|Victoria Cross (Canada)|
The Canadian Victoria Cross, as appearing in an promotional photograph from the Canadian Government in May of 2008. The words "For Valour" are written on the medal in Latin instead of English. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States
|Awarded by Queen of Canada|
|Eligibility||The recipient must be a member of the Canadian Forces or a member of an allied armed force that is serving with or in conjunction with the Canadian Forces, on or after January 1, 1993. TalkCommonewalth realm.-->The monarchy of|
|Awarded for||The most conspicuous bravery, a daring or pre-eminent act of valour or self-sacrifice or extreme devotion to duty, in the presence of the enemy.|
|Established||February 2, 1993|
|Next (lower)||Star of Military Valour|
The Victoria Cross of Canada (Post-nominal letters "VC") is a military award for extraordinary valour and devotion to duty while facing a hostile force. Events 962 - Translatio imperii: Pope John XII crowns Otto I Holy Roman Emperor, the first Holy Roman Emperor Year 1993 ( MCMXCIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar) The Star of Military Valour (SMV is awarded to members of the Canadian Forces for their "distinguished and valiant service in the presence of the enemy" Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Post-nominal letters, also called " post-nominal initials " or " post-nominal titles " are letters placed after the name of a person to indicate that It can be awarded to members of the Canadian Forces of any rank in any service, and to allies serving under or with Canadian military command; it is the highest honour in the Canadian honours system, placed before all other orders, decorations and medals, including the Order of Canada, in the Order of Precedence. The Canadian Forces (CF ( French: Forces canadiennes) are the unified Armed forces of Canada, governed by the National Defence The Canadian honours system has developed as a unique entity since the centennial of Canadian Confederation in 1967 when the first distinctly Canadian honour the The Order of Canada is the highest civilian honour within the Canadian system of honours, with membership awarded to those who exemplify the order's Latin An order of precedence is a sequential hierarchy of nominal importance of items Whereas in many other Commonwealth countries, the Victoria Cross can only be awarded for actions against the enemy in a wartime setting, the Canadian government has a broader definition of the term "enemy," and so the Victoria Cross can be awarded for action against armed mutineers, pirates or other such hostile forces without war being officially declared. The recipient is entitled to an annuity of CAD$3,000 a year.
The Canadian medal is based on the original Victoria Cross, instituted in 1856, although the Canadian version has several small changes in its appearance. See below the section "Separate Commonwealth awards" Note that since It is presented to the recipient by the Monarch or the Governor General of Canada. TalkCommonewalth realm.-->The monarchy of The Governor General of Canada ( French: Gouverneure générale du Canada, or: Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative It can be awarded more than once, but no one has received the award since its creation in 1993.
The original Victoria Cross was created through a Royal Warrant issued by Queen Victoria, on January 29, 1856, in order to recognize incidents of gallantry that were unconnected with a man's lengthy or meritorious service. See below the section "Separate Commonwealth awards" Note that since See below the section "Separate Commonwealth awards" Note that since History The earliest recorded British Royal Charter was granted to the Weavers’ Company in 1155 by Henry II of England. Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901 was from 20 June 1837 the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Events 904 - Sergius III comes out of retirement to take over the papacy from the deposed Antipope Christopher. Year 1856 ( MDCCCLVI) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year  Originally, the VC could not be awarded posthumously, and could not be awarded to Indian or African troops (although it could be awarded to their European officers).  However, one colonial soldier, Major Charles Heaphy, was awarded the VC retrospectively for his actions in 1864, as he was under British command. Major Charles Heaphy VC (1820 - 3 August 1881 was a New Zealand explorer and a recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious Following this, the VC was made available to all "local forces under imperial command. " In 1905, it was made available to be awarded posthumously
In 1972 the Canadian honours system was overhauled and the Victoria Cross was omitted from the official list of Honours. The Canadian honours system has developed as a unique entity since the centennial of Canadian Confederation in 1967 when the first distinctly Canadian honour the The debate about whether to reinstate the Victoria Cross raged throughout the late 1970s and 1980s. This article is about the Decade 1970-1979 For the Year 1970 see 1970. The 1980s was the decade spanning from January 1 1980 to December 31 1989. The Prime Minister of the time, Pierre Trudeau, regularly dodged questions about the award, stating "that only Canadians should receive Canadian decorations. The Prime Minister of Canada ( French: Premier ministre du Canada) is the primary Minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and thus "
Three years after his appointment as Prime Minister in 1984, Brian Mulroney set up a committee to look into the creation of a Canadian Victoria Cross as part of a new set of military honours. Martin Brian Mulroney PC CC GOQ (predominantly known as Brian Mulroney) (born March 20, 1939) was the eighteenth  Although the committee did not recommend the Victoria Cross, pressure from lobbying groups such as the Monarchist League of Canada and the Royal Canadian Legion forced the plans to be amended. The Monarchist League of Canada is a national non-partisan non-profit organization whose mission is "to promote the understanding of and loyalty to the Canadian Crown The Royal Canadian Legion is a Non-profit Canadian Ex-service organization ( Veterans Organization) founded in 1925 with more than  In 1991, a Private Member's Bill received all-party support in the House of Commons, following which the Victoria Cross, along with other Canadian military valour decorations, were formally requested on December 31, 1992, by Mulroney. A Private Member's Bill is a proposed Law introduced by a backbench member of Parliament, whether from the government or the opposition side to that This article lists political parties in Canada. Federal parties See also List of federal political parties in Canada Provincial The House of Commons (Chambre des communes is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and Events 406 – Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia. Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) The request was approved by the issue of Letters Patent by Elizabeth II, the Queen of Canada, on February 2, 1993. Letters patent are a type of Legal instrument in the form of an Open letter issued by a Monarch or Government, granting an office right For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II TalkCommonewalth realm.-->The monarchy of Events 962 - Translatio imperii: Pope John XII crowns Otto I Holy Roman Emperor, the first Holy Roman Emperor Year 1993 ( MCMXCIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar) The other awards approved were the Star of Military Valour and the Medal of Military Valour. The Star of Military Valour (SMV is awarded to members of the Canadian Forces for their "distinguished and valiant service in the presence of the enemy" The Medal of Military Valour (MMV is awarded to members of the Canadian Forces for "an act of valour or devotion to duty in the presence of the enemy" Upon the creation of the awards, coined the Modern Honours of Canada, the Canadian honours system was no longer dependent on the British. The British honours system is a means of rewarding individuals' personal bravery achievement or service to the United Kingdom. 
By 1990, other Commonwealth countries had begun to develop their own distinct military awards systems. In 1991, Australia created a separate awards system and introduced the Victoria Cross for Australia as the highest award for gallantry. The Victoria Cross for Australia is the highest award in the Australian Honours System, superseding the Victoria Cross for issue to Australians  In 1999 New Zealand introduced the Victoria Cross for New Zealand which still uses the same gunmetal as the original Victoria Cross. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island The Victoria Cross for New Zealand ( VC) is a Military decoration awarded for valour "in the face of the enemy" to members of the New Zealand Armed Gunmetal is a type of Bronze &ndash an Alloy of Copper, Tin, and Zinc. 
The Canadian Victoria Cross, as with the British VC, is awarded for "the most conspicuous bravery, a daring or pre-eminent act of valour or self-sacrifice or extreme devotion to duty, in the presence of the enemy. " The Canadian government has defined the term enemy as a force hostile towards the Canadian government, which includes the following: armed mutineers, armed rebels, armed rioters, and armed pirates. Piracy is Robbery committed at sea or sometimes on shore without a commission from a sovereign Nation (as distinct from Privateering Canada does not officially have to declare war to give acknowledgement of the existence of a hostile force that fits the above description. This means that a Canadian serving as part of a peacekeeping operation is eligible to be awarded the VC if the servicemember fulfils the above criteria. Peacekeeping, as defined by the United Nations, is "a way to help countries torn by conflict create conditions for sustainable peace The time period for the service to be eligible for the Victoria Cross is on or after January 1, 1993. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1993 ( MCMXCIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar) 
Ninety-four Canadians and Newfoundlanders were awarded the British VC, the last in 1945. The Canadian Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is located at the National War Memorial in Confederation Square Ottawa. The last living recipient, Smokey Smith, died in 2005. For the cricketer Ernest James "Tiger" Smith see Tiger Smith. No one has been awarded or nominated for the Canadian VC to date, though there were announcements that Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada, would present a Victoria Cross to Prime Minister Stephen Harper, in recognition of the gallantry of the Unknown Soldier, at the rededication of the Vimy Memorial on April 7, 2007, the 90th anniversary of the battle of Vimy Ridge. For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II TalkCommonewalth realm.-->The monarchy of The Prime Minister of Canada ( French: Premier ministre du Canada) is the primary Minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and thus WikipediaManual of Style (biographies#Honorific prefixes --> Stephen Joseph Harper PC The Canadian Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is located at the National War Memorial in Confederation Square Ottawa. The Canadian National Vimy Memorial is a Canadian National Historic Site and one of Canada 's most important overseas war memorials. Events 529 - First draft of Corpus Juris Civilis (a fundamental work in Jurisprudence) is issued by Eastern Roman Emperor Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The Battle of Vimy Ridge was a military offensive by the Canadian Corps against elements of the German Sixth Army in World War I.  The proposal was met with a mixed response from members of the Royal Canadian Legion and Canadian Forces; detractors felt the Unknown Soldier should not be elevated above his other fallen comrades. The Royal Canadian Legion is a Non-profit Canadian Ex-service organization ( Veterans Organization) founded in 1925 with more than The Canadian Forces (CF ( French: Forces canadiennes) are the unified Armed forces of Canada, governed by the National Defence It had also been agreed at the time of the repatriation of the Unknown Soldier that no award or decoration would be bestowed on the remains.  Ultimately the plan to award the VC to the Unknown Soldier was quietly dropped. It should be noted that the American Unknown Soldier has been awarded the British Victoria Cross and the British Unknown Soldier was awarded the American Medal of Honor, while the Canadian soldier has received neither of these awards. The Tomb of the Unknowns (also known as the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, although it has never been officially named is a monument dedicated to American servicemen who have The British tomb of The Unknown Warrior holds an unidentified British soldier killed on a European battlefield during World War I. The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States government. 
