghost conjuring and the like, were carried out to the delight of crowds and participants. Hypnosis is often thought to be a wakeful state of focused attention and heightened suggestibility with diminished peripheral awareness Mediumship is a practice in religious beliefs such as Spiritualism, Spiritism, Espiritismo, Candomblé, Louisiana Voodoo, and A ghost is said to be the apparition of a Deceased person frequently similar in appearance to that person and usually encountered in places she or he frequented Such activities were very popular during this time compared to others in recent Western history.
The impetus of the Industrial Revolution had already occurred, but it was during this period that the full effects of industrialization made themselves felt, leading to the mass consumer society of the 20th century. The Clifton Suspension Bridge is a Suspension bridge, spanning the Avon Gorge and linking Clifton in Bristol to Leigh Woods in Bristol ( ˈbrɪstəl is a city, Unitary authority and ceremonial county in South West England, west of London The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the Consumerism is the equation of personal Happiness with the purchase of material possessions and consumption. The revolution led to the rise of railways across the country and great leaps forward in engineering, most famously by Isambard Kingdom Brunel. Engineering is the Discipline and Profession of applying technical and scientific Knowledge and Isambard Kingdom Brunel, FRS (9 April 1806 &ndash 15 September 1859 (ˈɪzəmbɑrd ˈkɪŋdəm brʊˈnɛl was a British Engineer.
Another great engineering feat in the Victorian Era was the sewage system in London. Urban areas require some methods for collection and disposal of Sewage. It was designed by Joseph Bazalgette in 1858. Sir Joseph William Bazalgette ( 28 March 1819 &ndash 15 March 1891) was one of the great English Civil engineers of He proposed to build 82 mi (132 km) of sewerage linked with over 1,000 mi (1,600 km) of street sewers. Many problems were found but the sewers were completed. After this, Bazalgette designed the Thames Embankment which housed sewers, water pipes and the London Underground. The Thames Embankment is a major feat of 19th century Civil engineering in central London. For the various smoking devices see Hookah or Bong. For other uses see Pipe. The London Underground is a Metro system serving a large part of Greater London and neighbouring areas of Essex, Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire During the same period London's water supply network was expanded and improved, and gas reticulation for lighting and heating was introduced in the 1880s. Water supply is the process of self-provision or provision by third parties of water of various qualities to different users Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, Cross-links are bonds that link one Polymer chain to another They can be Covalent bonds or Ionic bonds "Polymer chains" can refer Gas lighting refers to a technology used to produce light from gas usually methane but also including hydrogen and ethylene A gas heater is a device used to heat a room or outdoor area by burning Natural gas or Liquefied petroleum gas.
During the Victorian era, science grew into the discipline it is today. Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding In addition to the increasing professionalism of university science, many Victorian gentlemen devoted their time to the study of natural history. Natural history is the Scientific research of Plants or Animals leaning more towards the Observational than Experimental methods
Photography was realized in 1829 by Louis Daguerre in France and William Fox Talbot in England. Photography (fә'tɒgrәfi or fә'tɑːgrәfi (from Greek φωτο and γραφία is the process and Art of recording pictures by means of capturing William Henry Fox Talbot (11 February 1800 – 17 September 1877 was the inventor of the negative / positive photographic process the precursor to most photographic processes of By 1900, hand-held cameras were available.
Although initially developed in the early years of the 19th century, gas lighting became widespread during the Victorian era in industry, homes, public buildings and the streets. A street light, lamppost, street lamp, light standard or lamp standard, is a raised source of Light on the edge of a Road The invention of the incandescent gas mantle in the 1890s greatly improved light output and ensured its survival as late as the 1960s. Incandescence is the emission of Light (visible Electromagnetic radiation) from a hot body due to its temperature For other uses of mantle see Mantle An incandescent gas mantle, gas mantle, or Welsbach mantle is a device for generating Hundreds of gasworks were constructed in cities and towns across the country. This is a historical article For current information see Syngas. In 1882, incandescent electric lights were introduced to London streets, although it took many years before they were installed everywhere. " Electric Light " is a song by Infernal, scheduled to be their next single after " Whenever You Need Me " off their album Electric
The Victorian era became notorious for employing young children in factories, mines and as chimney sweeps. Child labor is the employment of Children at regular and sustained labour Several Factory Acts were passed to prevent the exploitation of children in the work place. The Factory Acts were a series of Acts passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom to limit the number of hours worked by women and children first in the textile
Surgeries were very hazardous during this era. Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē, via chirurgiae meaning "hand work" is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental Illnesses were very common and disastrous. Illness (sometimes referred to as ill-health or ail) can be defined as a state of poor Health. Surgeons did not wash or clean their hands prior to performing surgery and this caused many infections. In Medicine, a surgeon is a person who performs Surgery. Surgery is a broad category of invasive Medical treatment that involves the cutting of a
Beginning in the late 1840s, major news organisations, clergymen and single women became increasingly interested in prostitution, which came to be known as "The Great Social Evil. " Although estimates of the number of prostitutes in London by the 1850s vary widely (in his landmark study, Prostitution, William Acton reported that the police estimated there were 8,600 in 1857 London alone), it is enough to say that the number of women working the streets became increasingly difficult to ignore. William Acton (1813–1875 was a British medical doctor and book writer.