The process of awarding the VC can be done in two ways. The first method is recommendation by a committee called the Military Valour Decoration Advisory Committee. The committee is made up of six members: one appointed by the Governor General and the rest appointed by the Chief of Defence Staff. The term governor general or governor-general refers to a vice-regal representative of a Monarch in an independent realm or a major colonial circonscription The second method can be started by the field commanders. However, the commanders must have permission from the Governor General before the award can take place. Recipients of the medal are entitled to an annuity paid by the Canadian Government. As of January 2005, under the Canadian Gallantry Awards Order, members of the Canadian Forces or people who joined the British forces before 31 March 1949 while domiciled in Canada or Newfoundland receive $3,000 per year. The Canadian Forces (CF ( French: Forces canadiennes) are the unified Armed forces of Canada, governed by the National Defence Events 307 - After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Roman Emperor Year 1949 ( MCMXLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 
The first Victoria Cross medal was struck in 2007, while Canada was at war in Afghanistan. Canada did not have a significant role in the first few months of the invasion of Afghanistan that began on October 7, 2001, and the first contingents Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, Preparations to create a physical medal were begun in 2006, and it was confirmed by Deputy Herald Chancellor Emmanuelle Sajous that at least one Victoria Cross had been created. The Herald Chancellor of Canada ( Chancelier d'armes in French)is an officer at the Canadian Heraldic Authority.  The medal was officially released to the public on 16 May 2008 at Rideau Hall by the Governor General and the Prime Minister. Events 1204 - Baldwin IX Count of Flanders is crowned as the first Emperor of the Latin Empire. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common  The medal is described as a cross with straight arms, measuring 38 mm across, made out of bronze. The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International Bronze is any of a broad range of Copper alloys, usually with Tin as the main additive but sometimes with other elements such as Phosphorus On the obverse, a lion in the guardant position is standing upon the Royal Crown. St Edward's Crown was one of the English Crown Jewels and remains one of the senior British Crown Jewels. Below the Crown, there is a scroll bearing the inscription PRO VALORE (Latin for For Valour). Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. On the reverse of the medal, there is a raised circle, in which the date of the action the VC was awarded for will be engraved.
The medal is suspended from a link forming the letter V. The V is attached to a bar adorned with laurel leaves. The Bay Laurel ( Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae) also known as True Laurel, Sweet Bay, Grecian Laurel, Laurel, or On the reverse of this bar, the name of the recipient, his rank, and his unit will be engraved. The suspension device and the bar is also made out of bronze. In the case of a double award, a bar with laurel leaves will be worn on the medal. The ribbon bar is also 38 mm wide and is described as a crimson colour. Crimson is a strong bright deep Red color combined with some Blue, resulting in a tiny degree of Purple. This ribbon design is also used on the British VC. 
The Canadian VC is based on the British version. The original insignia was created by Prince Albert, Prince Consort to Queen Victoria. A prince consort, generally speaking is a common term for the husband of a Queen regnant, unless he himself also is a king in his own right Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901 was from 20 June 1837 the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland The Canadian modifications to the VC were done by Bruce Beatty and Cathy Bursey-Sabourin, Fraser Herald of the Canadian Heraldic Authority. Bruce W Beatty CM, CD, FRHSC is a Canadian Graphic designer best known as being chiefly responsible for designing the emblems of Cathy Bursey-Sabourin has been Fraser Herald at the Canadian Heraldic Authority in Ottawa since 1989 Fraser Herald of Arms ( Héraut Fraser in French) is the title of one of the officers of arms at the Canadian Heraldic Authority in Ottawa The Canadian Heraldic Authority (Autorité héraldique du Canada is part of the Canadian honours system under the Governor General of Canada. The obverse is the same, except for the scroll. The British version has the words For Valour in English only while the Canadian version uses the Latin translation in order that it might be equally appropriate for Anglophones and Francophones. 
The Victoria Cross is the highest Canadian decoration in the Canadian honours system, thus it is placed before all other Canadian decorations, including the Order of Canada. The Canadian honours system has developed as a unique entity since the centennial of Canadian Confederation in 1967 when the first distinctly Canadian honour the The Order of Canada is the highest civilian honour within the Canadian system of honours, with membership awarded to those who exemplify the order's Latin It is worn on the left breast as a medal. When the use of a medal is inappropriate, a ribbon bar is worn. The ribbon bar consists of a crimson ribbon, with a small VC medal in bronze placed in the centre of the ribbon bar. When there is a second award of the VC, two small VC medals will be placed evenly on the ribbon bar.