When the United Kingdom Census 1851 publicly revealed a 4% demographic imbalance in favour of women (i. The United Kingdom Census of 1851 recorded the people residing in every household on the night of March 30 1851, and was the second of the UK censuses to e. 4% more women than men), the problem of prostitution began to shift from a moral/religious cause to a socio-economic one. Socioeconomics or socio-economics is the study of the relationship between economic activity and Social life. The 1851 census showed that the population of Great Britain was roughly 18 million; this meant that roughly 750,000 women would remain unmarried simply because there were not enough men. These women came to be referred to as "superfluous women" or "redundant women," and many essays were published discussing what, precisely, ought to be done with them.
While the Magdalene Asylums had been "reforming" prostitutes since the mid-18th century, the years between 1848 and 1870 saw a veritable explosion in the number of institutions working to "reclaim" these "fallen women" from the streets and retrain them for entry into respectable society—usually for work as domestic servants. Magdalene Asylums were institutions for so-called "fallen" women most of them operated by different orders of the Roman Catholic Church. A domestic worker, domestic, servingman, servingwoman, or servant is one who works and often also lives within the employer's household The theme of prostitution and the "fallen woman" (an umbrella term used to describe any women who had sexual intercourse out of wedlock) became a staple feature of mid-Victorian literature and politics. Sexual intercourse, in its biological sense is the act in which the male reproductive organ (in humans and other higher animals enters the female reproductive tract NOTICE TO WOULD-BE ROMEOS ************** In the writings of Henry Mayhew, Charles Booth and others, prostitution began to be seen as a social problem. Henry Mayhew (25 November 1812 - 25th July 1887 was an English social Researcher, Journalist, Playwright and advocate of Charles Booth ( 30 March 1840 - 23 November 1916) was an English Philanthropist and social researcher Social issues are matters which directly or indirectly affect many or all members of a Society and are considered to be problems controversies related to Moral values
When Parliament passed the first of the Contagious Diseases Acts in 1864 (which allowed the local constabulary to force any woman suspected of venereal disease to submit to its inspection), Josephine Butler's crusade to repeal the CD Acts yoked the anti-prostitution cause with the emergent feminist movement. The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories The Contagious Diseases Acts were passed by the UK Parliament in 1864, 1866, and 1869. A sexually transmitted disease ( STD) or venereal disease ( VD) is an illness that has a significant probability of transmission between Humans Josephine Elizabeth Butler ( 13 April 1828– 30 December 1906) was a Victorian era English feminist who was especially concerned with The feminist movement (also known as the Women's Movement or Women's Liberation) is a series of campaigns on issues such as Reproductive rights (sometimes Butler attacked the long-established double standard of sexual morality. A double standard refers to one class of entities being treated differently from another class of entities and implies an unfair or unjustified differentiation Sexual ethics is a category of Ethics that pertain to acts falling within the broad spectrum of Human sexual behavior, Sexual intercourse in particular
Prostitutes were often presented as victims in sentimental literature such Thomas Hood's poem The Bridge of Sighs, Elizabeth Gaskell's novel Mary Barton and Dickens' novel Oliver Twist. The sentimental novel or the novel of sensibility is an 18th century literary genre which celebrates the emotional and intellectual concepts of Sentiment Thomas Hood ( 23 May 1799 &ndash 3 May 1845) was a British Humorist and Poet. Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell (née Stevenson 29 September 1810 &ndash 12 November 1865 often referred to simply as Mrs Barton is the first Novel by English author Elizabeth Gaskell, published in 1848. Oliver Twist (1838 is Charles Dickens' second Novel. The book was originally published in Bentley's Miscellany as a serial The emphasis on the purity of women found in such works as Coventry Patmore's The Angel in the House led to the portrayal of the prostitute and fallen woman as soiled, corrupted, and in need of cleansing. Coventry Kersey Dighton Patmore ( 23 July 1823 - 26 November 1896) was an English Poet and Critic. The Angel in the House is a poem by Coventry Patmore, first published in 1854 and revised up until 1862.
This emphasis on female purity was allied to the stress on the homemaking role of women, who helped to create a space free from the pollution and corruption of the city. Homemaker is a mainly American term which may refer either to the person within a family who is primarily concerned with the management of the household whether In this respect the prostitute came to have symbolic significance as the embodiment of the violation of that divide. The double standard remained in force. Divorce legislation introduced in 1857 allowed for a man to divorce his wife for adultery, but a woman could only divorce if adultery was accompanied by cruelty. Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the termination of a Marriage. Adultery is the voluntary Sexual intercourse between a married person and another person who is not his or her Spouse, though in many places it is The anonymity of the city led to a large increase in prostitution and unsanctioned sexual relationships. Dickens and other writers associated prostitution with the mechanisation and industrialisation of modern life, portraying prostitutes as human commodities consumed and thrown away like refuse when they were used up. A commodity is anything for which there is demand but which is supplied without qualitative differentiation across a market Moral reform movements attempted to close down brothels, something that has sometimes been argued to have been a factor in the concentration of street-prostitution in Whitechapel, in the East End of London, by the 1880s. For the 2008 film of this name see The Brothel. For the television series of this name see Cathouse The Series. Whitechapel is a built-up Inner city district in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, England.
By the time the CD Acts were repealed in 1886, Victorian England had been completely transformed. This era, which at its outset looked no different from the century before it, would end resembling much more the era that would follow.